|Category||Communication => Freq/Signal Converters/Generators|
|Description||AM/FM/tv Sound Up-conversion Frequency Synthesizer (discontinued)|
|Company||National Semiconductor Corporation|
|Datasheet||Download DS8911 datasheet
The is a digital Phase-Locked Loop (PLL) frequency synthesizer intended for use as a Local Oscillator (LO) in electronically tuned radios The device is used in conjunction with a serial data controller a loop filter some varactor diodes and several passive elements to provide the local oscillator function for both AM and FM tuning The conventional superheterodyne AM receiver utilizes a low IF or down conversion tuning approach whereby the IF is chosen to be below the frequencies to be received The DS8911 PLL on the other hand utilizes an up-conversion technique in the AM mode whereby the first IF frequency is chosen to be well above the RF frequency range to be tuned This approach eliminates the need for tuned circuits in the AM frontend since the image half IF and other spurious responses occur far beyond the range of frequencies to be tuned Sufficient selectivity and second IF image protection is provided by a crystal filter at the output of the first mixer A significant cost savings can be realized utilizing this upconversion approach to tuning Removal of the AM tuned circuits eliminates the cost of expensive matched varactor diodes and reduces the amount of labor required for alignment down from 6 adjustments to 2 Additional cost savings are realized because up-conversion enables both the AM and FM bands to be tuned using a single Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO) operating between 98 and 120 MHz (The 1 LO tuning range found in conventional AM down conversion radios is reduced a 10% tuning range 9 94 MHz 11 02 MHz) Up-conversion AM tuning is accomplished by first dividing the VCO signal down by a modulus 10 to obtain the LO signal This LO in turn is mixed on chip with the RF signal to obtain a first IF at the MIXER output pins This first IF after crystal filtering is mixed (externally) with a reference frequency provided by the PLL to obtain a 450 kHz second IF frequency The DS8911 derives the 450 kHz second IF by mixing 11 55 MHz first IF with 12 00 MHz reference frequency FM and WB (weather band) tuning is done using the conventional down conversion approach Here the VCO signal is buffered to produce the LO signal and then mixed on chip with the RF signal to obtain an IF frequency at the MIXER output pins This IF frequency is typically chosen 10 7 MHz although placement 11 50 MHz can further enhance AM mode performance and minimize IF circuitry The PLL provides phase comparator reference frequencies of and 100 kHz The tuning resolutions resulting from these reference frequencies are determined by dividing the reference by the premix modulus Table II shows the tuning resolutions possible The DS8911 contains the following logic elements a voltage controlled oscillator a reference oscillator a 14-bit programmable dual-modulus counter a reference frequency divider chain a premix divider a mixer a phase comparator a charge pump an operational amplifier and control circuitry for latched serial data entry The DS8913 includes all the above logic elements except that it requires a 10 MHz reference frequency instead of 12 MHzFeatures
Direct synthesis SW FM and WB frequencies Serial data entry for simplified processor control and 100 kHz reference frequencies 8 possible tuning resolutions (see Table II) An op amp with high impedance inputs for loop filtering Programmable mixer with high dynamic range
TRI-STATE is a registered trademark of National Semiconductor Corporation MICROWIRETM is a trademark of National Semiconductor Corporation C1995 National Semiconductor Corporation 7398 RRD-B30M105 Printed S A
BIT Outputs The open-collector BIT outputs provide either the status of shift register bits 22 23 and 24 or enable access to key internal circuit test nodes The mode for the bit outputs is controlled by shift register bits 20 and 21 In operation the bit outputs are intended to drive radio functions such as gain mute and AM FM status These outputs can also be used to program the loop gain by connection of an external resistor to IPROG Bit 24 output can also be used a 300 millisecond timer under control of shift register bit 19 During service testing these pins can be used for the purpose of either monitoring or driving internal logic points as indicated in the TEST MODES description under Table V VCOb and VCOe The Voltage Controlled Oscillator inputs drive the 14-bit programmable counter and the premix divider These inputs are the base and emitter leads of a transistor which require connection of a coil varactor and several capacitors to function as a Colpitts oscillator The VCO is designed to operate to 225 MHz The VCO's minimum operating frequency may be limited by the choice of reference frequency and the 961 minimum modulus constraint of the 31 32 dual modulus counter
