Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 02-2018 sorted by title, page: 1

» A Ferromagnetic Design for Current Sensor Temperature Characteristics Improvement
Abstract:
The temperature drift of the current sensor with an air gap limits its measurement accuracy, so a ferromagnetic design is presented to improve the temperature characteristics of the current sensor by an air-gapped magnetic field intensity self-compensation. In this paper, the magnetostriction and thermal expansion are introduced into a hysteresis model within the temperature range from 258 to 358 K, and the relationship between the permeability and the air-gapped length of amorphous alloy is analyzed. The results show that the air-gapped length increases as the temperature increases, resulting in the air-gapped magnetic field intensity weakened. Moreover, the permeability of amorphous alloy increases as the temperature increases, resulting in the air-gapped magnetic field intensity strengthened. Hence, the air-gapped magnetic field intensity can be self-compensated with the amorphous alloy. The effectiveness of the design is verified experimentally with 1–10 mm air-gapped amorphous cores. In addition, in order to analyze the air-gapped magnetic field intensity changes more accurately, a new hysteresis modeling method is proposed, which can overcome the disadvantages of a J-A model for the minor hysteresis curve simulations and a Preisach model for the major hysteresis curve simulations.
Autors: Yukai Xiang;Qifeng Xu;Yifan Huang;Hao Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 18, issue:4, pages: 1435 - 1441
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Flexible Dual-Band Antenna With Large Frequency Ratio and Different Radiation Properties Over the Two Bands
Abstract:
The coexistence of microwave and millimeter-wave technologies becomes the inexorable trend of future wireless communication systems. The corresponding components of the system are required to cover these two frequency bands simultaneously. However, it is difficult for the existing dual-band antenna configurations to achieve a frequency ratio larger than 3. In this paper, a novel topology is proposed to solve this problem. For the desired dual-band operation, a signal routing approach is proposed to guide the microwave/millimeter signals to the specific elements, respectively. The classical aperture coupling mechanism is deliberately utilized to block the millimeter-wave signal from feeding to the microwave antenna element and route the millimeter-wave signal into the millimeter-wave antenna element. Meanwhile, the substrate- integrated waveguide (SIW)-based millimeter-wave antenna element has the high-pass nature to reject the microwave signal. Therefore, the antenna elements for microwave and millimeter-wave bands can be designed separately with a high flexibility. First, a dual-band antenna was implemented to support 5.8 and 30 GHz simultaneously by integrating an annular-ring antenna element and an SIW slot antenna element. Furthermore, different radiation properties at the two bands can be easily realized owing to the high flexibility of the proposed approach. For validation, these two antennas were fabricated and measured.
Autors: Bing Jie Xiang;Shao Yong Zheng;Hang Wong;Yong Mei Pan;Kai Xu Wang;Ming Hua Xia;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 657 - 667
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Formal Approach for Modeling and Simulation of Human Car-Following Behavior
Abstract:
Car-following is the activity of safely driving behind a leading vehicle. Traditional mathematical car-following models capture vehicle dynamics without considering human factors, such as driver distraction and the reaction delay. Consequently, the resultant model produces overly safe driving traces during simulation, which are unrealistic. Some recent work incorporate simplistic human factors, though model validation using experimental data is lacking. In this paper, we incorporate three distinct human factors in new compositional car-following model called modal car-following model, which is based on hybrid input output automata (HIOA). HIOA have been widely used for the specification and verification of cyber-physical systems. HIOA incorporate the modeling of the physical system combined with discrete mode switches, which is ideal for describing piece-wise continuous phenomena. Thus, HIOA models offer a succinct framework for the specification of car-following behavior. The human factors considered in our approach are estimation error (due to imperfect distance perception), reaction delay, and temporal anticipation. Two widely used car-following models called Intelligent Driver Model (IDM) and Full Velocity Difference Model (FVDM) are used for extension and comparison purpose. We evaluate the root mean square (rms) error of the following vehicle position using the traces obtained from human drives through different driving scenarios. The result shows that our model reduces the rms error in IDM and FVDM by up to 48.8% and 7.41%, respectively.
Autors: Jin Woo Ro;Partha S. Roop;Avinash Malik;Prakash Ranjitkar;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 19, issue:2, pages: 639 - 648
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Four-Phase Buck Converter With Capacitor-Current-Sensor Calibration for Load-Transient-Response Optimization That Reduces Undershoot/Overshoot and Shortens Settling Time to Near Their Theoretical Limits
Abstract:
This paper presents a four-phase buck converter with capacitor-current-sensor (CCS) calibration for load-transient-response optimization that targets the theoretically minimal output-voltage undershoot , overshoot , and settling time when large and rapid load-current transients occur. The proposed CCS calibration calibrates the CCS’ equivalent impedance to emulate a scaled replica of the output capacitor’s impedance . Thus, the CCS can accurately sense the output-capacitor current despite variations due to different output voltages, fabrication variations, and printed-circuit-board parasitics. Moreover, a load-transient optimizer is proposed to utilize the accurately sensed to instantly detect the large and rapid , and synchronously control the charging and discharging durations of the output inductors in all four phases, resulting in small and short . The converter is implemented in a 0.18- $mu text{m}$ CMOS process with 1.93-mm2 chip area. For a 1.8-A/5-ns step-up (step-down) , the measured ( and are 92 mV (75 mV) and 133 ns (110 ns), respectively. Compared with other state-of-the-arts, both the measured ( and in this paper are the closest to their respective theoretical limits, i.e., the fastest load-transient response with the smallest ( and the shortest under the same input voltage, output voltage, output inductance, and output capacitance.
Autors: Yi-Wei Huang;Tai-Haur Kuo;Szu-Yu Huang;Kuan-Yu Fang;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 552 - 568
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Fuzzy Human Pilot Model of Longitudinal Control for a Carrier Landing Task
Abstract:
Human pilot models are tightly dependent on the specific flight tasks. For a carrier landing task, the human pilot controls the aircraft glide path by the guidance information from the Fresnel lens optical landing system (FLOLS) during the aircraft approach to the carrier. This paper focuses on the modeling of the human pilot behavior of sensing and recognizing the guidance information from the Fresnel lens of the FLOLS in longitudinal motion. A fuzzy human pilot model is built based on a fuzzy logic control theory to simulate the human pilot behavior. The simulations of carrier landing are conducted to illustrate the advantages and effectiveness of the proposed fuzzy human pilot model.
Autors: Chen Chen;Wen-Qian Tan;Xiang-Ju Qu;Hai-Xu Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 453 - 466
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Fuzzy Lyapunov–Krasovskii Functional Approach to Sampled-Data Output-Feedback Stabilization of Polynomial Fuzzy Systems
Abstract:
This paper presents an output-feedback exponential stabilization condition of sampled-data polynomial fuzzy control systems under variable sampling rates. Compared with previous work, the proposed method is less conservative because of the newly developed time-dependent fuzzy Lyapunov–Krasovskii functional that is based on the conventional fuzzy Lyapunov function. Moreover, the controller is allowed to contain polynomial gain matrices, thereby improving the control performance and design flexibility. This is realized by assuming the difference between the continuous- and discrete-time state vectors as time-varying norm-bounded uncertainties, which are manipulated using a robust control technique. A new sufficient condition is introduced to cast the stability condition containing the integral term as the sum-of-square conditions. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method is validated by simulations.
Autors: Han Sol Kim;Jin Bae Park;Young Hoon Joo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 366 - 373
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Fuzzy Restricted Boltzmann Machine: Novel Learning Algorithms Based on the Crisp Possibilistic Mean Value of Fuzzy Numbers
Abstract:
A fuzzy restricted Boltzmann machine (FRBM) is extended from a restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM) by replacing all the real-valued parameters with fuzzy numbers. A new FRBM that employs the crisp possibilistic mean value of a fuzzy number to defuzzify the fuzzy free energy function is presented. This approach is much clearer and easier to obtain the expression of the defuzzified free energy function and its approximation than the centroid method. Several theorems that discuss the error bounds of the approximation to ensure the rationality and validity are also investigated. Learning algorithms are given for the designed FRBM with symmetric triangular fuzzy numbers (STFNs), asymmetric triangular fuzzy numbers, and Gaussian fuzzy numbers. By appropriately choosing the parameters, a theorem is concluded that all FRBMs with symmetric fuzzy numbers will have identical learning algorithm to that of FRBMs with STFNs. This is illustrated by a case of FRBM with Gaussian fuzzy numbers. Two experiments including the MNIST handwriting recognition and the Bars-and-Stripes benchmark are carried out. The results show that the proposed FRBMs significantly outperform RBMs in learning accuracy and generalization ability, especially when encountering unlearned samples and recovering incomplete images.
Autors: Shuang Feng;C. L. Philip Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 117 - 130
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Gain-Scheduling Approach to Nonfragile $H_{infty }$ Fuzzy Control Subject to Fading Channels
Abstract:
This paper deals with the nonfragile control problem for a class of discrete-time Takagi–Sugeno fuzzy systems with both randomly occurring gain variations (ROGVs) and channel fadings. The system measurement is subject to fading channels described by Rice fading model where the channel coefficients are random variables taking values within given intervals. The gain matrices of the output feedback controllers are subject to random fluctuations referred to as the ROGVs. The purpose of the addressed problem is to design a parameter-dependent nonfragile output-feedback controller such that, in the presence of both ROGVs and channel fadings, the closed-loop system is exponentially mean-square stable while achieving the guaranteed disturbance attenuation level. A gain-scheduling approach is developed to tackle the addressed problem where the designed controller gains are dependent on certain parameters of practical significance (e.g., packet dropout rate). Through stochastic analysis and Lyapunov functional approach, sufficient conditions are derived for the existence of the desired output feedback controller ensuring both the exponential mean-square stability and the prescribed performance. The explicit expression of the feedback controller is also characterized by using a semidefinite programming method. Finally, an illustrative example is given to show the usefulness and effectiveness of the proposed design method.
Autors: Sunjie Zhang;Zidong Wang;Derui Ding;Guoliang Wei;Fuad E. Alsaadi;Tasawar Hayat;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 142 - 154
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Gap Analysis Methodology for Product Lifecycle Management Assessment
Abstract:
Product lifecycle management (PLM) is a strategic and holistic approach for the management of information, processes, and resources supporting the entire product lifecycle from concept to disposal. Several systems are available to manage data and information during the lifecycle. A PLM system does not have to be considered as a unique solution, but as a set of software supporting different perspectives and activities related to the lifecycle management. A full comprehensive implementation of PLM systems is rare. Since PLM reflects the peculiarities of processes and data structures, implementation differences are evidently observable among companies. The design of methods and tools supporting an assessment of PLM implementation inside a company can enable a correct definition of PLM strategies and goals. Based on these premises, the paper aims to specify a methodology for carrying out a gap analysis of PLM with the scope of discovering existing technological and methodological gaps, and planning actions for improvement. The proposed methodology implements a visual and lean reference model, and an assessment questionnaire for data collection. Lesson learned and feedback from three industrial applications are also described and discussed.
Autors: Manuela Marra;Carla Di Biccari;Mariangela Lazoi;Angelo Corallo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 155 - 167
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A General Approach Toward Green Resource Allocation in Relay-Assisted Multiuser Communication Networks
Abstract:
The rapid growth of energy consumption due to the strong demands of wireless multimedia services, has become a major concern from the environmental perspective. In this paper, we investigate a novel energy-efficient resource allocation scheme for relay-assisted multiuser networks to maximize the energy efficiency (EE) of the network by jointly optimizing the subcarrier pairing permutation formed in one-to-many/many-to-one manner, subcarrier allocation, as well as the power allocation altogether. By analyzing the properties of the complex mixed-integer nonlinear programming problem, which is generally very difficult to solve in its original form, we transform the problem into an equivalent convex problem by relaxing the integer variables using the concept of subcarrier time sharing, and by applying a successive convex approximation approach. Based on the dual decomposition method, we derive an optimal solution to the joint optimization problem. The impact of different network parameters, namely number of subcarriers and number of users, on the attainable EE and spectral efficiency (SE) performance of the proposed design framework is also investigated. The numerical results are provided to validate the theoretical findings and to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm for achieving higher EE and SE than the existing schemes.
Autors: Keshav Singh;Ankit Gupta;Tharmalingam Ratnarajah;Meng-Lin Ku;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 848 - 862
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A General Tracking Control Framework for Uncertain Systems With Exponential Convergence Performance
Abstract:
A difficult problem of exponential tracking control for uncertain systems even with external disturbance is investigated. The systems studied have a general/representative form with the lossless second-order differential systems and Euler–Lagrange systems included. A general control design framework is presented using observer technique. An observer-based estimator is first developed to precisely estimate and or reconstruct the uncertainty and the disturbance, and an estimator-based controller is then developed. Globally exponential stability of the closed-loop tracking system can be achieved by that controller. Moreover, the resulted estimation error of uncertainty can be stabilized with finite-time convergence. The key advantage of this control architecture is that the controller is able to achieve a perfect tracking performance with no overshoot observed and the settling time tuned to be as less as possible. The effectiveness of the approach is validated on a rigid-flexible coupling satellite example.
Autors: Bing Xiao;Quanchao Dong;Dong Ye;Liang Liu;Xing Huo;
Appeared in: IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 23, issue:1, pages: 111 - 120
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Generalized and Flexible Control Scheme for Photovoltaic Grid-Tie Microinverters
Abstract:
In this paper, design and implementation of a flyback photovoltaic (PV) microinverter based on the direct digital synthesis (DDS) technique has been described for both the standalone and the grid-connected operation. The DDS technique adopted provides flexibility in the implementation of various control schemes of the PV microinverter on a simple low-cost digital signal processing type of microprocessor (dsPIC). As compared with the conventional look-up-table method used for generating sinusoidal output voltage waveforms by digital signal processing, a much higher resolution can be obtained in the voltage phase angle and magnitude owing to the adaptive nature of the look-up table implemented within the DDS architecture. The DDS technique is used in the implementation of all control schemes of a PV microinverter, such as maximum power point tracking (MPPT), phase-locked-loop (PLL), anti-islanding, and low-voltage ride-though (LVRT), with an integrated software run on a simple microcontroller. A dedicated computer simulation model is developed, where the PV panel model, the PLL in DQ reference frame, the MPPT algorithm, and the anti-islanding and LVRT features are all taken into account. The experimental results obtained on a 120-W PV flyback microinverter have verified the validity of the proposed technique for both the steady-state and the transient-state operation. The DDS technique is thus found to be quite convenient for application to module integrated converters.
