Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 02-2018 sorted by title, page: 10

» Faster-Than-Nyquist Precoded CAP Modulation Visible Light Communication System Based on Nonlinear Weighted Look-Up Table Predistortion
Abstract:
In this paper, we have experimentally demonstrated faster-than-Nyquist carrierless amplitude and phase modulation quadrature phase-shift keying visible light communication system over 1.5-m free space transmission. Weighted look-up table is used to mitigate nonlinear impairment caused by amplifiers and electro-optical components. At the receiver side, recursive least square is employed to improve the decision precision. By combining these techniques, a data rate of 1.01 Gb/s is experimentally achieved with a bit error rate less than 7% forward error correction limit of . To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that weighted look-up table is proposed and used in visible light communication system.
Autors: Shangyu Liang;Zihao Jiang;Liang Qiao;Xingyu Lu;Nan Chi;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 1 - 9
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Father of Fuzzy Logic [Editor's Remarks]
Abstract:
Presents the introductory editorial for this issue of the publication.
Autors: Hisao Ishibuchi;
Appeared in: IEEE Computational Intelligence Magazine
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 13, issue:1, pages: 2 - 2
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fault Detection Filtering for Nonhomogeneous Markovian Jump Systems via a Fuzzy Approach
Abstract:
This paper investigates the problem of the fault detection filter design for nonhomogeneous Markovian jump systems by a Takagi–Sugeno fuzzy approach. Attention is focused on the construction of a fault detection filter to ensure the estimation error dynamic stochastically stable, and the prescribed performance requirement can be satisfied. The designed fuzzy model-based fault detection filter can guarantee the sensitivity of the residual signal to faults and the robustness of the external disturbances. By using the cone complementarity linearization algorithm, the existence conditions for the design of fault detection filters are provided. Meanwhile, the error between the residual signal and the fault signal is made as small as possible. Finally, a practical application is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique.
Autors: Fanbiao Li;Peng Shi;Cheng-Chew Lim;Ligang Wu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 131 - 141
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fault Diagnosis and Fault-Tolerant Control Operation of Nonisolated DC–DC Converters
Abstract:
This paper proposes a fault diagnosis and identification method for nonisolated dc–dc converters. The method can detect the fault, and identify the faulty switch and the switch fault type in less than one switching cycle. The main idea is to apply the derivative of the inductor current based on the modulation of the particular dc–dc converter to provide a predictive current emulator model. The measured inductor current and its corresponding predicted current are used to diagnose the switch fault. The method, implemented in a digital signal processor, is robust to common converter asymmetry such as load variations, input disturbances, etc. The proposed fault diagnosis method has been analyzed, tested, and validated for a boost converter.
Autors: Elham Pazouki;Yilmaz Sozer;J. Alexis De Abreu-Garcia;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 310 - 320
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fault Diagnosis for Rotating Machinery Using Multiple Sensors and Convolutional Neural Networks
Abstract:
This paper presents a convolutional neural network (CNN) based approach for fault diagnosis of rotating machinery. The proposed approach incorporates sensor fusion by taking advantage of the CNN structure to achieve higher and more robust diagnosis accuracy. Both temporal and spatial information of the raw data from multiple sensors is considered during the training process of the CNN. Representative features can be extracted automatically from the raw signals. It avoids manual feature extraction or selection, which relies heavily on prior knowledge of specific machinery and fault types. The effectiveness of the developed method is evaluated by using datasets from two types of typical rotating machinery, roller bearings, and gearboxes. Compared with traditional approaches using manual feature extraction, the results show the superior diagnosis performance of the proposed method. The present approach can be extended to fault diagnosis of other machinery with various types of sensors due to its end to end feature learning capability.
Autors: Min Xia;Teng Li;Lin Xu;Lizhi Liu;Clarence W. de Silva;
Appeared in: IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 23, issue:1, pages: 101 - 110
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fault Investigations on Die-Cast Copper Rotors
Abstract:
It has been known for a long time that replacement of aluminum by copper, which has an advantage in high conductivity, can be an economic solution for various applications including electric vehicle in the development of energy efficient motors. In comparison to aluminum, copper die-casting is difficult to perform due to its high density, viscosity, and melting point. Owing to these reasons, the copper die-cast rotors evince several manufacturing problems. The objective of this work is to identify the various defects in the manufacturing of copper die-cast rotor, and identify the lamination coating condition that sustains copper die-cast pressure and temperature. It evaluates the effectiveness of lamination coating on limiting the eddy current loss and the recoating process to improve in case the eddy current loss is in excess due to copper die-casting.
Autors: Soby T. Varghese;Bhim Singh;K. R. Rajagopal;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 184 - 194
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fault-Tolerant Control of Multiarea Power Systems via a Sliding-Mode Observer Technique
Abstract:
This paper is focused on solving the problems of fault estimation and fault-tolerant control for multiarea power systems with sensor failures. First, the estimations of the system states and fault vectors are determined using an improved sliding-mode observer technique. Moreover, a derivative gain and a proportional gain are introduced to design the resultant sliding-mode observer more freely, and a discontinuous input is given to reduce the impact of sensor faults and aggregated uncertainties. Then, based on the obtained state estimates, an integral-type sliding-mode control scheme against faults and disturbances is proposed to ensure that the resultant fault system is asymptotically stable, from which each subsystem states in the multiarea power system can be driven onto the designed sliding-mode surfaces in both the state estimation and error estimation spaces. Finally, a three-area power system is simulated to validate the feasibility of the developed fault-tolerant control scheme.
Autors: Xiaojie Su;Xinxin Liu;Yong-Duan Song;
Appeared in: IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 23, issue:1, pages: 38 - 47
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fault-Tolerant Cooperative Tracking Control via Integral Sliding Mode Control Technique
Abstract:
In this paper, we aim to deal with the cooperative tracking problem for a group of nonlinear systems with actuator faults and external disturbance/model uncertainty. The faults in the actuator are allowed to be in arbitrary forms such as actuator degradation, amplification, or even total failure. Moreover, the disturbance/model uncertainty under consideration is of Lipschitz type by assuming that the derivative of disturbance/model uncertainty is uniformly bounded. Then, provided that the actuator has sufficient healthy components when the faults happen, we employ the integral sliding mode technique to design the controller that can tolerate the actuator faults, meanwhile the external disturbance can also be rejected. The controller design is separated into two steps. First, a nominal controller is designed such that the estimated disturbance/model uncertainty from disturbance observer is completely rejected and the desired performance is guaranteed. Second, by the integral sliding mode control technique, a compensating controller is designed such that the matched estimation error of actuator faults and the external disturbance/model uncertainty can be compensated. The designed controller, formed by the sum of the nominal controller and compensating controller, finally proves to guarantee practical synchronization of nonlinear systems. Simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of our theoretical findings.
Autors: Jiahu Qin;Qichao Ma;Huijun Gao;Wei Xing Zheng;
Appeared in: IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 23, issue:1, pages: 342 - 351
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fault-Tolerant Direct Torque Control of Five-Phase FTFSCW-IPM Motor Based on Analogous Three-Phase SVPWM for Electric Vehicle Applications
Abstract:
High reliability is important in motor driving system for electric vehicle applications. In this paper, a fault-tolerant direct torque control for a five-phase fault-tolerant fractional-slot concentrated-winding interior-permanent-magnet (FTFSCW-IPM) motor under the open-circuit condition of a single phase is proposed, in which an analogous three-phase space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) control strategy is adopted. The DTC system for the five-phase PM motor based on healthy SVPWM has several advantages of improved currents and low torque and flux ripples. To achieve the fault-tolerant operation of the SVPWM-DTC system, an analogous three-phase SVPWM strategy is proposed. The proposed SVPWM fault-tolerant control scheme is achieved by the division of six sectors and the reconfiguration of six equal nonzero voltage vectors, which is quickly computed and easily realized. In addition, based on a 2-kW FTFSCW-IPM motor prototype, the good performances of the proposed fault-tolerant drive are validated by both simulations and experiments, in which the average torque and low torque ripple during fault can be maintained. Finally, the dynamic performances under healthy and fault-tolerant conditions are measured. The results show that the proposed analogous three-phase SVPWM control can offer good dynamic performance, which is comparable to the healthy SVPWM.