RF a and RFb The Radio Frequency inputs are fed differentially into the mixer IMXR The bias current for the mixer is programmed by connection of an external resistor to this pin The total mixer output current equals 4 times the current entering this pin MIXER and MIXER The MIXER outputs are the collectors of the double balanced pair mixer transistors They are intended to operate at voltages greater than VCC1 OSCb and OSCc The Reference Oscillator inputs are part of an on-chip Pierce oscillator designed to work in conjunction with 2 capacitors and a crystal resonator The DS8911 requires a 12 MHz crystal to derive the reference frequencies shown in Table II The DS8913 requires 10 MHz crystal The 12 MHz OSC signal is also used externally as the LO to obtain a 450 kHz 2nd IF frequency in the AM mode 2 MHz The 2 MHz output is provided to drive a controller's clock input 50 Hz The 50 Hz output is provided as a time reference for radios with time-of-day clocks IPROG The IPROG pin enables the charge pump to be programmed from mA by connection of an external resistor to ground CPO The Charge Pump Output circuit sources current if the VCO frequency is high and sinks current if the VCO frequency is low The CPO is wired directly to the negative input of the loop filter op amp OP AMP The OP AMP output is provided for loop filtering The op amp has high impedance PMOS gate inputs and is wired as a transconductance amplifier filter The op amp's positive input is internally referenced while its negative input is common with the CPO output
VCC1 The VCC1 pin provides a 5V supply source for all circuitry except the reference divider chain op amp and mixer sections of the die VCC2 The VCC2 pin provides a 12V supply source for the Op amp VCCL The VCCL pin provides an isolated 5V supply source for the premix divider and mixer functions VCCM The VCCM pin provides a 5V supply source for the reference oscillator and divider chain down through the 50 Hz output thus enabling low standby current for time-of-day clock applications GND1 GND2 GNDL and GNDM Provide isolated circuit ground for the various sections of the device DATA and CLOCK The DATA and CLOCK inputs are for serial data entry from a controller They are CMOS inputs with TTL logic thresholds The 24-bit data stream is loaded into the PLL on the positive transition of the CLOCK The first 14 bits of the data stream select PLL divide code in binary form MSB first The 15th through 24th bits select the premix modulus the reference frequency the bit output status and the test operate modes as shown in Tables I through V ENABLE The ENABLE input is a CMOS input with a TTL logic threshold The ENABLE input enables data when at a logic ``one'' and latches data on the transition to a logic ``zero''
cycle the timer's BIT 24 output will finish out the 300 ms pulse Readdressing the device with bit 19 ``HI'' before the timer finishes its cycle will extend the BIT 24 output pulse width 300 ms Addressing should be performed immediately after the 50 Hz output transitions ``HI'' BIT 24's output state is not guaranteed during the first 300 ms after VCC1 power as a result of a timer reset in progress TABLE V Bit FUNCTION OF PINS 4 5 Status of Bits 22-24 Test mode 1 Test mode 2 Test mode 3Mode Normal Operation Production Test Mode Only
Test Mode 1 Enables the BIT output pins to edge trigger the phase comparator inputs and monitor an internal lock detector BIT 22 negative edge triggers the reference divider input of the phase comparator if the reference divider state is low BIT 23 provides the open collector ORing of the phase comparator's pump up and down outputs BIT 24 negative edge triggers the N counter input of the phase comparator if the N counter state is preconditioned low Test Mode 2 Enables the BIT outputs to clock the programmable N counter monitor its output and force either its load or count condition BIT 22 provides the N counter output which negative edge triggers the phase comparator and which appears low one N counter clock pulse before it reloads BIT 23 positive edge triggers the N counter's clock input if the prescaler's output is preconditioned HI BIT 24 clears the N counter output so that loading will occur on the next N counter clock edge Test Mode 3 Enables the BIT outputs to clock the 50 Hz and 10 kHz reference dividers and monitor the reference divider input to the phase comparator BIT 22 positive edge clocks the 10 kHz reference divider chain if the 10 kHz output is preconditioned HI BIT 23 positive edge clocks the 50 Hz divider chain BIT 24 is the reference divider negative edge trigger input to the phase comparator
TABLE IV Bit 0 1 TIMER OPERATION The timer function is provided for use as a retriggerable ``one shot'' to enable muting for approximately 300 milliseconds after station changes The timer is enabled at bit 24's output if the normal operating mode is selected (shift register bits 20 and 21 e ``LOW'') and shift register bit 19 data is latched as a ``HI'' The timer's output state will invert immediately upon latching bit 19 ``HI'' and remain inverted for approximately 300 milliseconds If the user readdresses the device with bit 19 data ``LOW'' before the timer finishes its Timer Bit 24 Status Bit 24 for 300 ms
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