Autors: Serkan Öztürk;Işık Çadırcı;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 505 - 516
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Genetic Algorithm-Based Heuristic Method for Test Set Generation in Reversible Circuits
Abstract:
Low power circuit design has been one of the major growing concerns in integrated circuit technology. Reversible circuit (RC) design is a promising future domain in computing which provides the benefit of less computational power. With the increase in the number of gates and input variables, the circuits become complex and the need for fault testing becomes crucial in ensuring high reliability of their operation. Various fault detection methods based on exhaustive test vector search approaches have been proposed in the literature. With increase in circuit complexity, a faster test generation method for providing optimal coverage becomes desirable. In this paper, a genetic algorithm-based heuristic test set generation method for fault detection in RCs is proposed which avoids the need for an exhaustive search. Two approaches, one involving random search and the other, involving directed search have been proposed and validated on benchmark circuits considering missing-gate fault (complete and partial), bridging fault and stuck-at fault with optimum coverage and reduced computational efforts.
Autors: A. N. Nagamani;S. N. Anuktha;N. Nanditha;Vinod Kumar Agrawal;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 37, issue:2, pages: 324 - 336
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Gradient Grating Period Guided-Mode Resonance Spectrometer
Abstract:
This paper reports a compact spectrometer based on a guided-mode resonance (GMR) filter mounted on a linear charge-coupled device (CCD). The GMR is specially designed to exhibit gradient grating periods (GPPs) laterally to ensure that the GMR functions as a linear-variable bandstop filter. Each period corresponds to a resonant wavelength such that this wavelength is reflected back at its corresponding resonant period and transmitted to all other periods. Consequently, when a resonant wavelength is incident on the GGP-GMR attached to a linear CCD, the CCD pixel underneath its resonant period receives the minimum intensity, and the other pixels receive higher intensities. In terms of the wavelength range of interest, by scanning a single wavelength at a time, a transmission efficiency matrix that contains the transmission efficiency of each wavelength at each pixel can be established. An unknown incident spectrum can be reconstructed using the established transmission efficiency matrix and the intensity measured using the CCD. In this study, a GGP-GMR spectrometer less than 3 mm long that can achieve a wavelength detection range of 200 nm was demonstrated to reconstruct various incident spectra, including a single wavelength of light with a resolution of 0.5 nm, a single wavelength of light with varying intensity levels, and dual incident light sources.
Autors: Hsin-Yun Hsu;Yi-Hsuan Lan;Cheng-Sheng Huang;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 1 - 9
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Graph Cut Approach to Artery/Vein Classification in Ultra-Widefield Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy
Abstract:
The classification of blood vessels into arterioles and venules is a fundamental step in the automatic investigation of retinal biomarkers for systemic diseases. In this paper, we present a novel technique for vessel classification on ultra-wide-field-of-view images of the retinal fundus acquired with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that a fully automated artery/vein classification technique for this type of retinal imaging with no manual intervention has been presented. The proposed method exploits hand-crafted features based on local vessel intensity and vascular morphology to formulate a graph representation from which a globally optimal separation between the arterial and venular networks is computed by graph cut approach. The technique was tested on three different data sets (one publicly available and two local) and achieved an average classification accuracy of 0.883 in the largest data set.
Autors: Enrico Pellegrini;Gavin Robertson;Tom MacGillivray;Jano van Hemert;Graeme Houston;Emanuele Trucco;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 37, issue:2, pages: 516 - 526
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Graphical Approach to Incident Energy Analysis
Abstract:
The goal of an incident energy analysis is to determine the largest incident energy that a worker could be exposed to at a piece of electrical equipment. This is most commonly done using the IEEE 1584 method. It is a common observation when performing this analysis that minor variations in fault current can result in large changes in a protective device's operating time and the resulting incident energy. This would not be a problem if it was possible to remove all errors from the bolted fault calculation and the arcing fault calculation. Unfortunately, the arcing fault current calculation has some margin of error and the data used in arc flash models are often estimated. A graphical approach to determining the incident energy circumvents these problems and ensures that the worst-case incident energy is determined. This graphical approach is derived from graphs of incident energy based on protective device time–current curves. An examination of the resultant graphs reveals a few maximums in the incident energy curve. These maximums are caused by the protective devices curve, the minimum and maximum arcing fault currents, and any time limitations that are applied. As a result, the locations of these maximums are easily predicted allowing the maximum incident energy to be determined by performing the IEEE 1584 calculation at a few key current values.
Autors: Rick Lutz;Maximilian Charbonneau;Michael Garcia;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 815 - 821
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Graphical Model of Smoking-Induced Global Instability in Lung Cancer
Abstract:
Smoking is the major cause of lung cancer and the leading cause of cancer-related death in the world. The most current view about lung cancer is no longer limited to individual genes being mutated by any carcinogenic insults from smoking. Instead, tumorigenesis is a phenotype conferred by many systematic and global alterations, leading to extensive heterogeneity and variation for both the genotypes and phenotypes of individual cancer cells. Thus, strategically it is foremost important to develop a methodology to capture any consistent and global alterations presumably shared by most of the cancerous cells for a given population. This is particularly true that almost all of the data collected from solid cancers (including lung cancers) are usually distant apart over a large span of temporal or even spatial contexts. Here, we report a multiple non-Gaussian graphical model to reconstruct the gene interaction network using two previously published gene expression datasets. Our graphical model aims to selectively detect gross structural changes at the level of gene interaction networks. Our methodology is extensively validated, demonstrating good robustness, as well as the selectivity and specificity expected based on our biological insights. In summary, gene regulatory networks are still relatively stable during presumably the early stage of neoplastic transformation. But drastic structural differences can be found between lung cancer and its normal control, including the gain of functional modules for cellular proliferations such as EGFR and PDGFRA, as well as the lost of the important IL6 module, supporting their roles as potential drug targets. Interestingly, our method can also detect early modular changes, with the ALDH3A1 and its associated interactions being strongly implicated as a potential early marker, whose activations appear to alter LCN2 module as well as its interactions with the important TP53-MDM2 circuitry. Our strategy using the graphical model to re- onstruct gene interaction work with biologically-inspired constraints exemplifies the importance and beauty of biology in developing any bio-computational approach.
Autors: Yanbo Wang;Weikang Qian;Bo Yuan;
Appeared in: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 1 - 14
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A High Sensitivity Strain Sensor Based on the Zero-Group-Birefringence Effect in a Selective-Filling High Birefringent Photonic Crystal Fiber
Abstract:
A selective-filling high birefringent photonic crystal fiber (SF-HBPCF) based Sagnac interferometer (SI) was demonstrated. The SF-HBPCF was achieved by infiltrating a high index liquid into two symmetrical air holes of the innermost layer of an index-guiding un-birefringent PCF. The birefringence characteristics of the SF-HBPCF and the strain sensing characteristics of the SF-HBPCF based SI were theoretically analyzed in detail. The group birefringence presented unique characteristics, and particularly possessed a zero value at a certain wavelength. This directly resulted in the strain sensitivities having ultrahigh even infinite value at the certain wavelength. Besides, with the change of the loaded strain, the sensitivities of the interference dips presented disparate variation trend. In experiments, the results were well matched with theoretical simulation. And the strain sensitivities from 25 pm/με to 12 pm/με were achieved from 61 με to 789 με in the type of the SF-HBPCF.
Autors: Tingting Han;Yan-ge Liu;Zhi Wang;Junqi Guo;Jie Yu;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 1 - 9
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A High Step-Down Dual Output Nonisolated DC/DC Converter With Decoupled Control
Abstract:
This paper presents a dc/dc buck–boost converter topology with high-voltage gain and dual outputs. Unlike many of the high step-down/step-up dc/dc converters, this topology uses a relatively ower number of LC components and three active semiconductor devices switched in a nonoverlapping way. Due to the duty cycle limitation, high gain (typically more than 4) is very difficult to achieve in a single-stage regular buck–boost dc/dc converter. In the proposed converter, the overall gains at both the output ports are nonlinear functions of duty-cycles of the power devices, which help achieve an overall step-down/step-up gain of 10–15. An experimental prototype converting 48 V dc to ±5 V dc at 100 W with closed loop control is developed in order to verify the operation and effectiveness of the proposed converter structure. An output voltage ripple of ±1% and a conversion efficiency of 94% are achieved according to the experimental results.
Autors: Ayan Mallik;Alireza Khaligh;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 722 - 731
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A High-Efficiency Broadband Omnidirectional UHF Patch Antenna Applying Surface Plasmon Polaritons for Handheld Terminals
Abstract:
In this letter, a high-efficiency broadband omnidirectional UHF patch antenna applying surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) for handheld terminals is proposed. Corrugated metallic strip is used to work as SPPs to efficiently forward transmit electromagnetic wave for better power flow distribution on the surface of the SPPs strip. A loading spilt SPPs ring wrapping the spiral lines and patch is introduced, which compensates the phase and changes the power flowing direction for bettering its omnidirectional performance. A prototype is fabricated and tested. The measured results show a good omnidirectional radiation pattern in the H-plane and 84°–112.5° of a 3 dB beamwidth in the E-plane. Its available impedance bandwidth (|| < –10 dB) is about 10% ranging from 302 to 335 MHz. The realized gain over this bandwidth ranges from 0.9 to 1.76 dBi, and the simulated results show that its radiation efficiency is greater than 90%; the peak value can reach 98.7%. The overall size of this antenna is 230 mm × 65 mm × 1 mm (0.23 × 0.065 × 0.001 ) at 302 MHz. This high-efficiency antenna with balanced broad band, high gain, wide beam, and miniaturization can be easily applied to UHF band mobile termi- als.
Autors: Dong Wang;Junping Geng;Kun Wang;Han Zhou;Jianping Li;Xianling Liang;Weiren Zhu;Ronghong Jin;
Appeared in: IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 283 - 286
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A High-Efficiency GaN Doherty Power Amplifier With Blended Class-EF Mode and Load-Pull Technique
Abstract:
This brief presents a new Doherty power amplifier (DPA) configuration that employs high-efficiency switched-mode Class EF as its main and auxiliary cells. A blended approach is proposed to design the load network of the PA cells, in which the fundamental-frequency load impedance is obtained through load-pull analysis whereas the harmonic load impedances are set according to the Class-EF requirements. Realized using GaN HEMTs, the DPA prototype exhibits a drain efficiency (DE) of 81% at 45-dBm peak power and 68% at 6-dB back-off power, i.e., when excited using a 2.4 GHz continuous-wave signal. The proposed DPA has a 3-dB bandwidth of nearly 300 MHz within which the DE can be maintained above 68.5%. Using 16-QAM signal with 5-MHz bandwidth and 6-dB peak-to-average power ratio, the DPA shows a DE of 69.7% and an ACLR1 of −26.6 dBc at an average output power of 39.2 dBm.
Autors: Ayman Barakat;Mury Thian;Vincent Fusco;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 151 - 155
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A High-Frequency Three-Level Buck Converter With Real-Time Calibration and Wide Output Range for Fast-DVS
Abstract:
This paper presents a 50-MHz 5-V-input 3-W-output three-level buck converter. A real-time flying capacitor () calibration is proposed to ensure a constant voltage of /2 across , which is highly dependent on various practical conditions, such as parasitic capacitance, time mismatches, or any loading circuits from . The calibration is essential to ensure the reliability and minimize the inductor current and output voltage ripple, thus maintaining the advantages of the three-level operation and further extending the system bandwidth without encountering sub-harmonic oscillation. The converter is fabricated in a UMC 65-nm process using standard 2.5-V I/O devices, and is able to handle a 5-V input voltage and provide a 0.6–4.2-V-wide output range. In the measurement, the voltage across is always calibrated to /2 under various conditions to release the voltage stress on the high- and low-side power transistors and , and to ensure reliability with up to 69% output voltage ripple reduction. A 90% peak efficiency and a 23–29-ns/V reference-tracking response are also observed.
Autors: Xun Liu;Cheng Huang;Philip K. T. Mok;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 582 - 595
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A High-Isolation, Ultra-Wideband Simultaneous Transmit and Receive Antenna With Monopole-Like Radiation Characteristics
Abstract:
A high-isolation, ultra-wideband simultaneous transmit and receive (STAR) antenna with monopole-like radiation characteristics is presented. The proposed STAR antenna consists of a center-located monocone and a circular array of bent loops. The monocone and the array of loops are located in the near fields of each other and serve, respectively, as the transmit (TX) and receive (RX) antennas. To achieve omnidirectional, vertically polarized radiation patterns, the array factor of the bent loops is first examined. A circular top loading and four T-shaped parasitic elements are exploited to decrease the lowest frequency of operation of the antenna without increasing its occupied volume. Finally, based upon the analysis of the array factor, four directors are strategically mounted over the ground plane to enhance the omnidirectionality of the antenna in the azimuth plane. A prototype of the antenna operating in the UHF band is fabricated and measured. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed STAR antenna achieves an isolation greater than 40 dB from 0.6 to 1.75 GHz (2.9:1 bandwidth). Furthermore, the STAR antenna is capable of maintaining consistent monopole-like radiation patterns and vertical polarization for both the TX and the RX channels across the entire band of operation.