Autors: Li Zhang;Ying Fan;Ronghua Cui;Robert D. Lorenz;Ming Cheng;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 67, issue:2, pages: 910 - 919
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Faultprog: Testing the Accuracy of Binary-Level Software Fault Injection
Abstract:
Off-The-Shelf (OTS) software components are the cornerstone of modern systems, including safety-critical ones. However, the dependability of OTS components is uncertain due to the lack of source code, design artifacts and test cases, since only their binary code is supplied. Fault injection in components’ binary code is a solution to understand the risks posed by buggy OTS components. In this paper, we consider the problem of the accurate mutation of binary code for fault injection purposes. Fault injection emulates bugs in high-level programming constructs (assignments, expressions, function calls, ...) by mutating their translation in binary code. However, the semantic gap between the source code and its binary translation often leads to inaccurate mutations. We propose Faultprog, a systematic approach for testing the accuracy of binary mutation tools. Faultprog automatically generates synthetic programs using a stochastic grammar, and mutates both their binary code with the tool under test, and their source code as reference for comparisons. Moreover, we present a case study on a commercial binary mutation tool, where Faultprog was adopted to identify code patterns and compiler optimizations that affect its mutation accuracy.
Autors: Domenico Cotroneo;Anna Lanzaro;Roberto Natella;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 40 - 53
Publisher: IEEE
 
» FDA-MIMO Radar Range–Angle Estimation: CRLB, MSE, and Resolution Analysis
Abstract:
Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar enjoys the advantage of increased degrees-of-freedom and spatial diversity gain, but it cannot effectively resolves the targets closely spaced in the same angle cell (but different range cells). Frequency diverse array (FDA)-MIMO radar can handle this problem by exploiting its range-dependent beampattern. FDA-MIMO radar was, thus, suggested for range–angle estimation of targets. Nevertheless, it is necessary to provide theoretical performance analysis for such a relatively new radar technique. Since multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm is widely adopted in most of the FDA-MIMO literature, this paper derives the Cramér–Rao lower bound and mean square error expressions in MUSIC-based range–angle estimation algorithms for a general FDA-MIMO radar. Furthermore, the corresponding range and angle resolution thresholds in target detection and localization are also derived. Numerical results verify that the FDA-MIMO indeed outperforms conventional MIMO radar in both range–angle estimation and resolution threshold performance.
Autors: Jie Xiong;Wen-Qin Wang;Kuandong Gao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 284 - 294
Publisher: IEEE
 
» FDoF: Enhancing Channel Utilization for 802.11ac
Abstract:
Multi-user multiple input multiple output (MU-MIMO) enables a multi-antenna access point to serve multiple users simultaneously, and has been adopted as the IEEE 802.11ac standard. While several PHY-MAC designs have recently been proposed to improve the throughput performance of a MU-MIMO WLAN, they, however, usually assume that all the concurrent streams are of roughly equal length. In reality, users usually have frames with heterogeneous lengths even after aggregation, leading to different lengths of a transmission time. Hence, the concurrent transmission opportunities might not always be fully utilized when some streams finish earlier than the others in a transmission opportunity. To resolve this inefficiency, this paper presents full degree-of-freedom (FDoF), a PHY-MAC design that exploits a novel power allocation scheme to reduce the idle channel time and further leverages frame padding to better utilize the spatial multiplexing gain. Unlike traditional MIMO power allocation, which aims at maximizing the theoretical sum-rate, FDoF’s power allocation explicitly considers heterogeneous frame lengths and minimizes the channel time required to finish concurrent frames, as a result improving the effective throughput. FDoF’s padding protocol then identifies proper users to reuse the remaining idle channel time, while preventing this padding from harming all the ongoing streams. Our evaluation via large-scale trace-driven simulations demonstrates that FDoF’s improves the throughput by up to , or by on average, as compared to the conventional 802.11ac. By combining FDoF’s power allocation with frame padding, the average throughput gain can be further increased to .
Autors: Chi-Han Lin;Yi-Ting Chen;Kate Ching-Ju Lin;Wen-Tsuen Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 465 - 477
Publisher: IEEE
 
» February 1878: The first phonograph
Abstract:
WHEN THOMAS EDISON DIED IN 1931, at 84, he held nearly 1,100 patents in the United States and more than 2,300 patents worldwide. By far the most famous one was his patent for the lightbulb, but he came up neither with the idea of an evacuated glass container nor with the use of an incandescing filament. More fundamental was Edison's conception, entirely de novo, of the complete system of electricity generation, transmission, and conversion, which he put into operation first in London and in lower Manhattan in 1882.
Autors: Vaclav Smil;
Appeared in: IEEE Spectrum
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 55, issue:2, pages: 24 - 24
Publisher: IEEE
 
» FEDERAL: A Framework for Distance-Aware Privacy-Preserving Record Linkage
Abstract:
In privacy-preserving record linkage, a number of data custodians encode their records and submit them to a trusted third-party who is responsible for identifying those records that refer to the same real-world entity. In this paper, we propose FEDERAL, a novel record linkage framework that implements methods for anonymizing both string and numerical data values, which are typically present in data records. These methods rely on a strong theoretical foundation for rigorously specifying the dimensionality of the anonymization space, into which the original values are embedded, to provide accuracy and privacy guarantees under various models of privacy attacks. A key component of the applied embedding process is the threshold that is required by the distance computations, which we prove can be formally specified to guarantee accurate results. We evaluate our framework using three real-world data sets with varying characteristics. Our experimental findings show that FEDERAL offers a complete and effective solution for accurately identifying matching anonymized record pairs (with recall rates constantly above 93 percent) in large-scale privacy-preserving record linkage tasks.
Autors: Dimitrios Karapiperis;Aris Gkoulalas-Divanis;Vassilios S. Verykios;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 30, issue:2, pages: 292 - 304
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Feedforward FFT Hardware Architectures Based on Rotator Allocation
Abstract:
In this paper, we present new feedforward FFT hardware architectures based on rotator allocation. The rotator allocation approach consists in distributing the rotations of the FFT in such a way that the number of edges in the FFT that need rotators and the complexity of the rotators are reduced. Radix-2 and radix-2k feedforward architectures based on rotator allocation are presented in this paper. Experimental results show that the proposed architectures reduce the hardware cost significantly with respect to previous FFT architectures.
Autors: Mario Garrido;Shen-Jui Huang;Sau-Gee Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 581 - 592
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Femtosecond Laser Microfabricated Optofluidic Grating Refractometer
Abstract:
A novel femtosecond laser microfabricated optofluidic grating is proposed and demonstrated in this letter, which realizes the measurement of refractive index of liquid. The diffraction grating is fabricated with an epoxy-based negative photoresist (SU-8) on glass substrate by femtosecond laser-induced two-photon polymerization and bonded with a polydimethylsiloxane microchannel, for which the transmission spectrum can be modulated by changing the refractive index of the liquid flowing in the microchannel. Experimental observation on the shift of the transmission peak wavelength indicates that the sensitivity of the diffraction grating is higher for a lower-order mode or a thicker grating, i.e., blue-shifted peak wavelength with a magnitude of per refractive index unit for the second-order mode of the grating with a thickness of 3.60 .
Autors: Daiying Zhang;Liqiu Men;Qiying Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 30, issue:4, pages: 395 - 398
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Femtosecond Optical Kerr Gate With Double Gate Pulses
Abstract:
We proposed an improved femtosecond optical Kerr gate with double gate pulses (DOKG) using a femtosecond laser, in which an ultrashort switching time can be realized even when a relatively slow response optical Kerr medium of carbon disulfide was used. The results showed that when the time delay and the light intensity ratio of the two pump pulses were adjusted to be about 140 fs and 1:0.9, the switching time and the maximum transmission efficiency of the DOKG could be optimized to be about 130 fs and 37%. The DOKG is convenient to be built and offers a good choice for applications based on ultrafast optical switch.
Autors: Wenjiang Tan;Jun Ma;Yipeng Zheng;Junyi Tong;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 30, issue:3, pages: 266 - 269
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fiber In-Line Fabry-Perot Interferometer With Offset Splicing for Strain Measurement With Enhanced Sensitivity
Abstract:
We demonstrate a Fabry–Perot interferometer with inner air-cavity for ultrasensitive strain measurement. The device is fabricated by fusion splicing of two sections of etched multimode fiber with offset. By selecting the appropriate value of the offset, the strain sensitivity can be greatly increased. In the case of introducing two-dimensional offset, the strain sensitivity can be increased by more than 4.5 pm/μϵ when compared with that without offset. The device is simple in fabrication, robust in structure, economic in cost, and convenient in operation, and has high potential in many strain sensing applications.
Autors: Ye Liu;D. N. Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 1 - 8
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fiber In-Line Michelson Interferometer Based on Inclined Narrow Slit Crossing the Fiber Core
Abstract:
We demonstrate a new type of optical fiber in-line Michelson interferometer, in which an inclined narrow slit inside the single mode fiber, fabricated by femtosecond laser, plays the role of a beam splitter. The inclined narrow slit splits the incident light beam into two parts; one is introduced to the cladding-air interface and reflected back and the other is still guided in the fiber core and reflected at the fiber end. The two reflected beams recombine at the edge of inclined narrow slit and form a Michelson interferometer. Such a device is ultra-compact in size, robust in mechanical strength, and simple in fabrication, and can be used in refractive index and temperature sensing. Moreover, the device has good high temperature sustainability up to 1000 °C.
Autors: Ye Liu;D. N. Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 30, issue:3, pages: 293 - 296
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fiber Optic Measurement System for Fresnel Reflection Sensing: Calibration, Uncertainty, and Exemplary Application in Temperature-Modulated Isothermal Polymer Curing
Abstract:
Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors and Fresnel reflectometer sensors have emerged as promising tools for monitoring process state parameters during composite manufacturing. However, multifunctional fiber optic sensor systems exploiting the versatile nature of these sensors are not commercially available. In principle, most FBG measurement systems are equipped with the required hardware to measure the refractive index (RI) by interrogating Fresnel reflectometer sensors. However, the implications of using an FBG system for this purpose have not been previously studied. Therefore, we calibrated a commercial FBG measurement system in the refractive index range between 1.3 and 1.6 at 1550 nm, based on data comparison with an independent RI measurement technique, and determined the measurement uncertainty. Additionally, we investigate the suitability of the proposed Fresnel reflectometer sensor for use in temperature-modulated isothermal epoxy curing experiments for detecting the glass transition by exploiting a concept that resembles temperature modulated optical refractometry. This paper describes in detail the calibration routine, the determination of the measurement uncertainty, and the application of Fresnel reflectometer sensors for glass transition detection during isothermal curing. We observed an offset between the measured RI and the theoretical value in the range of . The measurement system uncertainty was found to be of the order of . That is comparable to the accuracy of most commercial refractometers. Furthermore, we showed that Fresnel reflectometer sensors are suitable for glass transition detection during isothermal curing. The results show that commercial FBG measurement systems are viable options for multifunctionality sensing in online process monitoring applications.
Autors: Jonathan Oelhafen;Tobias Mayr;Felix Dorner;Konstantinos Moutzouris;Johannes Roths;Klaus Drechsler;
Appeared in: Journal of Lightwave Technology
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 36, issue:4, pages: 939 - 945
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fiber-Optic Biosensor to Detect pH and Glucose
Abstract:
In this paper, we propose fast, highly sensitive, and wide-dynamic-range fiber-optic probe-type biosensors to detect pH and glucose. The operation principle of the proposed biosensors is based on the Fabry–Perot interferometry technique. Three pH-sensitive dyes (methyl orange, methyl red, and thymol blue) and three solvatochromic dyes (Nile red, rhodamine-B, and 4-amino-N-methylphthalimide) were individually mixed with polymers to obtain five pH- and three glucose-sensitive sensing membranes. These membranes were subsequently deposited on eight gold nanoparticles coated on fiber-optic probes to obtain five pH and three glucose fiber-optic probe sensors. To ascertain the effectiveness of the sensors, various concentrations of pH buffer solutions and glucose solutions were tested. The proposed fiber-optic pH and glucose probe sensors showed sensitivities of 1.95 nm/pH and 3.25 nm/mM, respectively, with high-sensing stability with the relative standard deviation about 2.5%. The proposed sensors offer a linear sensing ability over wide ranges of pH (2–12) and glucose (–1 M) with an R2 value of approximately 0.996. The response and recovery times of the proposed sensors were approximately 8 and 9 s, respectively. Finally in this paper, we compared the performance of the proposed fiber-optic probe sensors with that of other pH and glucose sensors and determined that the proposed sensors achieve better sensing performance.
Autors: Md. Rajibur Rahaman Khan;Apurva Vinodrao Watekar;Shin-Won Kang;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 18, issue:4, pages: 1528 - 1538
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fibre-Optic Sagnac Interferometer in a FOG Minimum Configuration as Instrumental Challenge for Rotational Seismology
Abstract:
Rotational seismology caused high interest in the investigation on rotational movements generated by earthquakes, mines, and existing in engineering structures. The most oppressive aspects of the research in this field are technical requirements for sensors. They have to be extremely sensitive, as well as possess an extremely wide dynamic range of operation from 0.01 to 100 Hz. This paper points out that solutions basing on the optical technology are the most promising devices in comparison to existing mechanical and electromechanical ones. Especially, instruments basing on the von Laue–Sagnac effect seem to be the most appropriate to investigate rotational phenomena due to the fact that they are entirely insensitive to a translational motion, operate without inertia mass, and are able to measure rotation rate in wide frequency and amplitude band. The paper presents a new device named FOSREM that, based on the FOG minimum configuration, possesses special solutions that makes it perfect, in our knowledge, for any rotation sensing. It enables to measure only a rotational component in a wide range of signal amplitude of 2·10–8–10 rad/s, as well as in a wide frequency band from DC to 328.12 Hz. The presented performance characteristics, as well as a laboratory investigation, confirm FOSREM's opportunity to measure rotation both in seismological observatories and engineering constructions.
Autors: Anna Kurzych;Leszek R. Jaroszewicz;Zbigniew Krajewski;Bartosz Sakowicz;Jerzy K. Kowalski;Paweł Marć;
Appeared in: Journal of Lightwave Technology
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 36, issue:4, pages: 879 - 884
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fifth-Order T-Type Passive Resonant Tanks Tailored for Constant Current Resonant Converters
Abstract:
Fifth-order T-type resonant converter (RC) topologies for constant current applications are introduced in this paper. Immittance property in passive resonant tanks (PRTs) of the RCs is the key feature for realizing this purpose. In comparison with the lower order PRTs, the fifth-order topologies have more inherent current robustness against load variation, less sensitivity to the parameters variation and current gain tuning ability. At first, resonant networks qualifying the PRT conditions are specified with their topological superiorities description. Without loss of generality, 28 immittance PRTs (IPRTs) are detected as possible candidates that can be used as a voltage source to current source converter. In addition, their immittance operating conditions are analyzed mathematically. For prototyping, a topology has been selected and designed using a method based on minimization of the IPRT elements size. Moreover, closed-form expressions of the output current and voltage/current stresses on the reactive elements are derived and verified for selecting the elements value. The designed prototype is a 150-W constant current RC with tight load regulation ability. Experimental results show that the ZVS operation with low reactive power on the switches as well as minimum losses on the rectifier diodes are achieved in a wide range of load variations.
Autors: Alireza Khoshsaadat;Javad Shokrollahi Moghani;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 842 - 853
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Filter Bank Regularized Common Spatial Pattern Ensemble for Small Sample Motor Imagery Classification
Abstract:
For the last few years, many feature extraction methods have been proposed based on biological signals. Among these, the brain signals have the advantage that they can be obtained, even by people with peripheral nervous system damage. Motor imagery electroencephalograms (EEG) are inexpensive to measure, offer a high temporal resolution, and are intuitive. Therefore, these have received a significant amount of attention in various fields, including signal processing, cognitive science, and medicine. The common spatial pattern (CSP) algorithm is a useful method for feature extraction from motor imagery EEG. However, performance degradation occurs in a small-sample setting (SSS), because the CSP depends on sample-based covariance. Since the active frequency range is different for each subject, it is also inconvenient to set the frequency range to be different every time. In this paper, we propose the feature extraction method based on a filter bank to solve these problems. The proposed method consists of five steps. First, motor imagery EEG is divided by a using filter bank. Second, the regularized CSP (R-CSP) is applied to the divided EEG. Third, we select the features according to mutual information based on the individual feature algorithm. Fourth, parameter sets are selected for the ensemble. Finally, we classify using ensemble based on features. The brain–computer interface competition III data set IVa is used to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. The proposed method improves the mean classification accuracy by 12.34%, 11.57%, 9%, 4.95%, and 4.47% compared with CSP, SR-CSP, R-CSP, filter bank CSP (FBCSP), and SR-FBCSP. Compared with the filter bank R-CSP (, ), which is a parame- er selection version of the proposed method, the classification accuracy is improved by 3.49%. In particular, the proposed method shows a large improvement in performance in the SSS.