Autors: Ruina Lian;Ting-Yen Shih;Yingzeng Yin;Nader Behdad;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 1002 - 1007
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A High-Level Design Framework for the Automatic Generation of High-Throughput Systolic Binomial-Tree Solvers
Abstract:
The binomial-tree model is a numerical method widely used in finance with a computational complexity which is quadratic with respect to the solution accuracy. The existing research has employed reconfigurable computing to provide faster solutions compared with general-purpose processors, but they require low-level manual design by a hardware engineer, and can only solve American options. This paper presents a formal mathematical framework that captures a large class of binomial-tree problems, and provides a systolic data-movement template that maps the framework into digital hardware. This paper also presents a fully automated design flow, which takes C-level user descriptions of binomial trees, with custom data types and tree operations, and automatically generates fully pipelined reconfigurable hardware solutions in field-programmable gate array (FPGA) bit-stream files. On a Xilinx Virtex-7 xc7vx980t FPGA at a 100-MHz clock frequency, we require 54- latency to solve three 876-step 32-bit fixed-point American option binomial trees, with a pricing rate of 114k trees/s. From the same device and in comparison to the existing solutions with equivalent FPGA technology, we always achieve better throughput. This ranges from throughput compared with a hand-tuned register-transfer level systolic design, to and improvement with respect to scalar and vector architectures, respectively.
Autors: Aryan Tavakkoli;David B. Thomas;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 26, issue:2, pages: 341 - 354
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A High-Performance and Temperature-Insensitive Shape Sensor Based on DPP-BOTDA
Abstract:
Distributed optical fiber strain sensing significantly increases the number of sensing points compared with fiber Bragg grating sensor, which makes it an excellent candidate for shape sensing. Theoretical analysis indicates that the spatial resolution of strain measurement is crucial to the performance of shape sensing, so a shape sensor based on differential pulse-width-pair Brillouin optical time-domain analysis is proposed to improve the spatial resolution and shape sensing performance. The sensing fiber is attached on the both sides of a steel strip substrate, which enables the measurement of Brillouin frequency shifts (BFSs) of both the sides to suppress temperature crosstalk. In the experiment, first, the dependence of BFS variation on the curvature of the fiber is measured, the result of which agrees well with theory. Then the reconstruction of three shapes are demonstrated, the spatial resolution of which is 10 cm.
Autors: Dexin Ba;Chen Chen;Cheng Fu;Danyang Zhang;Zhiwei Lu;Zhigang Fan;Yongkang Dong;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 1 - 10
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A High-Performance Dual-Mode Filtering Power Divider With Simple Layout
Abstract:
This letter presents a simple microstrip dual-mode filtering power divider (FPD) with sharp frequency selectivity and good in-band isolation. A new topology is proposed to integrate only a single resonator and a resistor to realize the dual functions of the power division and filtering. In order to further improve its frequency selectivity and obtain wide upper stopband, three open-ended stubs are integrated into the input and outputs of the FPD, respectively. The presented FPD stands out from those in the literature, by both improved performance and simple design layout. For validation, a prototype FPD operating at 2.2 GHz with 3-dB fractional bandwidth of 18.2% is designed and fabricated. The experimental results agree well with the simulated ones. The results indicate that the new FPD exhibits better than 32-dB in-band isolation along with 24-dB harmonic suppression up to 6.28 GHz ().
Autors: Gang Zhang;Xuedao Wang;Jia-Sheng Hong;Jiquan Yang;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 28, issue:2, pages: 120 - 122
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A High-Performance Inverted-C Tunnel Junction FET With Source–Channel Overlap Pockets
Abstract:
In this paper, we propose and simulate a new structure of a line tunnel FET employing gate over source–channel overlap pockets (GO-SCOPs). The SCOPs create vertical tunneling path within the source and the channel extension that lead to a faster thinning of the lateral tunneling barrier between the source and channel regions. As a result, an inverted C-shaped tunnel junction is formed providing both lateral tunneling and vertical tunneling. A calibrated 2-D simulation study shows that an ON-current improvement by one order is achieved in comparison with the gate over source only (GoSo) tunnel field-effect transistors with pockets. Further, the OFF-state leakage and average subthreshold swing are reduced by 44% and 21%, respectively, with an improved parasitic capacitance. This has improved the cutoff frequency from 8.3 MHz in GoSo with pockets structure to 1.19 GHz in the proposed GO-SCOP structure. Furthermore, by employing Ge SCOPs, the ON current is boosted by 4 orders of magnitude, maintaining leakage at ~0.25 fA/, giving , and a much improved average subthreshold swing of ~48 mV/dec at V, V.
Autors: Ashita;Sajad A. Loan;Mohammad Rafat;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 763 - 768
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Highly Sensitive Miniaturized Impedimetric Perchlorate Chemical Sensor
Abstract:
In this paper, we have developed a miniaturized a chemical sensor based on a new nanostructured Co-phthalocyanine (Co(II)Pc-PAA) derivative functionalized Au microelectrodes for perchlorate ClO4 detection. The morphological properties of the sensitive layer have been characterized by contact angle measurement. The response of the obtained sensor-based CoPc/Au microelectrodes has been investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. The experimental impedance data of the sensor device were analyzed by an equivalent electrical circuit using a modified Randles model for better understanding the phenomena present at the sensing membrane/electrolyte interface. Therefore, under optimized working conditions in terms of polarization and frequency, best performances have been achieved when compared with those obtained in the literature for Au electrodes-based devices functionalized with the same molecule. The present chemical sensor has provided a lower detection limit (17.3 pM), the lowest achieved until now to our knowledge, with a larger linear range from 1.73 10−11 to 10−1 M. The selectivity of the sensor has been also studied by evaluating the response towards ClO4 with other interfering anions. The measurement were stable after ten days of the chemical sensor storage at room temperature. This is very promising for environmental application using rapid analyses and low-cost chemical sensors. Perspectives for a potentiometric sensor at higher concentrations were also assessed.
Autors: Najib Ben Messaoud;Abdoullatif Baraket;Cherif Dridi;Naglaa M. Nooredeen;Mohammed Nooredeen Abbas;Abdelhamid Errachid;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 18, issue:4, pages: 1343 - 1350
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Holography-Based Modal Wavefront Sensor for the Precise Positioning of a Light Emitter Using a High-Resolution Computer-Generated Hologram
Abstract:
In certain applications, modal wavefront sensors (MWFSs) can outperform zonal wavefront sensors, which are widely used due to their high flexibility. In this paper, a holography-based MWFS as described is developed for the fast position control of a light emitter in a deep parabolic mirror. The light source is located in the vicinity of the focal point. Instead of Zernike polynomials, more complex phase functions, which are related to certain dislocations of the light source are used as detector modes. The performance of the sensor is verified with a test setup, where the test wavefront is generated by a spatial light modulator instead of a real parabolic mirror. The design and fabrication of the required high-resolution holographic element is described and an easy way of multiplexing several single mode sensors is demonstrated.
Autors: Florian Loosen;Johannes Stehr;Lucas Alber;Irina Harder;Norbert Lindlein;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 1 - 11
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Human–Humanoid Interaction Through the Use of BCI for Locked-In ALS Patients Using Neuro-Biological Feedback Fusion
Abstract:
This paper illustrates a new architecture for a human–humanoid interaction based on EEG-brain computer interface (EEG-BCI) for patients affected by locked-in syndrome caused by Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). The proposed architecture is able to recognise users’ mental state accordingly to the biofeedback factor , based on users’ attention, intention, and focus, that is used to elicit a robot to perform customised behaviours. Experiments have been conducted with a population of eight subjects: four ALS patients in a near locked-in status with normal ocular movement and four healthy control subjects enrolled for age, education, and computer expertise. The results showed as three ALS patients have completed the task with 96.67% success; the healthy controls with 100% success; the fourth ALS has been excluded from the results for his low general attention during the task; the analysis of factor highlights as ALS subjects have shown stronger (81.20%) than healthy controls (76.77%). Finally, a post-hoc analysis is provided to show how robotic feedback helps in maintaining focus on expected task. These preliminary data suggest that ALS patients could successfully control a humanoid robot through a BCI architecture, potentially enabling them to conduct some everyday tasks and extend their presence in the environment.
Autors: Rosario Sorbello;Salvatore Tramonte;Marcello Emanuele Giardina;Vincenzo La Bella;Rossella Spataro;Brendan Allison;Christoph Guger;Antonio Chella;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 26, issue:2, pages: 487 - 497
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Hybrid Method of SAR Speckle Reduction Based on Geometric-Structural Block and Adaptive Neighborhood
Abstract:
Given the improvement of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging technologies, the resolution of SAR image is largely improved and the variation of backscatter amplitude should be considered in SAR image processing. In this paper, considering the spatial geometric properties of SAR image in gray pixel space and the sample selection in the estimation of true signal, local directional property of each pixel is explored with the help of SAR sketching method, and two specially designed filters are integrated for adaptive speckle reduction of SAR images. Specifically, based on the sketch map of a SAR image, the orientation of the sketch point lying at each sketch segment is assigned to the corresponding pixel, and thus all pixels of the SAR image are classified as the directional pixels and the nondirectional pixels. For the directional pixels, given the significant directionality of its neighborhood, a geometric-structural block (GB) is built to center on it and GB-wised nonlocal means filter is designed to estimate the true values of all pixels contained in the GB. Moreover, using the local orientation, the whole image is adopted as the searching range to search the similar GBs. For the nondirectional pixels, based on the locally estimated equivalent number of looks, a novel pixel-based metric is proposed to determine the local adaptive neighborhood (AN) with which an AN-based filter is developed to estimate its true value. Besides, since some nondirectional pixels are contained in GBs, a Bayesian-based fusion strategy is designed for the fusion of their estimated values. In the experiments, three synthetic speckled images and five real SAR images [obtained with different resolutions (e.g., 3, 1, and 0.1 m) and different bands (e.g., X-band, C-band, and Ka-band)] are used for evaluation and analysis. Owing to the usage of local spatial geometric property and the combination of two different filters, the proposed method shows a reas- nable performance among the comparison methods, in terms of the speckle reduction and the details’ preservation.
Autors: Fang Liu;Jie Wu;Lingling Li;Licheng Jiao;Hongxia Hao;Xiangrong Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 56, issue:2, pages: 730 - 748
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Job Sizing Strategy for High-Throughput Scientific Workflows
Abstract:
The user of a computing facility must make a critical decision when submitting jobs for execution: how many resources (such as cores, memory, and disk) should be requested for each job? If the request is too small, the job may fail due to resource exhaustion; if the request is too large, the job may succeed, but resources will be wasted. This decision is especially important when running hundreds of thousands of jobs in a high throughput workflow, which may exhibit complex, long tailed distributions of resource consumption. In this paper, we present a strategy for solving the job sizing problem: (1) applications are monitored and measured in user-space as they run; (2) the resource usage is collected into an online archive; and (3) jobs are automatically sized according to historical data in order to maximize throughput or minimize waste. We evaluate the solution analytically, and present case studies of applying the technique to high throughput physics and bioinformatics workflows consisting of hundreds of thousands of jobs, demonstrating an increase in throughput of 10-400 percent compared to naive approaches.
Autors: Benjamin Tovar;Rafael Ferreira da Silva;Gideon Juve;Ewa Deelman;William Allcock;Douglas Thain;Miron Livny;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 29, issue:2, pages: 240 - 253
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Joint Update Parallel MCMC-Method-Based Sparse Code Multiple Access Decoder
Abstract:
With the requirement for growth of massive connections in the fifth-generation (5G) system, there is an increasing challenge for traditional multiple access techniques to meet the needs of the exponentially increased number of terminals for the resource constrained networks. The sparse code multiple access (SCMA) technology has been proposed for the 5G communication systems to supply stronger connectivity with limited resources. However, a low-complexity decoding algorithm is required by the SCMA decoder for the high computation complexity of decoding nonorthogonal signals. In this paper, we propose a high-performance and low-cost decoding algorithm based on a Bayesian program learning method, Monte Carlo Markov Chain (MCMC). We also propose a new MCMC sampling method to generate samples from a joint update parallel (JUP) MCMC sampler. The simulation results show that the JUP-based MCMC SCMA decoder can save 60 computation complexity compared to the existing decoding method with a codebook size 16, which only has 0.5-dB performance loss compared to the maximum-likelihood-like decoding algorithm.
Autors: Jienan Chen;Zhenbin Zhang;Shengli Fu;Jianhao Hu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 67, issue:2, pages: 1280 - 1291
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Library for Combinational Circuit Verification Using the HOL Theorem Prover
Abstract:
Interactive theorem provers can overcome the scalability limitations of model checking and automated theorem provers by verifying generic circuits and universally quantified properties but they require explicit user guidance, which makes them quite uninteresting for industry usage. As a first step to overcome these issues, this paper presents a formally verified library of commonly used combinational circuits using the higher-order logic theorem prover HOL4. This library can in turn be used to verify the structural view of any arbitrary combinational circuit against its behavior with very minimal user-guidance. For illustration, we verified several combinational circuits, including a 24-bit adder/subtractor, the 8-bit shifter module of the c3540 benchmark, the 17-bit EqualZ_W module of the c2670 benchmark, a 16:1 Multiplexer, and a 512-bit Multiplier.
Autors: Sumayya Shiraz;Osman Hasan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 37, issue:2, pages: 512 - 516
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Lightweight, Wideband, Dual-Circular-Polarized Waveguide Cavity Array Designed With Direct Metal Laser Sintering Considerations
Abstract:
A lightweight, wideband, and dual-circular-polarized (CP) waveguide cavity array operating at Ku-band is proposed. To obtain dual-orthogonal linear polarizations (LPs), the basic radiating element is a square cavity fed by two waveguides. By properly tuning the feed networks, equal amplitude and phase of radiated electric field for two orthogonal polarizations can be obtained, culminating in a dual-LP array. A wideband waveguide-based hybrid coupler is integrated with a dual-LP array to achieve the final dual-CP array. The proposed dual-CP array is fabricated by applying the direct metal laser sintering method. Its overall size is 288 mm mm mm, and it has weighted slightly less than 1.3 kg. The measured results show that for both the CP ports, the array has exhibited desirable bandwidth of 12.25–14.5 GHz (at VSWR <2), and its isolation is better than 15 dB. The measured gain ranges from 29.5 to 32.4 dBic, while the axial ratio is better than 4.5 dB over the entire band. A total efficiency of over 60% can be obtained for both the LHCP and RHCP radiations.