Autors: Sang-Hoon Park;David Lee;Sang-Goog Lee;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 26, issue:2, pages: 498 - 505
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Filter Design with Adaptation to Time-Delay Parameters for Genetic Regulatory Networks
Abstract:
In existing works, the filters designed for delayed genetic regulatory networks (GRNs) contain time delay. If the time delay is unknown, the filters do not work in practical applications. In order to overcome the shortcoming in such existing works, this paper studies the filter design problem of GRNs with unknown constant time delay, and a novel adaptive filter is introduced, in which all unknown network parameters and the unknown time delay can be estimated online. By Lyapunove approach, it is shown that the estimating errors asymptotically converge to the origin. Finally, simulation results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the new method proposed in this paper.
Autors: Hongmei Jiao;Michael Shi;Qikun Shen;Junwu Zhu;Peng Shi;
Appeared in: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 323 - 329
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fine-Grained Object Recognition and Zero-Shot Learning in Remote Sensing Imagery
Abstract:
Fine-grained object recognition that aims to identify the type of an object among a large number of subcategories is an emerging application with the increasing resolution that exposes new details in image data. Traditional fully supervised algorithms fail to handle this problem where there is low between-class variance and high within-class variance for the classes of interest with small sample sizes. We study an even more extreme scenario named zero-shot learning (ZSL) in which no training example exists for some of the classes. ZSL aims to build a recognition model for new unseen categories by relating them to seen classes that were previously learned. We establish this relation by learning a compatibility function between image features extracted via a convolutional neural network and auxiliary information that describes the semantics of the classes of interest by using training samples from the seen classes. Then, we show how knowledge transfer can be performed for the unseen classes by maximizing this function during inference. We introduce a new data set that contains 40 different types of street trees in 1-ft spatial resolution aerial data, and evaluate the performance of this model with manually annotated attributes, a natural language model, and a scientific taxonomy as auxiliary information. The experiments show that the proposed model achieves 14.3% recognition accuracy for the classes with no training examples, which is significantly better than a random guess accuracy of 6.3% for 16 test classes, and three other ZSL algorithms.
Autors: Gencer Sumbul;Ramazan Gokberk Cinbis;Selim Aksoy;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 56, issue:2, pages: 770 - 779
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fine-Grained Scheduling in Cloud Gaming on Heterogeneous CPU-GPU Clusters
Abstract:
Cloud gaming is a promising approach to provide high-quality gaming services to mobile devices. However, existing cloud gaming systems fail to fully exploit hardware resources due to coarse-grained resource scheduling based on virtual machine migration. In this article, we propose a novel cloud gaming design, referred to as FGCG, with fine-grained scheduling to maximize resource utilization on a heterogeneous CPU-GPU cluster. Specifically, we decompose game workloads into small and independent render tasks that can be freely dispatched to different machines. Trace-driven simulation results show that FGCG can significantly improve resource utilization compared to existing cloud gaming systems.
Autors: Wei Zhang;Xiaofei Liao;Peng Li;Hai Jin;Li Lin;Bing Bing Zhou;
Appeared in: IEEE Network
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 32, issue:1, pages: 172 - 178
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Finite Size Effects in Highly Scaled Ruthenium Interconnects
Abstract:
Ru has been considered a candidate to replace Cu-based interconnects in VLSI circuits. Here, a methodology is proposed to predict the resistivity of (Ru) interconnects. First, the dependence of the Ru thin film resistivity on the film thickness is modeled by the semiclassical Mayadas-Shatzkes (MS) approach. The fitting parameters thus obtained are then used as input in a modified MS model for nanowires to calculate wire resistivities. Predicted experimental resistivities agreed within about 10%. The results further indicate that grain boundary scattering was the dominant scattering mechanism in scaled Ru interconnects.
Autors: Shibesh Dutta;Kristof Moors;Michiel Vandemaele;Christoph Adelmann;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 39, issue:2, pages: 268 - 271
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Finite-Difference Relaxation for Parallel Computation of Ionized Field of HVDC Lines
Abstract:
Ionized field calculations for high-voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission line is a computationally demanding problem, which can benefit from the application of massively parallel high-performance compute architectures. The finite element method (FEM) commonly employed to solve this problem is both memory and execution time intensive. In this paper, a finite-difference relaxation (FDR) method is proposed to solve a unipolar and a bipolar ionized field problem in an HVDC line. The novel FDR method has several advantages over FEM. First, the scheme is suitable for massively parallel computation and runs much faster: Compared with the commercial FEM software Comsol Multiphysics, the speed-up is more than 14 times in CPU parallelization and 35 times in graphics processor parallel implementation, while providing high accuracy. Moreover, the set of equations in FDR need not be assembled; instead, it is solved by a relaxation scheme and requires much less memory than FEM. Additionally, differentiated grid size with interpolation techniques is proposed to improve the flexibility of FDR for problem domain containing irregular geometries or disproportional sizes.
Autors: Peng Liu;Venkata Dinavahi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 119 - 129
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Finite-State Markov Channel Based Modeling of RF Energy Harvesting Systems
Abstract:
Energy scarcity is an important problem in wireless communication networks. Radio frequency energy harvesting (RFEH) is a promising solution as an alternative energy source for low-power wireless nodes. In this paper, we target to obtain a finite-state Markov channel based Markov model of an RFEH wireless node powered with a finite capacity rechargeable battery. With this model, we combine the power model of the incoming radio frequency (RF) signal, the energy and traffic models of the node in a single Markov model. The range of the harvested energy is partitioned with the proposed method. The obtained steady-state distributions are applied to the Markov chain, which provides an energy model of the node including the impact of wireless channel. Based on the obtained fundamental RFEH model, energy harvesting models are extended to different scenarios by taking probabilistic structures of RF signal arrival and energy consumption event arrival processes into account. With the proposed methodology, RFEH communications systems can be realistically modeled and analyzed. Numerical studies show the effects of parameters on the performance of RFEH systems, and verify the developed models.
Autors: Dogay Altinel;Gunes Karabulut Kurt;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 67, issue:2, pages: 1713 - 1725
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fisherposes for Human Action Recognition Using Kinect Sensor Data
Abstract:
This paper proposes a new method for view-invariant action recognition that utilizes the temporal position of skeletal joints obtained by Kinect sensor. In this method, the actions are represented as sequences of several pre-defined poses. After pre-processing, which includes skeleton alignment and scaling, the appropriate feature vectors are obtained for recognizing and discriminating the pose of every frame by the proposed Fisherposes method. The proposed regularized Mahalanobis distance metric is used in order to recognize both the involuntary and highly made-up actions at the same time. Hidden Markov model (HMM) is then used to classify the action related to an input sequence of poses. For taking into account the motion in the actions which are not separable by solely their temporal poses, histograms of trajectories are also proposed. The proposed action recognition method is capable of recognizing both the voluntary and involuntary actions, as well as pose-based and trajectory-based ones with a high accuracy rate. The effectiveness of the proposed method is experimented on three publicly available data sets, TST fall detection, UTKinect, and UCFKinect data sets.
Autors: Benyamin Ghojogh;Hoda Mohammadzade;Mozhgan Mokari;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 18, issue:4, pages: 1612 - 1627
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fixed-Time Consensus Tracking for Multiagent Systems With High-Order Integrator Dynamics
Abstract:
This paper addresses the fixed-time leader–follower consensus problem for high-order integrator multiagent systems subject to matched external disturbances. A new cascade control structure, based on a fixed-time distributed observer, is developed to achieve the fixed-time consensus tracking control. A simulation example is included to show the efficacy and the performance of the proposed control structure with respect to different initial conditions.
Autors: Zongyu Zuo;Bailing Tian;Michael Defoort;Zhengtao Ding;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 63, issue:2, pages: 563 - 570
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Flat-Panel See-Through Three-Dimensional Display Based on Integral Imaging Using a Transparent Polarized Point Light Source Array
Abstract:
This study proposes a technique to implement see-through three-dimensional (3-D) display based on point light source integral imaging. This display consists of an edge-lit light guide plate, a polarizer array, and a transparent liquid crystal display (LCD) panel without rear polarizer. The combination of the light guide plate and the polarizer array act as a transparent polarized point light source array (PLSA), and reconstructs the 3-D image with the elemental image array loaded on the LCD panel. The background rays passing through the gaps in the polarized PLSA carry the object information and implement see-through property. The experimental system is constructed based on 1-D integral imaging to verify the proposed method. The see-through and superposition capabilities of the proposed method are demonstrated.
Autors: Zi Wang;Piao Dai;Guoqiang Lv;Qibin Feng;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 1 - 7
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Flexible Baseband-Unit Aggregation Enabled by Reconfigurable Multi-IF Over WDM Fronthaul
Abstract:
In cloud-radio access network, baseband-unit (BBU) aggregation schemes have been intensively discussed to improve the efficiency of resources in light traffic times. Also, driven by the emerging optical fronthaul, traffic migration is introduced in optical fronthaul to help realize BBU aggregation, based on which traffic exchange within BBU pool can be reduced, thus decreasing corresponding processing latency and energy consumption. However, these traffic migration schemes are operated in a time-division multiplexing way and are not suitable for multi-IF over wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) fronthaul. In this paper, we propose a reconfigurable multi-IF over WDM fronthaul to support BBU aggregation. Based on IF traffic migration and optical path reconfiguration, traffic of multiple cell sites can be routed to one BBU to achieve BBU aggregation. Proof-of-concept experiments are demonstrated to verify the feasibility of the proposed architecture. For 4G+ deployment as specified in 3GPP protocol, 100-MHz orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing signal with 64 quadratic-amplitude modulation format after transmission shows that 3.5% error vector magnitude can be achieved.
Autors: Haiyun Xin;Hao He;Kuo Zhang;Syed Baqar Hussain;Weisheng Hu;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 1 - 10
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Flexible Pressure Sensor With High Sensitivity and Low Hysteresis Based on a Hierarchically Microstructured Electrode
Abstract:
Flexible pressure sensors are crucial for E-skins to enable tactile sensing capabilities. However, flexible pressure sensors often exhibit high hysteretic response caused by internal and external mechanical dissipations in flexible materials. The hysteresis gives rise to reliability issues, especially in the presence of dynamic stress. In this letter, we report a flexible capacitive pressure sensor design with hierarchically microstructured electrodes to obtain both high sensitivity and low hysteresis. The sparsely spaced large pyramid microstructure improves the sensitivity, whereas the small pyramid reduces the hysteresis caused by interfacial adhesion. The optimized sensor shows excellent performances in terms of high sensitivity (~3.73 kPa−1), ultralow detection limits (0.1 Pa), significantly reduced hysteresis (~4.42%), and enhanced sensing capability for pluses, which demonstrates its potential for advanced electronic skins.
Autors: Wen Cheng;Jun Wang;Zhong Ma;Ke Yan;Yunmu Wang;Huiting Wang;Sheng Li;Yun Li;Lijia Pan;Yi Shi;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 39, issue:2, pages: 288 - 291
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Flow-Based Compromise Detection: Lessons Learned
Abstract:
Although the aggregated nature of exported flow data provides many advantages in terms of privacy and scalability, flow data may contain artifacts that impair data analysis. In this article, we investigate the differences between flow data analysis in theory and practice—that is, in lab environments and production networks.
Autors: Rick Hofstede;Aiko Pras;Anna Sperotto;Gabi Dreo Rodosek;
Appeared in: IEEE Security & Privacy
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 16, issue:1, pages: 82 - 89
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fluorescence Ratiometric Optical Broad Range pH Sensor Based on CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dots and O170 Embedded in Ethyl Cellulose Matrix
Abstract:
This paper presents a ratiometric optical broad range pH sensor that comprises an optical fiber coated at one end with CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) and Oxazine 170 perchlorate (O170) embedded in ethyl cellulose (EC) matrix. The feasibility of coating an optical fiber with the sensing film to fabricate a ratiometric fiber optic broad range pH sensor is investigated. Using an LED with a central wavelength 405 nm as an excitation light source, the CdSe/ZnS QDs shows that the fluorescence intensity at 575 nm decreases with increasing pH and O170 shows the fluorescence intensity at 655 nm increases with increasing pH. The ratio of fluorescence intensities at 575 and 655 nm has a linear relationship with pH value in the 1.6–13.2 range. The ratiometric sensing approach presented in this study has the advantage of suppressing spurious fluctuations in the intensity of the excitation source and optical transmission properties of the optical fiber.
Autors: Cheng-Shane Chu;Chih-Jen Su;
Appeared in: Journal of Lightwave Technology
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 36, issue:4, pages: 857 - 862
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Focused Ultrasound Steering for Harmonic Motion Imaging
Abstract:
Harmonic motion imaging (HMI) is a radiation-force-based ultrasound elasticity imaging technique, which is designed for both tissue relative stiffness imaging and reliable high-intensity focused ultrasound treatment monitoring. The objective of this letter is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of 2-D focused ultrasound (FUS) beam steering for HMI using a 93-element, FUS phased array. HMI with steered FUS beam was acquired in tissue-mimicking phantoms. The HMI displacement was imaged within the steering range of ±1.7 mm laterally and ±2 mm axially. Using the steered FUS beam, HMI can be used to image a larger tissue volume with higher efficiency and without requiring mechanical movement of the transducer.
Autors: Yang Han;Thomas Payen;Shutao Wang;Elisa Konofagou;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 292 - 294
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Formation of Cognitive Personal Area Networks (CPANs) Using Probabilistic Rendezvous
Abstract:
The formation of cognitive personal area networks (CPANs) requires a number of nodes to connect to a dedicated coordinator node. In this paper, we propose a probabilistic blind rendezvous protocol that allows nodes to concurrently rendezvous with the CPAN coordinator. This protocol allows nodes to arrive independently and their rendezvous times to overlap partially or fully with one another. We then develop a probabilistic model of the rendezvous process for both a single node and a group of nodes. The model shows that the rendezvous time, in both cases, exhibits hyperexponential behavior with large coefficient of skewness and, consequently, large variability, which may be approximated with a Gamma distribution. Furthermore, the mean group joining time tends to flatten and may even converge to a finite limit when the number of nodes is sufficiently high. However, the variability remains high due to a long tail of the distribution.
Autors: Md. Mizanur Rahman;Jelena Mišić;Vojislav B. Mišić;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 67, issue:2, pages: 1635 - 1648
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Forward Collision Vehicular Radar With IEEE 802.11: Feasibility Demonstration Through Measurements
Abstract:
Increasing safety and automation in transportation systems has led to the proliferation of radar and IEEE 802.11p-based dedicated short-range communication (DSRC) in vehicles. However, current implementations of vehicular radar devices are expensive, use a substantial amount of bandwidth, and are susceptible to multiple security risks. In this paper, we use the IEEE 802.11 orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing communications waveform, as found in IEEE 802.11a/g/p, to perform radar functions. In this paper, we present an approach that determines the mean-normalized channel energy from frequency-domain channel estimates and models it as a direct sinusoidal function of target range, enabling closest target range estimation. In addition, we propose an alternative to vehicular forward collision detection by extending IEEE 802.11 DSRC and WiFi technology to radar, extending the foundation of joint communications and radar frameworks. Furthermore, we perform an experimental demonstration near DSRC spectrum using IEEE 802.11 standard compliant software defined radios with potentially minimal modification through algorithm processing on frequency-domain channel estimates. The results of this paper show that our solution delivers sufficient accuracy and reliability for vehicular RADAR if we use the largest bandwidth available to IEEE 802.11p ( ). This indicates significant potential for industrial devices with joint vehicular communications and radar capabilities.