Autors: Shi-Gang Zhou;Guan-Long Huang;Tan-Huat Chio;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 675 - 682
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Linear Differential Transimpedance Amplifier for 100-Gb/s Integrated Coherent Optical Fiber Receivers
Abstract:
This paper presents the design and measurements of a 32-Gb/s differential-input differential-output transimpedance amplifier (TIA) employed in dual polarization integrated coherent receivers for 100-Gb Ethernet. A circuit technique is shown that uses a replica TIA to stabilize the operating point of the two shunt-feedback input stages as well as to cancel the dc part of the two complementary input currents and balances their offset. The TIA can be operated in two modes, an automatic gain control mode to retain a good total harmonic distortion (THD) over a wide dynamic range and a manual gain control mode. Electrical as well as optical-electrical characterization of the TIA are presented. It achieves a maximum differential transimpedance of 74 dB, 33 GHz of 3-dB bandwidth, 12.2 pA/ of average input-referred noise current density with the photodiode, 900 mVpp of maximum differential output swing, less than 1% of THD for 600 mVpp differential output swing, and 500 differential input current. The linearity of the TIA is furthermore demonstrated with PAM4 measurements at 25 Gbaud. The dual TIA chip is fabricated in a 0.13- SiGe:C BiCMOS technology, dissipates 436 mW of power and occupies 2 mm2 of area.
Autors: Ahmed Awny;Rajasekhar Nagulapalli;Marcel Kroh;Jan Hoffmann;Patrick Runge;Daniel Micusik;Gunter Fischer;Ahmet Cagri Ulusoy;Minsu Ko;Dietmar Kissinger;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 973 - 986
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Locally Active Memristor and Its Application in a Chaotic Circuit
Abstract:
In this brief, we propose a novel locally active memristor based on a voltage-controlled generic memristor model and use the analysis methods of standard nonlinear theory to analyze its characteristics and illustrate the concept of local activity via the dc v-i loci of memristor and non-volatile memory via the power-off plot of memristor. A chaotic attractor is observed with a simple nonlinear circuit that only includes three circuit elements in parallel: 1) a nonlinear locally active memristor; 2) a linear passive inductor; and 3) a linear passive capacitor. Then, we analyze the dynamical characteristics of the above circuit and show complex bifurcation behaviors.
Autors: Peipei Jin;Guangyi Wang;Herbert Ho-Ching Iu;Tyrone Fernando;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 246 - 250
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Location-Query-Browse Graph for Contextual Recommendation
Abstract:
Traditionally, recommender systems modelled the physical and cyber contextual influence on people’s moving, querying, and browsing behaviors in isolation. Yet, searching, querying, and moving behaviors are intricately linked, especially indoors. Here, we introduce a tripartite location-query-browse graph (LQB) for nuanced contextual recommendations. The LQB graph consists of three kinds of nodes: locations, queries, and Web domains. Directed connections only between heterogeneous nodes represent the contextual influences, while connections of homogeneous nodes are inferred from the contextual influences of the other nodes. This tripartite LQB graph is more reliable than any monopartite or bipartite graph in contextual location, query, and Web content recommendations. We validate this LQB graph in an indoor retail scenario with extensive dataset of three logs collected from over 120,000 anonymized, opt-in users over a 1-year period in a large inner-city mall in Sydney, Australia. We characterize the contextual influences that correspond to the arcs in the LQB graph, and evaluate the usefulness of the LQB graph for location, query, and Web content recommendations. The experimental results show that the LQB graph successfully captures the contextual influence and significantly outperforms the state of the art in these applications.
Autors: Yongli Ren;Martin Tomko;Flora Dilys Salim;Jeffrey Chan;Charles L. A. Clarke;Mark Sanderson;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 30, issue:2, pages: 204 - 218
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Look-Up Table-Based Ray Integration Framework for 2-D/3-D Forward and Back Projection in X-Ray CT
Abstract:
Iterative algorithms have become increasingly popular in computed tomography (CT) image reconstruction, since they better deal with the adverse image artifacts arising from low radiation dose image acquisition. But iterative methods remain computationally expensive. The main cost emerges in the projection and back projection operations, where accurate CT system modeling can greatly improve the quality of the reconstructed image. We present a framework that improves upon one particular aspect—the accurate projection of the image basis functions. It differs from current methods in that it substitutes the high computational complexity associated with accurate voxel projection by a small number of memory operations. Coefficients are computed in advance and stored in look-up tables parameterized by the CT system’s projection geometry. The look-up tables only require a few kilobytes of storage and can be efficiently accelerated on the GPU. We demonstrate our framework with both numerical and clinical experiments and compare its performance with the current state-of-the-art scheme—the separable footprint method.
Autors: Sungsoo Ha;Klaus Mueller;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 37, issue:2, pages: 361 - 371
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Low Complexity Sparse Code Multiple Access Detector Based on Stochastic Computing
Abstract:
Sparse code multiple access (SCMA) is a promising multiple access technology candidate for the next-generation communication system, which can dramatically improve spectral efficiency. However, the major challenge of SCMA is the very high detection complexity. Stochastic computing is a new number representation, which can carry out complex computations with very simple logics. In this paper, we extend the application of stochastic computing to SCMA detection and propose a low complexity stochastic SCMA detector. We also design three novel stochastic logic architectures: a new low hardware cost bit stream generation architecture, a low hardware cost stochastic function node update architecture and a fast converging stochastic variable node update architecture. Analysis and simulation results show that the proposed stochastic SCMA detector saves 69% complexity compared with the traditional SCMA detectors with a comparable bit error rate performance. The synthesis results with SIMC 65-nm CMOS technology show that the proposed stochastic SCMA detector achieves 640 Mbps total system throughput with only 1.45-mm cell area.
Autors: Kaining Han;Jianhao Hu;Jienan Chen;Hao Lu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 769 - 782
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Low Phase Noise Feedback Oscillator Based on SIW Bandpass Response Power Divider
Abstract:
A low phase noise X-band oscillator based on the bandpass response power divider in single-layer substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) technology is presented in this letter. The power divider is embedded in the SIW filter; therefore, lower insertion loss and more compact area size can be realized than those using the independent design of both components. To achieve better phase noise performance, transmission zeros are introduced by cross coupling through the resonant cavities to increase peak group delay. In addition, by placing external feeding at the center of cavity edge, the second harmonic can be suppressed efficiently. The measured results verify the performance of the proposed bandpass response power divider and show that the phase noise of the oscillator can achieve −143.3 dBc/Hz at 1-MHz offset frequency.
Autors: Ruoqiao Zhang;Jianyi Zhou;Zhiqiang Yu;Binqi Yang;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 28, issue:2, pages: 153 - 155
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Low-Error Energy-Efficient Fixed-Width Booth Multiplier With Sign-Digit-Based Conditional Probability Estimation
Abstract:
Fixed-width multipliers are intensively used in many DSP applications whose accuracy and energy efficiency affect the whole digital system to a large extent. To improve the computation accuracy, a Booth-encoded sign-digit-based conditional probability estimation approach is proposed. A symmetric error distribution is obtained by taking the sign bit of the Booth-encoded multiplier into consideration when applying the conditional probability. In addition, a more generalized mux-based estimation method is formulated for the circuit implementation, which reduces the delay time and power dissipation. Simulation results show that the proposed multiplier exhibits the best computation accuracy with the least energy per operation. It performs even better for those operand lengths that are not multiples of 4. The maximum reduction on energy-delay-error product can reach 14.8% compared with all its contenders among various operand lengths.
Autors: Ziji Zhang;Yajuan He;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 236 - 240
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Low-Integrated-Phase-Noise 27–30-GHz Injection-Locked Frequency Multiplier With an Ultra-Low-Power Frequency-Tracking Loop for mm-Wave-Band 5G Transceivers
Abstract:
An ultra-low-phase-noise injection-locked frequency multiplier (ILFM) for millimeter wave (mm-wave) fifth-generation transceivers is presented. Using an ultra-low-power frequency-tracking loop (FTL), the proposed ILFM is able to correct the frequency drifts of the quadrature voltage-controlled oscillator of the ILFM in a real-time fashion. Since the FTL is monitoring the averages of phase deviations rather than detecting or sampling the instantaneous values, it requires only 600 to continue to calibrate the ILFM that generates an mm-wave signal with an output frequency from 27 to 30 GHz. The proposed ILFM was fabricated in a 65-nm CMOS process. The 10-MHz phase noise of the 29.25-GHz output signal was −129.7 dBc/Hz, and its variations across temperatures and supply voltages were less than 2 dB. The integrated phase noise from 1 kHz to 100 MHz and the rms jitter were −39.1 dBc and 86 fs, respectively.
Autors: Seyeon Yoo;Seojin Choi;Juyeop Kim;Heein Yoon;Yongsun Lee;Jaehyouk Choi;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 375 - 388
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Low-Power Low-Noise Decade-Bandwidth Switched Transconductor Mixer With AC-Coupled LO Buffers
Abstract:
In this paper, a modified switched transconductor mixer structure is proposed to realize a low-power, low-noise, and wideband mixer, in which, a transconductor stage with fixed dc operating point is switched by the ac-coupled local oscillator (LO) signal. In this way, only a small LO signal is required to turn the transconductor ON and OFF, and thus a low-power LO buffer can be used to achieve wideband down-conversion. To further expand the bandwidth, the inductive peaking technique is used at the RF port to eliminate the capacitive loading effect resulted from the input transistors. As the noise power from LO stage appears in common mode at the mixer output, good noise performance is realized, too. Additionally, output distortion-cancellation IF buffer is added to facilitate the testing. Fabricated in the 0.13- CMOS process, 15.5–17.5-dB gain and 4–5.2-dB noise figure are achieved in 1–10-GHz bandwidth. The mixer core consumes a low power of 8.3 mW from 1.5-V supply, and the whole chip consumes 22.3 mW, including the IF buffer. The active chip area is less than 0.2 mm2.
Autors: Hao Li;Ahmed M. El-Gabaly;Carlos E. Saavedra;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 510 - 521
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Low-Power OFDM-Based Wake-Up Mechanism for IoE Applications
Abstract:
This brief presents a wake-up mechanism for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) modulation-based systems by coding a low data-rate wake-up signal in transmitter without extra circuitry overhead. It is achieved by controlling data pattern for each OFDM subcarrier in one symbol of frame to produce an equivalent amplitude-modulated (AM) signal as a wake-up query without contaminating protocol integrity. A low-power wake-up receiver is used to demodulate this signal and interpret the wake-up query. A system using proposed wake-up mechanism has been built based on IEEE 802.11ah standard. Measurement results demonstrate that an AM-type wake-up signal with a data-rate of 31.25 Kb/s is generated through the proposed method. Moreover, an envelope detector with −35-dBm sensitivity at 900 MHz has been implemented in 0.13- CMOS technology for wake-up signal detection and consumes 120-nW power.
Autors: Hualei Zhang;Chunhui Li;Sizheng Chen;Xi Tan;Na Yan;Hao Min;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 181 - 185
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Low-Power Wearable Stand-Alone Tongue Drive System for People With Severe Disabilities
Abstract:
This paper presents a low-power stand-alone tongue drive system (sTDS) used for individuals with severe disabilities to potentially control their environment such as computer, smartphone, and wheelchair using their voluntary tongue movements. A low-power local processor is proposed, which can perform signal processing to convert raw magnetic sensor signals to user-defined commands, on the sTDS wearable headset, rather than sending all raw data out to a PC or smartphone. The proposed sTDS significantly reduces the transmitter power consumption and subsequently increases the battery life. Assuming the sTDS user issues one command every 20 ms, the proposed local processor reduces the data volume that needs to be wirelessly transmitted by a factor of 64, from 9.6 to 0.15 kb/s. The proposed processor consists of three main blocks: serial peripheral interface bus for receiving raw data from magnetic sensors, external magnetic interference attenuation to attenuate external magnetic field from the raw magnetic signal, and a machine learning classifier for command detection. A proof-of-concept prototype sTDS has been implemented with a low-power IGLOO-nano field programmable gate array (FPGA), bluetooth low energy, battery and magnetic sensors on a headset, and tested. At clock frequency of 20 MHz, the processor takes 6.6 s and consumes 27 nJ for detecting a command with a detection accuracy of 96.9%. To further reduce power consumption, an application-specified integrated circuit processor for the sTDS is implemented at the postlayout level in 65-nm CMOS technology with 1-V power supply, and it consumes 0.43 mW, which is 10 lower than FPGA power consumption and occupies an area of only 0.016 mm.
Autors: Ali Jafari;Nathanael Buswell;Maysam Ghovanloo;Tinoosh Mohsenin;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 12, issue:1, pages: 58 - 67
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Low-Reference Spur MDLL-Based Clock Multiplier and Derivation of Discrete-Time Noise Transfer Function for Phase Noise Analysis
Abstract:
A multiplying delay-locked loop (MDLL)-based clock multiplier with a two-step phase aligning architecture and a dual-pulse charge-pump (CP) is proposed to reduce the reference spur level. The architecture has a phase-locked loop mode to align the coarse phase and an MDLL mode to obtain a delay-lock. With non-overlap dual phase detector pulses in the MDLL mode, the CP is directly calibrated in the runtime to minimize its phase offset. A discrete-time noise transfer function (NTF) is also derived to estimate the phase noise of multiplying-delay line from that of delay line. The NTF includes aliasing effect and shows better accuracy than the prior voltage controlled oscillator realignment-based approaches. This clock multiplier occupies an active area of 0.047-mm2 in 40-nm CMOS process. The clock multiplication ratio () is an integer value from 8 to 27. With a low-cost 19.2-MHz TCXO reference, 153.6–518.4 MHz clocks were successfully generated, and a phase noise of −124 dBc/Hz at 100-kHz offset from a 518.4-MHz clock, rms jitter of 1.28 ps, and −65.5 dBc reference spur were measured. The power dissipation at 518.4 MHz was 2.6 mW from the 1.8 and 1.1 V supplies.
Autors: Geum-Young Tak;Kwyro Lee;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 485 - 497
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Mapping Methodology of Boolean Logic Circuits on Memristor Crossbar
Abstract:
Alternatives to CMOS logic circuit implementations are under research for future scaled electronics. Memristor crossbar-based logic circuit is one of the promising candidates to at least partially replace CMOS technology, which is facing many challenges such as reduced scalability, reliability, and performance gain. Memristor crossbar offers many advantages including scalability, high integration density, nonvolatility, etc. The state-of-the-art for memristor crossbar logic circuit design can only implement simple and small circuits. This paper proposes a mapping methodology of large Boolean logic circuits on memristor crossbar. Appropriate place-and-route schemes, to efficiently map the circuits on the crossbar, as well as several optimization schemes are also proposed. To illustrate the potential of the methodology, a multibit adder and other nine more complex benchmarks are studied; the delay, area and power consumption induced by both crossbar and its CMOS control part are evaluated.
Autors: Lei Xie;Hoang Anh Du Nguyen;Mottaqiallah Taouil;Said Hamdioui;Koen Bertels;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 37, issue:2, pages: 311 - 323
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Metamaterial Absorber With a New Compact Unit Cell
Abstract:
This letter focuses on the modification of a unit cell of a metamaterial absorber to decrease its operational frequency. By decreasing the operational frequency, we can increase capability of the absorber for practical applications and decrease sensitivity of the structure response to the curvature. The structure has been implemented by the array of the unit cell on the FR4 substrate in the front of a conductive plate. Both the simulated and experimental results indicate the structure provides 20% decrease in the minimum operation frequency with respect to the reference structure. Also, the operating frequency range of the structure with absorptivity more than 90% is 1.35–3.5 GHz, i.e., 88% fractional bandwidth. The structure has appropriate response under oblique incident angle from 0° to 40°.
Autors: Mohsen Dehghan Banadaki;Abbas Ali Heidari;Mansor Nakhkash;
Appeared in: IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 205 - 208
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Method for Automatic Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of Ice Sheets by Using Radar Sounder and Altimeter Data
Abstract:
Understanding the processes occurring at the ice sheets requires reliable three-dimensional (3-D) models of the ice sheet geometry. To address this challenge, we propose a technique for the 3-D reconstruction of the ice sheet geometry that uses radar sounder (RS) and altimeter (ALT) data to automatically identify the scale (or grid size) for interpolation. Existing studies derive the interpolation scale empirically, by qualitatively analyzing the RS data sampling and often neglecting the surface topography effects. Our method initially performs the interpolation of RS data at several potential scales. At each scale, it uses the ordinary kriging interpolation method that enables the quantitative analysis of both the RS data sampling and the surface topography. The optimal scale for the estimation of the surface map is identified according to an objective criterion that minimizes the difference to a subset of reference ALT data. Thereafter, the identified optimum scale on the surface is used to estimate the bedrock and ice thickness maps. Thus, the technique is a best-effort approach to the reconstruction of the ice sheet geometry, given the reference surface data and in the absence of reference bedrock data. Results obtained by applying the method to RS and ALT data acquired over the Byrd Glacier in Antarctica, in four regions characterized by different RS sampling and surface topography, confirm its effectiveness. Moreover, they point out that the method could be used for guiding future RS surveys, since the identified optimal scales are typically larger than those needed for addressing specific science objectives.
Autors: Ana-Maria Ilisei;Lorenzo Bruzzone;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 11, issue:2, pages: 401 - 415
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Method for Local Parametric Fault Diagnosis of a Broad Class of Analog Integrated Circuits
Abstract:
This paper is devoted to local parametric fault diagnosis of nonlinear analog integrated circuits designed in a bipolar and CMOS technology. An algorithm is proposed that allows estimating values of the considered set of the parameters. The algorithm exploits a diagnostic test performed in a dc state, leading to output voltages measured in the circuit. Each of the output voltages is a parameterized function. A system of overdetermined equations fitting the parameterized functions to the data points is created. An efficient iterative method is developed for solving this overdetermined system of nonlinear equations exploiting the idea of the normal equation and a homotopy concept. It is implemented in the manner that allows operating with the functions not given in the explicit analytical form, which commonly occurs in real nonlinear circuits. For illustration, two examples are given, including a circuit with bipolar transistors and a CMOS circuit designed in a nanometer technology. They reveal the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Autors: Michał Tadeusiewicz;Stanisław Hałgas;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 67, issue:2, pages: 328 - 337
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Method to Evaluate Cycloconverters Commutation Robustness Under Voltage and Frequency Variations in Mining Distribution Systems
Abstract:
This paper analyzes the influence of frequency and voltage variation over the commutation of thyristors in high-power cycloconverters. The analysis demonstrates that frequency and voltage variations can cause commutation failures generating significant damages in cycloconverters. In addition, the paper proposes a method based on the energy required to commutate thyristors to determine the maximum frequency and voltage variations that will not affect commutation between thyristors, information that can be later used for the correct setting of protection relays. The analysis is complemented with simulated results using data obtained from high-power thyristors used in commercially available cycloconverters. Finally, a commutation failure in a 15 MW grinding mill cycloconverter drive is presented and analyzed.
Autors: G. Francisco Silva;T. Luis Morán;T. Miguel Torres;V. Christian Weishaupt;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 858 - 865
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A mighty antenna from a tiny CubeSat grows
Abstract:
By packing big antennas into small satellites, JPL engineers are making space science cheap
Autors: Nacer E. Chahat;
Appeared in: IEEE Spectrum
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 55, issue:2, pages: 32 - 37
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Millimeter-Wave Self-Mixing Array With Large Gain and Wide Angular Receiving Range
Abstract:
The concept of self-mixing antenna arrays is presented and analyzed with respect to its beneficial behavior of large gain over a wide angular range. The large gain is attained by an antenna array with large element spacing, where all array element signals are combined approximately coherently over the entire angular receiving range. This functionality is achieved by the self-mixing principle, where an exact description via an intermediate frequency (IF) array factor is derived. For verification purposes, a self-mixing array is fabricated and measured in the frequency range from 34 to 39 GHz. A multiple-resonance millimeter-wave microstrip patch antenna has been especially developed to achieve large bandwidth and a wide angular receiving range. The broad beamwidth is achieved by two parasitic patches and suitable radiation characteristics of the resonant modes. The self-mixing of the receive signal is realized at each antenna element by a Schottky diode with an optimized operating point. The down-converted array element signals are then combined and measured at the IF. The receive power is increased significantly over a large angular range compared with conventional array feeding techniques. The simulation results are verified by measurements, which show very good agreement.
Autors: Jonas Kornprobst;Thomas J. Mittermaier;Thomas F. Eibert;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 702 - 711
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Millinewton Resolution Fiber Bragg Grating-Based Catheter Two-Dimensional Distal Force Sensor for Cardiac Catheterization
Abstract:
This paper presents the development of a novel 2-D fiber Bragg grating (FBG)-based micro-force sensing design for detection of catheter tip-tissue interaction forces. A miniature and symmetrical force-sensitive flexure-based catheter distal sensor has been prototyped, and four optical fibers inscribed with one FBG element each have been mounted on it for force and temperature decoupling and detection. The axial property of the tightly suspended fiber configuration has been utilized with a pre-tensioned force, and the embedded FBG element can be stretched and compressed to sense the force-induced and temperature-caused strain variations. The proposed configuration can achieve an improved resolution and sensitivity than the light intensity modulation-based approaches, and avoid the limitations closely associated with the commonly direct FBG-pasting methods, such as chirping failure and low repeatability. Finite-element modeling (FEM)-based simulation has been implemented to investigate the flexure performance and improve the design. The decoupling approach has been proposed based on the simulation results and implemented to separate and determine the force and temperature. The force-sensing flexure prototype has been calibrated to achieve a resolution of around 4.6 mN within the measurement range of 0 ~ 3.5 N. Both static calibration experiments and in-vitro dynamic experiments have been performed to prove the feasibility of the proposed design. The decoupling capacity of force and temperature will benefit its broad implementations in generalized intravascular catherization procedures.
Autors: Chaoyang Shi;Tianliang Li;Hongliang Ren;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 18, issue:4, pages: 1539 - 1546
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Mixed Integer Linear Programming Approach to Electrical Stimulation Optimization Problems
Abstract:
Electrical stimulation optimization is a challenging problem. Even when a single region is targeted for excitation, the problem remains a constrained multi-objective optimization problem. The constrained nature of the problem results from safety concerns while its multi-objectives originate from the requirement that non-targeted regions should remain unaffected. In this paper, we propose a mixed integer linear programming formulation that can successfully address the challenges facing this problem. Moreover, the proposed framework can conclusively check the feasibility of the stimulation goals. This helps researchers to avoid wasting time trying to achieve goals that are impossible under a chosen stimulation setup. The superiority of the proposed framework over alternative methods is demonstrated through simulation examples.
Autors: Gehan Abouelseoud;Yasmine Abouelseoud;Amin Shoukry;Nour Ismail;Jaidaa Mekky;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 26, issue:2, pages: 527 - 537
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A mmWave Wideband Slot Array Antenna Based on Ridge Gap Waveguide With 30% Bandwidth
Abstract:
A wideband element slot antenna array based on ridge gap waveguide feeding network has been proposed for mmWave applications. The antenna subarray consists of four radiating slots which are excited by a groove gap cavity layer. Compared with previously published works, the proposed planar antenna array has quite wide impedance bandwidth. The antenna covers a wideband of 50–67.8 GHz with 30% impedance bandwidth (VSWR < 2). Also, the antenna has only 2.5 dB gain variation over the entire bandwidth which implies also good radiation characteristics for the proposed antenna. The maximum measured gain value is about 27.5 dBi with a total efficiency of 80% for the proposed antenna within the band of interest. With this performance, the proposed antenna array is a promising candidate for mmWave communication systems.
Autors: Ali Farahbakhsh;Davoud Zarifi;Ashraf Uz Zaman;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 1008 - 1013
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Mobility-Aware Optimal Resource Allocation Architecture for Big Data Task Execution on Mobile Cloud in Smart Cities
Abstract:
In recent years, the smart city concept, which involves multiple disciplines, for example, smart healthcare, smart transportation, and smart community, has become popular because of its ability to improve urban citizens' quality of life. However, most services in these areas of smart cities have become data-driven, thus generating big data that require seamless real-time access, sharing, storing, processing, and analysis anywhere at any time for intelligent decision making to improve living standards. In this scenario, MCC can play a vital role by allowing a mobile device to access and offload big-data-related tasks to powerful cloudlet servers attached to many wireless APs, thus ensuring that the QoS demands of end users are met. However, the connectivity of mobile devices with a given AP is not continuous, but rather sporadic with varying signal strengths. Furthermore, the heterogeneity of the cloudlet resources and the big data application requests place additional challenges in making optimal code execution decision. To cope with this problem, this article proposes a mobility- aware optimal resource allocation architecture, namely Mobi-Het, for remote big data task execution in MCC that offers higher efficiency in timeliness and reliability. The system architecture and key components of the proposed resource allocation service are presented and evaluated. The results of experiments and simulations have demonstrated the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed Mobi-Het architecture for mobile big data applications.
Autors: Asma Enayet;Md. Abdur Razzaque;Mohammad Mehedi Hassan;Atif Alamri;Giancarlo Fortino;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 56, issue:2, pages: 110 - 117
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Modified All-Digital Polar PWM Transmitter
Abstract:
This paper presents an all-digital polar pulsewidth modulated (PWM) transmitter for wireless communications. The transmitter combines baseband PWM and outphasing to compensate for the amplitude error in the transmitted signal due to aliasing and image distortion. The PWM is implemented in a field programmable gate array (FPGA) core. The outphasing is implemented as pulse-position modulation using the FPGA transceivers, which drive two switch-mode power amplifiers fabricated in 130-nm standard CMOS. The transmitter has an all-digital implementation that offers the flexibility to adapt it to multi-standard and multi-band signals. As the proposed transmitter compensates for aliasing and image distortion, an improvement in the linearity and spectral performance is observed as compared with a digital-PWM transmitter. For a 20-MHz LTE uplink signal, the measurement results show an improvement of up to 6.9 dBc in the adjacent channel leakage ratio.
Autors: Muhammad Touqir Pasha;Muhammad Fahim Ul Haque;Jahanzeb Ahmad;Ted Johansson;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 758 - 768
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Modular Multilevel HVDC Buck–Boost Converter Derived From Its Switched-Mode Counterpart
Abstract:
This paper begins by presenting a generalized methodology for conceptualizing modular multilevel converter (MMC)-based dc–dc topologies, which is predicated on the concept of harmonic power balance. A compelling implication is that MMC-based variants of conventional switched-mode converter structures can be realized. As an example case study, this paper introduces a new dc–dc MMC for HVdc applications, which is derived from the classical buck–boost dc–dc converter. This new topology, which is revealed to be an alternative option to the well-known dual active bridge (DAB) converter with an intermediate transformer, offers buck–boost functionality and bidirectional dc fault blocking, using only two quadrant switching cells. Comparative analysis shows the proposed topology has lower operating losses and a lower total magnetics rating in comparison to an MMC-based DAB solution for dc stepping ratios around unity. A dynamic controller is developed that regulates the converter dc power throughput while maintaining balanced capacitor voltages. The converter operating principle, dynamic controller performance, and dc fault blocking are verified by simulation.