Autors: Robert C. Daniels;Enoch R. Yeh;Robert W. Heath;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 67, issue:2, pages: 1404 - 1416
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Four-Way Chained Quasi-Planar Slotted-HMSIW Power Divider
Abstract:
A four-way chained quasi-planar slotted power divider, using half-mode substrate-integrated waveguide technology, is presented in this letter. Based on the equivalent-circuit model, slotted capacitive coupling model has been achieved. In order to verify the validity of the design method, a four-way power divider operating at X-band is designed, fabricated and measured. The simulation and measured results with good agreement are presented. The measured insertion loss (in the frequency range of 9.05–9.55 GHz) is less than 1.4 dB, and the return loss is better than 17.5 dB. The measured isolations between the output ports are greater than 12 dB at the entire design band.
Autors: Kaijun Song;Song Guo;Yong Fan;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 28, issue:2, pages: 117 - 119
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fourier Collocation Approach With Mesh Refinement Method for Simulating Transit-Time Ultrasonic Flowmeters Under Multiphase Flow Conditions
Abstract:
A numerical model for transit-time ultrasonic flowmeters operating under multiphase flow conditions previously presented by us is extended by mesh refinement and grid point redistribution. The method solves modified first-order stress-velocity equations of elastodynamics with additional terms to account for the effect of the background flow. Spatial derivatives are calculated by a Fourier collocation scheme allowing the use of the fast Fourier transform, while the time integration is realized by the explicit third-order Runge–Kutta finite-difference scheme. The method is compared against analytical solutions and experimental measurements to verify the benefit of using mapped grids. Additionally, a study of clamp-on and in-line ultrasonic flowmeters operating under multiphase flow conditions is carried out.
Autors: Matej Simurda;Lars Duggen;Nils T. Basse;Benny Lassen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 244 - 257
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fourier-Based Shape Servoing: A New Feedback Method to Actively Deform Soft Objects into Desired 2-D Image Contours
Abstract:
This paper addresses the design of a vision-based method to automatically deform soft objects into desired two-dimensional shapes with robot manipulators. The method presents an innovative feedback representation of the object's shape (based on a truncated Fourier series) and effectively exploits it to guide the soft object manipulation task. A new model calibration scheme that iteratively approximates a local deformation model from vision and motion sensory feedback is derived; this estimation method allows us to manipulate objects with unknown deformation properties. Pseudocode algorithms are presented to facilitate the implementation of the controller. Numerical simulations and experiments are reported to validate this new approach.
Autors: David Navarro-Alarcon;Yun-Hui Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Robotics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 34, issue:1, pages: 272 - 279
Publisher: IEEE
 
» FOV Expansion of Bioinspired Multiband Polarimetric Imagers With Convolutional Neural Networks
Abstract:
Spectral and polarimetric contents of the light reflected from an object contain useful information on material type and surface characteristics of the object. Jointly exploiting spatial, spectral, and polarimetric information helps detect camouflage targets. Motivated by the vision mechanism of some known aquatic insects, we construct a bioinspired multiband polarimetric imaging system using a camera array, which simultaneously captures multiple images of different spectral bands and polarimetric angles. But the disparity between the fixed positions of each component camera leads to the loss of information in the boundary region and a reduction in the field of view (FOV). In order to overcome the limits, this paper presents a deep learning method for FOV expansion, incorporating the gradient prior of the image into a nine-dimensional convolutional neural network's framework to learn end-to-end mapping between the incomplete images and the FOV-expanded images. With FOV expansion, the proposed model recovers significant missing information. For the problem of insufficient training data, we construct the training dataset and propose the corresponding training methods to achieve good convergence of the network. We also provide some experimental results to validate its state-of-the-art performance of FOV expansion.
Autors: Yongqiang Zhao;Miaomiao Wang;Guang Yang;Jonathan Cheung-Wai Chan;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 1 - 14
Publisher: IEEE
 
» FPGA-Based Solutions for Analog Data Acquisition and Processing Integrated in Area Detector Using FlexRIO Technology
Abstract:
Analog data acquisition systems used for diagnostics and control of large physics experiments require high sampling rates and real-time processing functionalities. The use of field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based devices allows efficient implementation of such solutions. Currently, large scientific facilities are using middleware platforms to simplify system integration. Experimental physics and industrial control system (EPICS) is one of the most popular middleware for this purpose. Moreover, heterogeneous hardware integration in these systems is a very complex task, and different approaches attempting to standardize this integration are under development and use. One of these approaches is areaDetector (AD), which involves an open source module for EPICS that is primarily used for image acquisition applications. AD simplifies the integration of heterogeneous image acquisition systems, providing a common interface between the hardware and EPICS. The AD community has already developed support for different cameras and communication protocols as well as different processing modules, including conversion to the most commonly used image formats. AD has also been used in some analog signal acquisition systems; for example, quadEM is typically used for a photodiode-based X-ray beam, but there are no implementations based on FPGA, such as FlexRIO technology. This paper presents the integration of acquisition and processing solution in a PXIe platform using the FlexRIO technology using a model that solves the acquisition and signal processing in an FPGA and a software layer implemented in C++ with the IRIO library (open source solution for RIO devices in the Linux environment).
Autors: Ricardo Herrero;Antonio Carpeño;Sergio Esquembri;Mariano Ruiz;Eduardo Barrera;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 781 - 787
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fractal-Shaped Metamaterial Absorbers for Multireflections Mitigation in the UHF Band
Abstract:
A Minkowski fractal geometry is proposed in this letter as miniaturized absorber cell suitable for multipath phenomena mitigation within the European RFID UHF band. The proposed structure is analyzed through the combined use of an equivalent transmission line model and method-of-moments-based full-wave simulations. Very high miniaturization capabilities (about 50% with respect to standard configurations) are demonstrated for an 868 MHz absorber unit cell, characterized by an absorptivity more than 99%, a good angular stability, and a very thin substrate (≤λ0/100). The proposed configuration is appealing for designing compact absorbers useful for multipath reduction in wireless systems operating on restricted indoor environments.
Autors: Francesca Venneri;Sandra Costanzo;Giuseppe Di Massa;
Appeared in: IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 255 - 258
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fraction of Insertion of the Channel Fin as Performance Booster in Strain-Engineered p-FinFET Devices With Insulator-on-Silicon Substrate
Abstract:
The combined impact of process- and substrate-induced stress has been analytically modeled for a rectangular fin inserted into an insulator-on-silicon (IOS) substrate. Stress estimation and profiling are performed for different fractional insertion of the fin into the IOS substrate and the induced stress values are observed to saturate for ≥1/3 of the fin insertion. Therefore, a one-third of inserted Si fin is used to estimate the induced stress by following a standard FinFET process flow. Uniaxial compressive stress as high as 4.6 GPa has been obtained, and it has also been observed that the hole mobility can be enhanced to a significantly high value by judiciously choosing the gate dielectrics and fractional insertion of the fin. Thereby, the design of symmetric CMOS by using such mobility-enhanced p-FinFET is possible. Moreover, the current–voltage characteristics of such strain-engineered p-FinFETs exhibit improved drain-induced barrier lowering and subthreshold swing and ~45% enhancement of drain current.
Autors: Sulagna Chatterjee;Sanatan Chattopadhyay;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 411 - 418
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Freedom of Encryption
Abstract:
Legislation surrounding digital privacy has seen quite an upheaval in recent years. The introduction of the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) in the EU, and new resolutions within the United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) have recognized the urgency to include recommendations on the use of encryption to protect the digital identities of citizens. In this work, we meander through the main events in history which have shaped the legislative landscape that encompasses the use of encryption, paying particular attention to recent (post-Snowden) developments.
Autors: Aisling Connolly;
Appeared in: IEEE Security & Privacy
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 16, issue:1, pages: 102 - 103
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Frequency Control of Island VSC-HVDC Links Operating in Parallel With AC Interconnectors and Onsite Generation
Abstract:
The main scope of this paper is to propose a suitable frequency control scheme for high-voltage dc-links (HVDC) based on voltage source converters (VSCs), operating in island systems with on-site conventional generation and external ac interconnectors. The proposed droop-type and inertia emulator is built upon the power synchronization control (PSC) concept, where grid synchronization is achieved without the need of a dedicated synchronization unit. The dynamics of the proposed PSC-based scheme are assessed both in frequency and time domain, utilizing a realistic study-case system, which corresponds to the current planning for the interconnection of Crete to the Greek mainland system, involving ac and dc interconnectors operating in parallel with conventional local thermal units. To demonstrate the benefits offered by the proposed controller in the context of frequency response, a detailed average value model is developed for the VSC-HVDC link in MATLAB/Simulink, where severe contingencies are simulated, such as the sudden loss of the external ac interconnector or local generation, leading from mainland grid-connected to islanded operation.