Autors: Sunny H. Kung;Gregory J. Kish;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 82 - 92
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Multi-Functional In-Memory Inference Processor Using a Standard 6T SRAM Array
Abstract:
A multi-functional in-memory inference processor integrated circuit (IC) in a 65-nm CMOS process is presented. The prototype employs a deep in-memory architecture (DIMA), which enhances both energy efficiency and throughput over conventional digital architectures via simultaneous access of multiple rows of a standard 6T bitcell array (BCA) per precharge, and embedding column pitch-matched low-swing analog processing at the BCA periphery. In doing so, DIMA exploits the synergy between the dataflow of machine learning (ML) algorithms and the SRAM architecture to reduce the dominant energy cost due to data movement. The prototype IC incorporates a 16-kB SRAM array and supports four commonly used ML algorithms—the support vector machine, template matching, -nearest neighbor, and the matched filter. Silicon measured results demonstrate simultaneous gains (dot product mode) in energy efficiency of 10 and in throughput of 5.3 leading to a 53 reduction in the energy-delay product with negligible (1%) degradation in the decision-making accuracy, compared with the conventional 8-b fixed-point single-function digital implementations.
Autors: Mingu Kang;Sujan K. Gonugondla;Ameya Patil;Naresh R. Shanbhag;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 642 - 655
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Multi-Level Cache Framework for Remote Resource Access in Transparent Computing
Abstract:
With the increasing demand for high performance of remote resource access in transparent computing, there is a requirement to design a multi-level cache framework to alleviate the network latency. Existing cache frameworks in CPU and web systems cannot be applied simply because the remote resource access architecture needs to be extended to support multi-level cache, and the ways that resources are accessed in transparent computing require specific designs. In this article, we propose a multi-level cache framework for remote resource access in transparent computing. Based on the low latency feature of edge computing, we extend the remote resource access architecture to an architecture with multi-level caches by setting caches on the edge devices with low network latency. Then we design a hybrid multi-level cache hierarchy and make corresponding cache policies. Through a case study, we show the effectiveness of our design. Finally, we discuss several future research issues for deploying the proposed multi-level cache framework.
Autors: Di Zhang;Yuezhi Zhou;Yaoxue Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Network
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 32, issue:1, pages: 140 - 145
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Multi-Level DDoS Mitigation Framework for the Industrial Internet of Things
Abstract:
The Industrial Internet of Things is growing fast. But the rapid growth of IIoT devices raises a number of security concerns, because the IIoT device is weak in defending against malware, and the method of managing a large number of IIoT devices is awkward and inconvenient. This article proposes a multi-level DDoS mitigation framework (MLDMF) to defend against DDoS attacks for IIoT, which includes the edge computing level, fog computing level, and cloud computing level. Software defined networking is used to manage a large number of IIoT devices and to mitigate DDoS attacks in IIoT. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed framework.
Autors: Qiao Yan;Wenyao Huang;Xupeng Luo;Qingxiang Gong;F. Richard Yu;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 56, issue:2, pages: 30 - 36
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Multi-Time-Step Finite Element Algorithm for 3-D Simulation of Coupled Drift-Diffusion Reaction Process in Total Ionizing Dose Effect
Abstract:
In order to study the total ionizing dose degradation and enhanced low dose rate sensitivity effect for semiconductor devices in the space environment, we simulate the drift-diffusion-reaction processes in a 3-dimensional SiO2–Si system. Since the time scale of the drift-diffusion processes is much larger than that of the chemical reaction processes, we use a multi-time-step algorithm to calculate the two types of processes, respectively. In this paper, partial differential equations used to describe the electrodiffusion processes are solved by a finite element method, while the chemical reactions taking place independently in every mesh node are solved as ordinary differential equations. We reproduce qualitative properties of total ionizing dose effect and compare our numerical results with experimental data and other simulation results. This paper paves a way for 3-D simulation of total ionizing dose and enhanced low dose rate sensitivity with high efficiency and robustness.
Autors: Jingjie Xu;Zhaocan Ma;Hongliang Li;Yu Song;Linbo Zhang;Benzhuo Lu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 31, issue:1, pages: 183 - 189
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Multi-Type Features Method for Leg Detection in 2-D Laser Range Data
Abstract:
People detection is an important topic in the fields of security, intelligent environments, and robotics. Current research on people detection based on a single laser range finder is mostly focused on leg detection. However, in practical environments, where legs are likely to be touching or partially occluded, the current methods suffer from a low detection rate and precision. This paper proposes a multi-type features method for leg detection in 2-D laser range data. This method consists of segmentation, through which the laser range data are divided into segments; feature definition and extraction, in which three types of features, including relative distance statistical features, spatial relationship features and nearest neighbor features, are introduced and combined with classic geometric features; and classification, by which a strong classifier is generated using the real AdaBoost algorithm and segments are classified as leg or non-leg. Three 2-D laser range data sets are used for the experiments. The experimental results show that the proposed features are robust and effective in detecting both separated legs and touched or partially occluded legs.
Autors: Dalin Li;Lin Li;You Li;Fan Yang;Xinkai Zuo;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 18, issue:4, pages: 1675 - 1684
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Multiband Compact Reconfigurable PIFA Based on Nested Slots
Abstract:
This letter presents a new planar inverted-F antenna design that is dedicated for integration within mobile devices such as phones and tablets. The proposed antenna structure is based on nested capacitive slots in order to achieve a multiband behavior. The presented antenna is also reduced in size by 60%. The antenna is then reconfigured using positive-intrinsic-negative (p-i-n) diodes that are embedded within the antenna structure. Frequency reconfiguration is achieved to ensure that all the various commercial and required bands of interest are covered. Two prototypes are fabricated and measured where good agreement is noticed between the simulated and measured data.
Autors: Fatima A. Asadallah;Joseph Costantine;Youssef Tawk;
Appeared in: IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 331 - 334
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Multiband Directional Coupler Using SOI CMOS for RF Front-End Applications
Abstract:
This letter introduces a novel multiband directional coupler for RF front-end applications. Conventional narrowband directional couplers are widely used for mobile applications because of their compact size. However, excessive power loss due to strong coupling in the higher frequency range severely limits their bandwidth. To resolve this issue, we propose a dual directional coupler employing a coupling switching stage, where the asymmetric coupled lines can be electrically coupled or floated to mitigate severe coupling loss. The proposed coupler has been implemented to an integrated circuit using the silicon-on-insulator process. The measured results showed a considerably enhanced bandwidth from 0.69 to 4 GHz covering the entire frequency band of long-term evolution with a low power loss of less than −0.21 dB in the target frequency range.
Autors: Donghyeon Ji;Junghyun Kim;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 28, issue:2, pages: 126 - 128
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Multiband Dual-Polarized Omnidirectional Antenna for 2G/3G/LTE Applications
Abstract:
A multiband dual-polarized omnidirectional antenna for 2G/3G/Long Term Evolution (LTE) mobile communications is proposed in this letter, which consists of horizontal polarization (HP) and vertical polarization (VP) element with separate feeds. The VP element consists of three polygonal radiation patches with three equally spaced legs shorted to the ground plane. The HP element consists of three wideband slot loop structures, which is nested on the top of the VP element. Three slot loop structures provide a 360° coverage for HP and enhance its bandwidth. Both the simulated and measured results indicate that the frequency bands of 1650–2900 MHz for HP and 780–2700 MHz for VP can be achieved. The reflection of VP improves the gain of the HP element at least 1 dBi after nesting. The gain of HP element is more than 3 dBi for LTE, and the gain of VP element is more than 5 dBi in the LTE band and 1.5 dBi in the 2G band. Port isolation larger than 30 dB and low-gain variation levels are also obtained. The proposed antenna can be applied in mobile communications.
Autors: Hongyun Wen;Yihong Qi;Zibin Weng;Fuhai Li;Jun Fan;
Appeared in: IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 180 - 183
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Multichannel Phase Tunable Microwave Photonic Mixer With High Conversion Gain and Elimination of Dispersion-Induced Power Fading
Abstract:
A microwave photonic system that can realize frequency up- and down-conversion, multichannel phase shift, high conversion gain, and elimination of dispersion-induced power fading is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The scheme is based on an integrated dual-polarization quadrature phase shift keying modulator that contains two dual parallel Mach–Zehnder modulators (X-DPMZM and Y-DPMZM). The X-DPMZM implements dual side band carrier suppression (DSB-CS) modulation of radio frequency signal, and the Y-DPMZM implements frequency shift of an optical carrier. They are combined in orthogonal polarizations to implement frequency up- and down-conversion. The polarization multiplexed signal will go through polarization controllers and polarizers to implement multichannel phase shift. In the experiment, the phase shift can be tuned independently over 360° in each channel. By suppressing the optical carrier, the conversion gain and LO isolation are improved by 20.5 dB and 51.26 dB, respectively, compared with conventional dual side band modulation scheme. In addition, the proposed scheme can achieve a spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR) of 103.6 dB·Hz2/3.
Autors: Weile Zhai;Aijun Wen;Wu Zhang;Zhaoyang Tu;Huixing Zhang;Zhongguo Xiu;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 1 - 10
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Multidisciplinary Industrial Robot Approach for Teaching Mechatronics-Related Courses
Abstract:
This paper presents a robot prototype for an undergraduate laboratory program designed to fulfill the criteria laid out by ABET. The main objective of the program is for students to learn some basic concepts of embedded systems and robotics, and apply them in practice. For that purpose, various practical laboratory exercises were prepared to teach different aspects of communications, control, mechatronics, and microcontrollers. The practicals are organized such that the students can systematically solve real-world problems. The most important feature of the presented program is that, it incorporates interdisciplinary knowledge, and inculcates technical and professional skills required in pursuing a successful career. Furthermore, students and instructors can modify the software and hardware units of the robot prototype as necessary, to explore more ideas and to apply the robot in other mechatronics-related courses. A digital electronics course taught at the Automation Department at Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro, Querétaro, Mexico, is presented as a case study in which the evaluation process was based on ABET criteria and the corresponding student outcomes. A student survey elicited students’ observations of, and interest in, the learning process. The positive student feedback and student academic outcomes indicate that the inclusion of prototype had a significant impact on student academic outcomes.
Autors: Mariano Garduño-Aparicio;Juvenal Rodríguez-Reséndiz;Gonzalo Macias-Bobadilla;Suresh Thenozhi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Education
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 61, issue:1, pages: 55 - 62
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Multidisciplinary PBL Approach for Teaching Industrial Informatics and Robotics in Engineering
Abstract:
This paper describes the design of an industrial informatics course, following the project-based learning methodology, and reports the experience of four academic years (from 2012–13 to 2015–16). Industrial Informatics is a compulsory course taught in the third year of the B.Sc. degree in industrial electronics and automation engineering at the University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Spain. The course had students develop an embedded controller for a 2DoF SCARA robot that drew a specific trajectory. The robot was built with the LEGO Mindstorms kit and the controller was implemented with NXC, a C-like programming language for the NXT brick. In this activity, students became aware of their learning needs and had to work proactively, both autonomously and in teams. The course design achieved several objectives: 1) students learned the course material; 2) soft skills demanded by employers were reinforced; and 3) the material was structured into project tasks for students to perform. The article analyses two indicators: 1) qualification marks and 2) student satisfaction.
Autors: Isidro Calvo;Itziar Cabanes;Jerónimo Quesada;Oscar Barambones;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Education
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 61, issue:1, pages: 21 - 28
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Multifunctional Antenna with a Small Form Factor: Designing a Novel Series-Fed Compact Triangular Microstrip Ring Resonator Antenna Array
Abstract:
This article examines a noval series-fed triangular microstrip ring resonator (TMRR) antenna array. Each radiating element is made up of a wavelength-long microstrip line with the two ends joined together to form an isosceles triangle. The antenna array is fed by an N-shaped microstrip feed line and excited by a coaxial feed probe. The operational mechanism of the proposed feed system in terms of its electrodynamics is examined with respect to its relative size occupancy, dispersion along the feed line, and the feed effect on the spatial orientation of the propagated radio waves. The size occupancy of the antenna array is 45 mm<sup>2</sup> x 60 mm<sup>2</sup> with a measured reflection coefficient S<sub>11</sub> of -27.5 dB at a resonant frequency of 5.76 GHz. The simulated S<sub>11</sub> is -29.2 dB at a resonant frequency of 5.8 GHz. The measured gain is roughly 10.46 dBi using the absolute gain method. The resulting antenna array is compact in size and exhibits reasonable performance in terms of gain, reflection coefficient, low mass/volume, and weight.
Autors: Seyi S. Olokede;Mohd F. Ain;
Appeared in: IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 60, issue:1, pages: 62 - 71
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Multistate Single-Connection Calibration for Microwave Microfluidics
Abstract:
With emerging medical, chemical, and biological applications of microwave-microfluidic devices, many researchers desire a fast and accurate calibration that can be achieved in a single connection. However, traditional on-wafer or coaxial calibrations require measurements of several different artifacts to the data prior to measuring the microwave-microfluidic device. Ideally, a single artifact would be able to present different impedance states to correct the vector network analyzer data, minimizing drift and eliminating artifact-to-artifact connection errors. Here, we developed a multistate single-connection calibration that used a coplanar waveguide loaded with a microfluidic channel. We then used measurements of the uncorrected scattering parameters of the coplanar waveguide with the channel empty, filled with deionized water, and filled with 30 w% (30 grams per liter) of saline to construct an eight-term error model and switch-term correction. After correction, the residuals between measured scattering parameters and with the literature-based finite-element simulations were below −40 dB from 100 MHz to 110 GHz. This multistate single-connection calibration is compatible with both wafer-probed and connectorized microwave-microfluidic devices for accurate impedance spectroscopy and materials characterization without the need for multiple device measurements.
Autors: Xiao Ma;Nathan D. Orloff;Charles A. E. Little;Christian J. Long;Isaac E. Hanemann;Song Liu;Jordi Mateu;James C. Booth;James C. M. Hwang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 1099 - 1107
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New Adaptive Extended Kalman Filter for Cooperative Localization
Abstract:
To solve the problem of unknown noise covariance matrices inherent in the cooperative localization of autonomous underwater vehicles, a new adaptive extended Kalman filter is proposed. The predicted error covariance matrix and measurement noise covariance matrix are adaptively estimated based on an online expectation-maximization approach. Experimental results illustrate that, under the circumstances that are detailed in the paper, the proposed algorithm has better localization accuracy than existing state-of-the-art algorithms.