Autors: Sotirios I. Nanou;Stavros A. Papathanassiou;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 447 - 454
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Frequency Domain Analysis and Optimal Design of Isolated Bidirectional Series Resonant Converter
Abstract:
This paper presents an optimal design approach for a dual-active-bridge series resonant converter (DABSRC) based on frequency domain analysis. The proposed design technique ensures efficient performance of DABSRC over a wide range of voltage gain and load variations. The operating principle of the converter is detailed to illustrate both zero voltage switching (ZVS) and zero current switching operations during bidirectional power transfer. Modeling the current-dependent power loss components as an equivalent series resistance, the converter is analyzed in frequency domain to derive amplitude and phase of the state variables accurately. Performing the power loss analysis in a normalized form, the characteristic equations for bidirectional power transfer, tank current, converter efficiency, and ZVS criteria are derived. Using these characteristics, the design of DABSRC is formulated as an efficiency optimization problem. Particle swarm optimization technique is adopted to determine the optimal tank parameters and transformer turns-ratio. Converter performance is evaluated on a 120-W lab-prototype, and peak efficiency of 95.2% and California energy commission efficiency of 92.1% are achieved. Close agreement among analytical predictions, numerical simulation, and experimental results validate the proposed design technique.
Autors: Utsab Kundu;Bhavit Pant;Supratik Sikder;Ashok Kumar;Parthasarathi Sensarma;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 356 - 366
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Frequency Noise Characterization of a 25-GHz Diode-Pumped Mode-Locked Laser With Indirect Carrier-Envelope Offset Noise Assessment
Abstract:
We present a detailed frequency noise characterization of an ultrafast diode-pumped solid-state laser operating at 25-GHz repetition rate. The laser is based on the gain material Er:Yb:glass and operates at a wavelength of 1.55 μm. Using a beating measurement with an ultralow-noise continuous-wave laser in combination with a dedicated electrical scheme, we measured the frequency noise properties of an optical mode of the 25-GHz laser, of its repetition rate and indirectly of its carrier-envelope offset (CEO) signal without detecting the CEO frequency by the standard approach of nonlinear interferometry. We observed a strong anticorrelation between the frequency noise of the indirect CEO signal and of the repetition rate in our laser, leading to optical modes with a linewidth below 300 kHz in the free-running laser (at 100-ms integration time), much narrower than the individual contributions of the carrier envelope offset and repetition rate. We explain this behavior by the presence of a fixed point located close to the optical carrier in the laser spectrum for the dominant noise source.
Autors: Pierre Brochard;Valentin Johannes Wittwer;Sławomir Bilicki;Bojan Resan;Kurt John Weingarten;Stéphane Schilt;Thomas Südmeyer;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 1 - 10
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Frequency Response Enhancement of Direct-Detection Phase-Sensitive OTDR by Using Frequency Division Multiplexing
Abstract:
The frequency division multiplexing (FDM) technique is first introduced into a direct-detection phase-sensitive OTDR to improve the distributed acoustic sensing performance by using a frequency step sweeping laser source and a dual-pulse heterodyne detection scheme. A raised-cosine-shaped pulse is used to suppress the crosstalk in the FDM technique. By using this technique, a 40-kS/s sampling rate to vibration is realized with a 10-km measurement range, which implies the tradeoff relationship between the frequency response and the measurement range is broken. In the experiment, vibrations with different frequencies are measured to validate the effectiveness of the proposed technique. A 20-kHz frequency response is achieved over a 10-km measurement distance, and the frequency response shows a good flatness with a fluctuation of 0.5 dB.
Autors: Guangyao Yang;Xinyu Fan;Qingwen Liu;Zuyuan He;
Appeared in: Journal of Lightwave Technology
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 36, issue:4, pages: 1197 - 1203
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Frequency- and Bandwidth-Tunable Bandstop Filter Containing Variable Coupling Between Transmission Line and Resonator
Abstract:
This paper presents a frequency- and bandwidth-tunable bandstop filter using substrate-integrated wave- guide (SIW) resonators. For designing such a filter, this paper also presents a tunable coupling structure between a microstrip line and an SIW resonator for obtaining the bandwidth tuning capability. The coupling structure has two coupling slots between the microstrip line and the resonator, and the phase shift between the two slots determines the overall external coupling value of the resonator. This external coupling value can be controlled by making use of a phase shifter, which in turn makes it possible to adjust the bandwidth of a bandstop filter. A thorough mathematical analysis is shown using the equivalent circuit model of the presented coupling structure, and it has been verified by measuring an SIW resonator containing the presented structure. The presented tunable coupling structure has also been applied to a design of bandstop filter that can be tuned from 2.8 to 3.4 GHz. The measured results at 3.1 GHz show that the bandwidth can be tuned from 0 (all-pass) to 96 MHz reaching the attenuation level of 44 dB.
Autors: Seong-Wook Jeong;Juseop Lee;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 943 - 953
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Frequency-Dependent Multiconductor Transmission Line Model With Collocated Voltage and Current Propagation
Abstract:
This paper reviews the classical multiconductor transmission line (MTL) equations and proposes additional constraints on these equations. A fundamental physical constraint is that the voltage and current waves must be collocated and travel together with the same propagation function. Based on this condition, the Revised Multiconductor Transmission Line (RMTL) equations are proposed. As opposed to the classical MTL equations that require complex frequency-dependent transformation matrices for their diagonalization, the RMTL equations can be diagonalized very accurately using a single real constant transformation matrix. A new Frequency-Dependent Line Model (FDLM) is proposed based on the RMTL equations. FDLM is compared with the two most accepted frequency-dependent line models in the Electromagnetic Transients Program (EMTP): The JMARTI model (fdLine) that uses a constant transformation matrix as an approximation, and the phase-coordinates Universal Line Model (ULM) that fits the frequency dependence of the transformation matrices. These time-domain models are compared with a reference frequency-domain solution for a double-circuit vertical line.
Autors: José R. Martí;Arash Tavighi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 71 - 81
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Frequency-Domain Joint Channel Estimation and Decoding for Faster-Than-Nyquist Signaling
Abstract:
Faster-than-Nyquist (FTN) signaling has attracted a lot of attentions for the fifth-generation (5G) cellular communication systems. However, low-complexity receiver design for FTN signaling becomes challenging. In this paper, we develop frequency-domain joint channel estimation and decoding methods for FTN signaling transmitting systems over frequency-selective fading channels. To deal with the colored noise inherent in FTN signaling, we propose to approximate the corresponding autocorrelation matrix by a circulant matrix, the special eigenvalue decomposition of which facilitates an efficient fast Fourier transform operation and decoupling the noise in frequency domain. Through a specific partition of the received symbols, many independent estimates are obtained and combined to further improve the accuracy of the channel estimation and data detection. Moreover, instead of assuming the data symbols to be Gaussian random variables, a generalized approximated message passing-based equalization is developed and embedded in the turbo iterations between the channel estimation and the soft-in soft-out decoder. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the cyclic prefix-based and overlap-based frequency-domain equalization methods. With the proposed algorithms, FTN signaling reaches up to 67% higher transmission rate compared to the Nyquist counterpart without substantially consuming more transmitter energy per bit, and the overall complexities grow logarithmically with the length of the observations.
Autors: Qiaolin Shi;Nan Wu;Xiaoli Ma;Hua Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Communications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 781 - 795
Publisher: IEEE
 
» From Cell to Tissue Properties—Modeling Skin Electroporation With Pore and Local Transport Region Formation
Abstract:
Current models of tissue electroporation either describe tissue with its bulk properties or include cell level properties, but model only a few cells of simple shapes in low-volume fractions or are in two dimensions. We constructed a three-dimensional model of realistically shaped cells in realistic volume fractions. By using a ‘unit cell’ model, the equivalent dielectric properties of whole tissue could be calculated. We calculated the dielectric properties of electroporated skin. We modeled electroporation of single cells by pore formation on keratinocytes and on the papillary dermis which gave dielectric properties of the electroporated epidermis and papillary dermis. During skin electroporation, local transport regions are formed in the stratum corneum. We modeled local transport regions and increase in their radii or density which affected the dielectric properties of the stratum corneum. The final model of skin electroporation accurately describes measured electric current and voltage drop on the skin during electroporation with long low-voltage pulses. The model also accurately describes voltage drop on the skin during electroporation with short high-voltage pulses. However, our results indicate that during application of short high-voltage pulses additional processes may occur which increase the electric current. Our model connects the processes occurring at the level of cell membranes (pore formation), at the level of a skin layer (formation of local transport region in the stratum corneum) with the tissue (skin layers) and even level of organs (skin). Using a similar approach, electroporation of any tissue can be modeled, if the morphology of the tissue is known.