Autors: Yulong Huang;Yonggang Zhang;Bo Xu;Zhemin Wu;Jonathon A. Chambers;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 353 - 368
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New Approach to Determine the Specular Point of Forward Reflected GNSS Signals
Abstract:
Accurate determination of the specular point is important for simulating and processing reflected global navigation satellite system signals for remote sensing applications. Existing methods for determining the specular point are based on both spherical and ellipsoidal approximations of the Earth and employ either Snell's law or Fermat's principle to formulate the problem. By analysis and simulation, it is shown that these methods produce significant errors at intermediate latitudes. In this paper, a novel formulation for the solution of the specular point is proposed that satisfies Snell's Law on the WGS84 ellipsoid. The proposed method is compared with the existing methods for various receiver orbit configurations and algorithm augmentations. It is shown that the proposed method is more accurate than the existing methods and more computationally efficient than the minimum path length (MPL) method. Additionally, the resultant grazing angles, MPL method errors, and specular point locations as a function of the receiver orbit are investigated, leading to the finding that the likelihood of an error is significant for geometries favored by reflectometry applications.
Autors: Benjamin J. Southwell;Andrew G. Dempster;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 11, issue:2, pages: 639 - 646
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New Asymptotic Analysis Technique for Diversity Receptions Over Correlated Lognormal Fading Channels
Abstract:
Prior asymptotic performance analyses are based on the series expansion of the moment-generating function (MGF) or the probability density function (PDF) of channel coefficients. However, these techniques fail for lognormal fading channels because the Taylor series of the PDF of a lognormal random variable is zero at the origin and the MGF does not have an explicit form. Although lognormal fading model has been widely applied in wireless communications and free-space optical communications, few analytical tools are available to provide elegant performance expressions for correlated lognormal channels. In this paper, we propose a novel framework to analyze the asymptotic outage probabilities of selection combining (SC), equal-gain combining (EGC), and maximum-ratio combining (MRC) over equally correlated lognormal fading channels. Based on these closed-form results, we show: 1) the outage probability of EGC or MRC becomes an infinitely small quantity compared to that of SC at high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR); 2) channel correlation can cause an infinite performance loss at high SNR; and 3) negatively correlated lognormal channels can outperform the independent lognormal channels. The analyses reveal insights into the long-standing problem of asymptotic performance analyses over correlated lognormal channels, and circumvent the time-consuming Monte Carlo simulation and numerical integration.
Autors: Bingcheng Zhu;Julian Cheng;Jun Yan;Jin-yuan Wang;Lenan Wu;Yongjin Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Communications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 845 - 861
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New Class of Planar Ultrawideband Modular Antenna Arrays With Improved Bandwidth
Abstract:
The theory, design, fabrication, and measurement of a new class of planar ultrawideband modular antenna (PUMA) arrays are presented. The proposed PUMA array class achieves twice the bandwidth (from 3:1 to 6:1) of the conventional shorted via-based PUMA without using an external matching network and while retaining convenient unbalanced feeding, manufacturing, and assembly characteristics. The chief enabling technical innovation hinges upon the reconfiguration of shorting vias into capacitively-loaded vias that simultaneously: 1) mitigate low-frequency bandwidth-limiting loop modes and 2) shift problematic common-mode resonances out-of-band. A simple theoretical model based on ridged waveguides is proposed that qualitatively and quantitatively explains this novel common-mode mitigation. An infinite array operating over 3.53–21.2 GHz (6:1) is designed to achieve active VSWR < {2, 2.5, 3.8} while scanning to {broadside, 45°, 60°}, respectively, without oversampling the aperture. D-plane cross-polarization is around {−15, −10} dB for {45°, 60°} scans with high efficiency, i.e., 0.5 dB co-polarized gain loss on average. A dual-polarized prototype 256-port (128 elements per polarization) array is fabricated and measured having good agreement with full-wave finite array simulations.
Autors: John T. Logan;Rick W. Kindt;Michael Y. Lee;Marinos N. Vouvakis;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 692 - 701
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New CNN-Based Method for Multi-Directional Car License Plate Detection
Abstract:
This paper presents a novel convolutional neural network (CNN) -based method for high-accuracy real-time car license plate detection. Many contemporary methods for car license plate detection are reasonably effective under the specific conditions or strong assumptions only. However, they exhibit poor performance when the assessed car license plate images have a degree of rotation, as a result of manual capture by traffic police or deviation of the camera. Therefore, we propose the a CNN-based MD-YOLO framework for multi-directional car license plate detection. Using accurate rotation angle prediction and a fast intersection-over-union evaluation strategy, our proposed method can elegantly manage rotational problems in real-time scenarios. A series of experiments have been carried out to establish that the proposed method outperforms over other existing state-of-the-art methods in terms of better accuracy and lower computational cost.
Autors: Lele Xie;Tasweer Ahmad;Lianwen Jin;Yuliang Liu;Sheng Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 19, issue:2, pages: 507 - 517
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New Construction and an Efficient Decoding Method for Rabin-Like Codes
Abstract:
Array codes have been widely used in communication and storage systems. To reduce computational complexity, one important property of the array codes is that only exclusive OR operations are used in the encoding and decoding processes. Cauchy Reed–Solomon codes, Rabin-like codes, and circulant Cauchy codes are existing Cauchy maximum-distance separable (MDS) array codes that employ Cauchy matrices over finite fields, circular permutation matrices, and circulant Cauchy matrices, respectively. All these codes can correct any number of failures; however, a critical drawback of existing codes is the high decoding complexity. In this paper, we propose a new construction of Rabin-like codes based on a quotient ring with a cyclic structure. The newly constructed Rabin-like codes have more supported parameters (prime is extended to an odd number), such that the world sizes of them are more flexible than the existing Cauchy MDS array codes. An efficient decoding method using LU factorization of the Cauchy matrix can be applied to the newly constructed Rabin-like codes. It is shown that the decoding complexity of the proposed approach is less than that of existing Cauchy MDS array codes. Hence, the Rabin-like codes based on the new construction are attractive to distributed storage systems.
Autors: Hanxu Hou;Yunghsiang S. Han;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Communications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 521 - 533
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New Fault Classifier in Transmission Lines Using Intrinsic Time Decomposition
Abstract:
As nonstationarity exists in fault signals of transmission lines, their classification and quantification remain a challenging issue. This paper presents a new scheme for feature extraction in an attempt to achieve high fault classification accuracy. The proposed scheme consists of three steps: first, the proper rotation components (PRCs) matrix of current signals captured from one end of the protected line is constructed using the intrinsic time decomposition, a fast time-domain signal processing tool with no need for sensitive tuning parameters. Second, the singular value decomposition and nonnegative matrix factorization are employed to decompose the PRCs into its significant components. Finally, eight new normalized features extracted from the output of the data processing techniques are fed into the probabilistic neural network classifier. The data processing techniques employed for classification substantially improve the overall quality of the input patterns classified and increase the generalization capability of the trained classifiers. The proposed scheme is evaluated through two simulated sample systems in the PSCAD/EMTDC software and field fault data. Moreover, the effects of the current transformer saturation, decaying dc component, and noisy conditions are evaluated. The comparison results and discussion regarding the different aspects of the problem confirm the efficacy of the proposed scheme.
Autors: Mohammad Pazoki;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 14, issue:2, pages: 619 - 628
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New Inversion Method Based on Distorted Born Iterative Method for Grounded Electrical Source Airborne Transient Electromagnetics
Abstract:
A new iterative inversion algorithm is proposed to reconstruct the electrical conductivity profile in a stratified underground medium for the grounded electrical source airborne transient electromagnetic (GREATEM) system. In forward modeling, we simplify the mathematical expressions of the magnetic fields generated by a finite line source in the layered ground to semianalytical forms in order to save the computation time. The Fréchet derivative is derived for the electromagnetic response at the receivers due to a small perturbation of the conductivity in a certain layer underground. The initial expression of the Fréchet derivative has an expensive triple integral and contains the Bessel function in the integrand. It is simplified by partially eliminating the integration along the source line and deriving the analytical expression for the integration in the vertical direction inside the perturbed layer. In the inverse solution, we use the distorted Born iterative method (DBIM). This is the first time that the DBIM is applied to data measured by the GREATEM system. Besides, the forward and inverse procedures are carried out in the frequency domain and based on the Fréchet derivative of a line source. We demonstrate the validity of our forward model, Fréchet derivative, inverse model, and the precision as well as robustness of the inversion algorithm through numerical computation and comparisons. Finally, we apply the inversion algorithm to the measured data and compare the retrieved conductivity to the actual drilling data.
Autors: Bingyang Liang;Chen Qiu;Feng Han;Chunhui Zhu;Na Liu;Hai Liu;Fubo Liu;Guangyou Fang;Qing Huo Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 56, issue:2, pages: 877 - 887
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New Link Adaptation Method to Mitigate SINR Mismatch in Ultra-Dense Small Cell LTE Networks
Abstract:
In this paper, we consider a new interference problem caused by idle small cells, which have no associated user equipment in ultra-dense small cell long-term evolution (LTE) networks. Specifically, we investigate the effect of idle small cells on the signal to interference and noise ratio (SINR) of the cell-specific reference signal (CRS) and the data signals. We confirm that CRS interference from idle small cells produces uneven interference pattern across CRS and data signals and eventually causes an SINR mismatch between CRS and data signals as well as between data signals with and without CRS symbols. In addition, these phenomena become severe with cell densification. In order to solve this mismatch problem, we propose a simple link adaptation framework, which utilizes clustered CRS assignment and hybrid SINR measurement. The numerical results show that the proposed method improves the average sum throughput compared with the conventional approaches. Overall, this paper sheds new light on investigating and coping with the interference problem coming from idle small cells in future ultra-dense small cell LTE networks.
Autors: Yosub Park;Jihaeng Heo;Wonsuk Chung;Sungwoo Weon;Sooyong Choi;Daesik Hong;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 1109 - 1122
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New Microfabrication Method for Ion-Trap Chips That Reduces Exposure of Dielectric Surfaces to Trapped Ions
Abstract:
Accumulated electrostatic charges on the dielectric surfaces of ion traps are known to induce stray fields, leading to ion micromotions. In typical microfabricated ion-trap chips, metal electrodes are electrically isolated using thick dielectric pillars, which can accumulate stray charges on their sidewalls. This letter presents a new microfabrication method for ion-trap chips that reduces the exposure of dielectric surfaces to trapped ions. The dielectric pillars are fabricated with large T-shaped overhangs, and the sidewalls and top surfaces are coated with AlCu (1%) films. The bottom sides of the overhang parts provide electrical isolation. To prevent oxidation of the AlCu (1%) films, the electrode surfaces are coated with an additional Au film. The fabricated chips were implemented to trap 174Yb+ ions, and the laser-induced stray fields were measured. The results indicated that the trap chip fabricated by the newly developed method generates significantly smaller stray fields as compared with previous chips. [2017-0233]
Autors: Seokjun Hong;Yeongdae Kwon;Changhyun Jung;Minjae Lee;Taehyun Kim;Dong-il Dan Cho;
Appeared in: Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 27, issue:1, pages: 28 - 30
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New Paradigm in High-Speed and High-Efficiency Silicon Photodiodes for Communication—Part I: Enhancing Photon–Material Interactions via Low-Dimensional Structures
Abstract:
Photodetectors (PDs) used in communication systems require ultrafast response, high efficiency, and low noise. PDs with such characteristics are increasingly in demand for data centers, metro data links, and long-haul optical networks. In a surface-illuminated PD, high speed and high efficiency are often a tradeoff, since a high-speed device needs a thin absorption layer to reduce the carrier transit time, whereas a high-efficiency device needs a thick absorption layer to compensate for the low absorption coefficient of some semiconductors such as Si and Germanium (Ge) or SiGe alloys at wavelengths near the bandgap. In this part of this review, we present the recent efforts in enhancing the photon–material interactions by using low-dimensional structures that can control light for more interaction with the photoabsorbing materials, slow down the propagation group velocity and reduce surface reflection. We present recent demonstrations of high-speed PDs based on nanostructures enabled by both synthetic bottom-up or transformative top-down processing methods. In particular, we detail a CMOS-compatible ultrafast surface-illuminated Si PD with 30-ps full-width at half-maximum, and >50% efficiency at 850 nm. A complementary discussion on device challenges and the integration of low-dimensional structures will be presented in the part II of this review.
Autors: Hilal Cansizoglu;Ekaterina Ponizovskaya Devine;Yang Gao;Soroush Ghandiparsi;Toshishige Yamada;Aly F. Elrefaie;Shih-Yuan Wang;M. Saif Islam;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 372 - 381
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New Scroll-Type Air Motor With Magnetic Spirals
Abstract:
The scroll-type air motor, also named the scroll expander, has been widely used for different applications due to its characteristics of compact structure and high energy conversion efficiency. However, the leakage and the friction result in non-negligible energy losses. This paper presents the recent work on developing a new scroll-type air motor with mounted permanent magnetic spirals and investigates its potential in leakage reduction and efficiency improvement, especially at low-pressure air supply conditions. A method for the implementation of the magnetic scroll air motor is proposed. A prototype is manufactured, and initial experimental tests are conducted to study the generalized torque distribution. A mathematical model for the magnetic scroll air motor is developed, and a corresponding simulation study is presented. The study shows that the proposed magnetic scroll air motor structure is feasible in terms of manufacturing and has the potential to reduce the air leakage and, thus, to improve the energy efficiency by a maximum of around 15% at a supply pressure of Pa, with a flank leakage clearance reference of 0.06 mm.
Autors: Xing Luo;Jihong Wang;Leonid Shpanin;Mark Dooner;
Appeared in: IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 23, issue:1, pages: 459 - 468
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New ZVS Full-Bridge DC–DC Converter for Battery Charging With Reduced Losses Over Full-Load Range
Abstract:
A new zero-voltage switching full-bridge dc–dc converter for battery charging is proposed in this paper. The proposed isolated dc–dc converter is used for the dc–dc conversion stage of the electric vehicle charger. The primary switches in dc–dc converter turn-on at zero voltage over the battery-charging range with the help of passive auxiliary circuit. The diode clamping circuit on the primary side minimizes the severity of voltage spikes across the secondary rectifier diodes, which are commonly present in conventional full-bridge dc–dc converters. The main switches are controlled with an asymmetrical pulse-width modulation (APWM) technique resulting in higher efficiency. APWM reduces the current stress of the main switches and the circulating losses compared with the conventional phase-shift modulation method by controlling the auxiliary inductor current over the entire operating range of the proposed converter. The steady-state analysis of auxiliary circuit and its design considerations are discussed in detail. A 100-kHz 1.2-kW full-bridge dc–dc converter prototype is developed. The experimental results are presented to validate the analysis and efficiency of the proposed converter.
Autors: Venkata Ravi Kishore Kanamarlapudi;Benfei Wang;Nandha Kumar Kandasamy;Ping Lam So;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 571 - 579
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Non-Volatile Ternary Content-Addressable Memory Cell for Low-Power and Variation-Toleration Operation
Abstract:
A magnetic tunneling junction (MTJ)-based ternary content-addressable memory (TCAM) cell is proposed which consists of 12 transistors and two MTJs. The proposed TCAM cell does not have static power consumption during search operation and therefore ensures highly energy efficient operation. For search operation, the resistance of an MTJ in the anti-parallel state is compared with that of an MTJ in the parallel state and therefore the proposed TCAM cell shows excellent tolerance to the variations of device characteristics. The performance of the proposed TCAM cell is evaluated by simulation and compared with previously reported MTJ-based TCAM cells. The proposed TCAM cells show smaller failure rate of search operation under the same operating condition and device variations.
Autors: Dooho Cho;Kyungmin Kim;Changsik Yoo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:2, pages: 1 - 3
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Noncoherent Multiuser Large-Scale SIMO System Relying on M-Ary DPSK and BICM-ID
Abstract:
A new constellation is designed for the multiuser noncoherent large-scale single-input multiple-output uplink system based on M-ary differential phase-shift keying, which is combined with a bit interleaved coded modulation-iterative decoding scheme for attaining improved performance. We conceive a new approach for constructing EXIT charts parameterized by the number of antennas used for optimizing the design. Finally, the system performance is analyzed and compared to previous work. This evaluation shows an overall improvement of two orders of magnitude demonstrating a dramatic reduction in the required number of antennas.
Autors: Victor Monzon Baeza;Ana Garcia Armada;Wenbo Zhang;Mohammed El-Hajjar;Lajos Hanzo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 67, issue:2, pages: 1809 - 1814
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel 1.2 kV 4H-SiC Buffered-Gate (BG) MOSFET: Analysis and Experimental Results
Abstract:
A novel 1.2-kV-rated 4H-SiC buffered-gate MOSFET (BG-MOSFET) structure is proposed and experimentally demonstrated to have superior high frequency figures-of-merit (HF-FOMs) for the first time. From the measured data on devices fabricated in a 6-in foundry, the BG-MOSFET is demonstrated to have and smaller HF-FOM [], and and smaller HF-FOM [], when compared with the conventional MOSFET and split-gate MOSFET, respectively.
Autors: Kijeong Han;B. J. Baliga;Woongje Sung;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 39, issue:2, pages: 248 - 251
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Adaptive Kalman Filter With Inaccurate Process and Measurement Noise Covariance Matrices
Abstract:
In this paper, a novel variational Bayesian (VB)-based adaptive Kalman filter (VBAKF) for linear Gaussian state-space models with inaccurate process and measurement noise covariance matrices is proposed. By choosing inverse Wishart priors, the state together with the predicted error and measurement noise covariance matrices are inferred based on the VB approach. Simulation results for a target tracking example illustrate that the proposed VBAKF has better robustness to resist the uncertainties of process and measurement noise covariance matrices than existing state-of-the-art filters.
Autors: Yulong Huang;Yonggang Zhang;Zhemin Wu;Ning Li;Jonathon Chambers;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 63, issue:2, pages: 594 - 601
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Approach for Model-Based Control of Smooth and Lossless Gear Shifts
Abstract:
In contrast to conventional and classical hybrid electric transmissions, multimode (hybrid electric) transmissions open new perspectives in gear shifting: The tradeoff between avoidance of propulsion torque interruption and dissipation in clutches can be resolved by smart utilization of the second, coequal, propulsion element, and rearrangement of standard shift phases (torque phase and inertia phase). The resulting smooth and lossless gear shifts reach a new level of performance combining comfort and efficiency. Therefore, modeling and control of these gear shifts is an ongoing automotive research topic since several years. However, so far there is no systematic, model-based approach, which would enable broad application in industry. This paper contributes to bridge this gap. The key point is a systematic determination of a consistent set of generalized coordinates, corresponding to a specific gear, i.e., set of locked clutches. This is achieved by exploiting the mechanical peculiarities of drivetrain topologies. Based on this, a straightforward transformation is proposed to derive a comprehensive state-space model for each gear of a given topology. This enables the statement of the control problem for smooth and lossless gear shifting in a novel compact and general form. Finally, a new shift procedure and a generic-model-based feedforward control is proposed and applied to an exemplary multimode transmission. Promising first simulation results confirm the significance of the proposed approach for further investigation and application.
Autors: Johannes Rumetshofer;Markus Bachinger;Michael Stolz;Martin Horn;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 67, issue:2, pages: 1012 - 1026
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Approach to Identify the miRNA-mRNA Causal Regulatory Modules in Cancer
Abstract:
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an essential role in many biological processes by regulating the target genes, especially in the initiation and development of cancers. Therefore, the identification of the miRNA-mRNA regulatory modules is important for understanding the regulatory mechanisms. Most computational methods only used statistical correlations in predicting miRNA-mRNA modules, and neglected the fact there are causal relationships between miRNAs and their target genes. In this paper, we propose a novel approach called CALM (the causal regulatory modules) to identify the miRNA-mRNA regulatory modules through integrating the causal interactions and statistical correlations between the miRNAs and their target genes. Our algorithm largely consists of three steps: it first forms the causal regulatory relationships of miRNAs and genes from gene expression profiles and detects the miRNA clusters according to the GO function information of their target genes, then expands each miRNA cluster by greedy adding (discarding) the target genes to maximize the modularity score. To show the performance of our method, we apply CALM on four datasets including EMT, breast, ovarian, and thyroid cancer and validate our results. The experiment results show that our method can not only outperform the compared method, but also achieve ideal overall performance in terms of the functional enrichment.
Autors: Jiawei Luo;Wei Huang;Buwen Cao;
Appeared in: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 309 - 315
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Broadband and High-Isolation Dual-Polarized Microstrip Antenna Array Based on Quasi-Substrate Integrated Waveguide Technology
Abstract:
A dual-polarized (DP) aperture-coupled microstrip antenna array with high isolation, broadband, and low cross polarization for Ku-band is proposed based on the quasi-substrate integrated waveguide (Q-SIW) technology. The proposed microstrip antenna array is excited by two orthogonal four-way corporate (parallel) feed networks, which not only has a multistage structure with broadband but also provides pairs of differential outputs. The Q-SIW structure, composed of several reflectors and substrate integrated metal pillars, is used to increase the bandwidth, improve the isolation, and reduce the influence of feed network. The measured and simulated results show that the DP array exhibits an impedance bandwidth of 26.37% for vertical port and 27.77% for horizontal port. The cross polarization level is better than −34 dB and −40 dB for two ports, and the isolation between the two ports is above 32 dB.
Autors: Wei Wang;Jing Wang;Aimeng Liu;Yuhang Tian;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 951 - 956
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Construction of Complementary Sets With Flexible Lengths Based on Boolean Functions
Abstract:
Golay complementary sets (GCSs) have been proposed to reduce the peak-to-average power ratios (PAPRs) in orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM). They have upper bounds depending on the set sizes. The constructions of GCSs based on generalized Boolean functions have been proposed in the literature. However, most of these constructed GCSs have limited lengths, and hence they are not feasible for practical OFDM communication systems. This letter proposes a new construction of GCSs with flexible lengths. The proposed construction is a direct construction based on generalized Boolean functions. In addition, the constructed GCSs have various constellation sizes, set sizes, and upper bounds on PAPR.
Autors: Chao-Yu Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 22, issue:2, pages: 260 - 263
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel EMG Interface for Individuals With Tetraplegia to Pilot Robot Hand Grasping
Abstract:
This paper introduces a new human-machine interface for individuals with tetraplegia. We investigated the feasibility of piloting an assistive device by processing supra-lesional muscle responses online. The ability to voluntarily contract a set of selected muscles was assessed in five spinal cord-injured subjects through electromyographic (EMG) analysis. Two subjects were also asked to use the EMG interface to control palmar and lateral grasping of a robot hand. The use of different muscles and control modalities was also assessed. These preliminary results open the way to new interface solutions for high-level spinal cord-injured patients.
Autors: Wafa Tigra;Benjamin Navarro;Andrea Cherubini;X. Gorron;Anthony Gelis;Charles Fattal;David Guiraud;Christine Azevedo Coste;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 26, issue:2, pages: 291 - 298
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Illuminance Control Strategy for Roadway Lighting Based on Greenshields Macroscopic Traffic Model
Abstract:
Most street lights currently deployed have constant illumination levels or vary based on a predetermined schedule. However, with advances in lighting controls, intelligent transportation systems, and the efforts of transportation agencies at regional and national levels to better sustain and manage the transportation system by monitoring the roadway network, many different types of real-time traffic data are available; which enables the implementation of a traffic responsive outdoor light system. The International Commission on Illumination (CIE) has proposed a class-based lighting control model based on a number of roadway parameters, some of which are traffic related. However, the adaptation of the available traffic data to the existing model is not obvious. In addition, the CIE model can be improved to better reflect traffic characteristics to increase energy efficiency of the overall street lighting system. The intention of this research is to quantify the relationship between real-time traffic, and roadway lighting and to develop a control strategy based on real-time traffic data in order to reduce light energy consumption, enhance safety, and maximize throughput of the roadway. Significant energy savings were observed when the proposed control strategy was implemented in two case studies using available lighting and traffic data for Washington, DC, and Montgomery County, MD, representing urban and rural roadway networks, respectively.
Autors: Neveen Shlayan;Kiran Challapali;Dave Cavalcanti;Talmai Oliveira;Yong Yang;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 1 - 11
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Interconnected Structure of Graphene-Carbon Nanotubes for the Application of Methane Adsorption
Abstract:
In this paper, the methane adsorption properties of a new 3-D structure, graphene connected with carbon nanotubes (G-CNTs) was investigated, which has a great significance to the development of methane sensors. The junctions of the armchair graphene connected with (6, 0) and (4, 4) CNTs (arm-60 and arm-44) were selected. First, the adsorption energy on different sites was analyzed via first-principles theory to find out the best methane adsorption site. The results showed that the adsorption energy of arm-44 was a little bigger than that of arm-60. Moreover, the adsorption energy was bigger, when the adsorption site was closer to the junction. Second, the adsorption capacity of various gases (H2, O2, CO, CO2, NO2, and CH4) was compared via molecular dynamics. The methane adsorption capacity of arm-60 was found to be the biggest. As the fugacity is increased, the methane adsorption capacity increased gradually. Oppositely, the adsorption capacity was inversely proportional to the temperature. Finally, the effects of Al, P, Si, N, and B doping on methane adsorption capacity were reported. The B doping had the best power to improve the methane adsorption capacity, whereas the N and Si doping were unfavorable for the methane adsorption capacity.
Autors: Ning Yang;Daoguo Yang;Liangbiao Chen;Dongjing Liu;Miao Cai;Xuejun Fan;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 18, issue:4, pages: 1555 - 1561
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Interfacing Technique for Distributed Hybrid Simulations Combining EMT and Transient Stability Models
Abstract:
The steady increase of power electronic devices and nonlinear dynamic loads in large-scale ac/dc systems desperately requires an efficient simulation method. However, the traditional hybrid simulation, which incorporates various components into a single electromagnetic-transient (EMT) subsystem, causes great difficulty in network partitioning and significant deterioration in simulation efficiency. To resolve these issues, a distributed hybrid simulation method is proposed in this paper. The key factor leading the success of this method is a distinct interfacing technique, which includes: 1) a new approach based on the two-level Schur complement to update the interfaces by taking full consideration of the couplings between different EMT subsystems; and 2) a combined interaction protocol to further improve the efficiency while guaranteeing the simulation accuracy. The improved performances of the proposed method in terms of efficiency and accuracy have been verified by the simulation studies on the modified IEEE 39 system as well as a practical ac/dc system, both of which consist of a two-terminal voltage-source converter HVdc and nonlinear dynamic loads.
Autors: Dewu Shu;Xiaorong Xie;Qirong Jiang;Qiuhua Huang;Chunpeng Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 130 - 140
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Method for Calculating the Ring-Core Fluxgate Demagnetization Factor
Abstract:
In this paper, demagnetization factor of the ring-core fluxgate is examined. Several sensors are analyzed by calculating their demagnetization factors with three well-known formulas in addition to a finite-element method (FEM) analysis software. Calculated values are compared to the measured ones and theoretical values are shown to vary significantly. None of the studied formulas succeed in achieving an error level below 60% in all cases that 28 sensors are tested. Moreover, FEM analysis is found to provide consistent and satisfactory results in good agreement with the previously reported measurement data as well as with our measurements performed for the two sensors designed. The optimum dimension range for each formula that results in a reasonable demagnetization factor value is discussed and the stability of each formula is analyzed. Our paper points out that a new demagnetization factor formula for the ring-core is essential by taking into account the high error levels caused by the well-known formulas in the literature. Finally, we propose a novel method to calculate the factor accurately for a wide range of dimensions.
Autors: İlker Yağlıdere;Ece Olcay Güneş;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:2, pages: 1 - 11
Publisher: IEEE
 

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