Autors: Janja Dermol-Černe;Damijan Miklavčič;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 458 - 468
Publisher: IEEE
 
» From Microscopic to Macroscopic Description of Composite Thin Panels: A Road Map for Their Simulation in Time Domain
Abstract:
In this paper, we show a simulation strategy for composite dispersive thin-panels, starting from their microscopic characteristics and ending into a time-domain macroscopic model. In a first part, we revisit different semianalytic methods that may be used to obtain the S-parameter matrices. The validity of them is assessed with numerical simulations and experimental data. We also include some formulas that may be used to tailor the shielding effectiveness of panels in a design phase. In a second part, we present an extension to dispersive media of a subgridding hybrid implicit–explicit algorithm finite difference time domain (FDTD) devised by the authors to deal with that kind of materials. The method, here presented and applied to the FDTD method, is a robustly stable alternative to classical impedance boundary condition techniques. For this, a previous analytical procedure allowing to extract an equivalent effective media from S-parameters is presented, thus making this road map able to simulate any kind of dispersive thin layer. A numerical validation of the algorithm is finally shown by comparing with experimental data.
Autors: Luis Diaz Angulo;Miguel Ruiz Cabello;Jesus Alvarez;Amelia Rubio Bretones;Salvador G. García;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 660 - 668
Publisher: IEEE
 
» From Software-Defined to Human-Defined Networking: Challenges and Opportunities
Abstract:
The SDN paradigm is still in an early stage of development. Considering full automatization and effortless management as the main objective of these networks, we believe diverse challenges need to be tackled. For this purpose, this article reviews the SDN architecture from top to bottom, paying attention to components yet under standardization or that demand enhancement from a network operator's perspective. The main conclusion is that the SDN area requires a significant amount of research to reach its full potential, which we consider a huge opportunity to innovate toward a truly human-defined networking.
Autors: Elisa Rojas;
Appeared in: IEEE Network
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 32, issue:1, pages: 179 - 185
Publisher: IEEE
 
» From the Editor-in-Chief
Abstract:
Autors: M. Rice;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 1 - 1
Publisher: IEEE
 
» From the editors' desk
Abstract:
Presents the introductory editorial for this issue of the publication.
Autors: Robert Fleming;
Appeared in: IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 34, issue:1, pages: 5 - 6
Publisher: IEEE
 
» From Voice of Evidence to Redirections
Abstract:
The Voice of Experience department is being relaunched as Redirections, which will focus on the surprises in software engineering.
Autors: Rafael Prikladnicki;Tim Menzies;
Appeared in: IEEE Software
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 35, issue:1, pages: 11 - 13
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Full Vehicle Combinatory Efficient Damping Controller: Experimental Implementation
Abstract:
This paper presents an experimental validation of a new control design for semi- active suspension systems, referred to as Combinatory quasi-Optimum Damping (COD) controller. This strategy is entirely based on vehicle measurements, is multiobjective, of low computational load, and can be implemented in real time. The validation was performed on a scaled vehicle 1:5, fully instrumented and equipped with Electro-Rheological dampers. First, a frequency-domain analysis is provided from a chirp road. Then, a five bumps test is considered for time-domain validation. Compared with passive suspensions, sky-hook, and ground-hook controls, the given results prove that the COD controller allows an almost optimum distribution between comfort and road holding.
Autors: Juan C. Tudon-Martinez;Carlos A. Vivas-Lopez;Diana Hernandez-Alcantara;Ruben Morales-Menendez;Olivier Sename;Ricardo A. Ramirez-Mendoza;
Appeared in: IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 23, issue:1, pages: 377 - 388
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Full Wavefield Analysis and Damage Imaging Through Compressive Sensing in Lamb Wave Inspections
Abstract:
One of the main challenges faced by the structural health monitoring community is acquiring and processing huge sets of acoustic wavefield data collected from sensors, such as scanning laser Doppler vibrometers or ultrasonic scanners. In fact, extracting information that allows the estimation of the damage condition of a structure can be a time-consuming process. This paper presents a damage detection and localization technique based on a compressive sensing algorithm, which significantly allows us to reduce the acquisition time without losing in detection accuracy. The proposed technique exploits the sparsity of the wavefield in different representation domains, such as those spanned by wave atoms, curvelets, and Fourier exponentials to recover the full wavefield and, at the same time, to infer the damage location, based on comparison between the wavefield reconstructions produced by the different representation domains. The procedure is applied to three different setups related to an aluminum plate with a notch, a glass fiber reinforced polymer plate with a notch, and a composite plate with a delamination. The results show that the technique can be applied in a variety of structural components to reduce acquisition time and achieve high performance in defect detection and localization by removing up to 80% of the Nyquist sampling grid.
Autors: Yasamin Keshmiri Esfandabadi;Luca De Marchi;Nicola Testoni;Alessandro Marzani;Guido Masetti;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 269 - 280
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Full-Duplex Cognitive Radio With Asynchronous Energy-Efficient Sensing
Abstract:
Using a novel embedded Markov chain, we model and analyze a cognitive radio performing full-duplex spectrum sensing which is being carried out imperfectly—i.e., with errors—and asynchronously with primary traffic, from the perspective of energy efficiency. The effect of sensing frequency, which is varied by inserting sleeping periods between sensing processes is investigated, with focus on: 1) the energy efficiency of the device measured in terms of the number of successful transmissions under a limited battery budget; 2) the average throughput; and 3) the collision with the primary’s traffic. We show analytically that, given false-alarm and mis-detection probabilities, the device’s operation in lower-than-maximum sensing frequency may be more energy-efficient than that in maximum-frequency sensing case, while the radio is neither suffering throughput degradation nor disturbing the primary traffic seriously. We validate the deployment of such full-duplex cognitive radio (FDCR) along with the proposed sensing scheme for low-power short-range applications like wireless machine-to-machine communications and sensor networks, where the share of sensing power is comparable to that of transmission power. The merits of the proposed FDCR scheme are demonstrated through comparisons with a half-duplex cognitive radio scheme under different operating conditions and full-duplex self-interference cancellation factors.
Autors: Ali Bayat;Sonia Aïssa;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 1066 - 1080
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Full-Reference Objective Quality Assessment of Tone-Mapped Images
Abstract:
In this paper we present a novel method for full-reference image quality assessment (IQA) of tone-mapped images displayed on standard low dynamic range (LDR) displays. Due to the dynamic range compression caused by the tone-mapping process a mixture of several artifacts and distortions may be produced in the tone-mapped images. This makes the quality assessment of the tone-mapped images very challenging. Due to the diversity of such artifacts and distortions we propose a “bag of features” (BOF) approach to tackle this problem. Specifically in the proposed method a number of different perceptually relevant quality-related features are first extracted from a given tone-mapped image and its reference HDR image. These features are designed such that they capture different aspects and attributes of the tone-mapped image such as its structural fidelity naturalness and overall brightness. A support vector regressor is then trained based on the extracted features and it is used for measuring the visual quality of a tone-mapped image. Our experimental results indicate that the proposed method achieves high accuracy as compared to several existing methods.
Autors: Hadi Hadizadeh;Ivan V. Bajić;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Multimedia
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 20, issue:2, pages: 392 - 404
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fully Distributed Hierarchical Control of Parallel Grid-Supporting Inverters in Islanded AC Microgrids
Abstract:
In this paper, a fully distributed hierarchical control strategy is proposed for operating networked grid-supporting inverters (GSIs) in islanded ac microgrids (MGs). The primary control level implements frequency and voltage control of an ac MG through a cascaded structure, consisting of a droop control loop, a virtual impedance control loop, a mixed -based voltage control loop, and a sliding-mode-control-based current loop. Compared to conventional proportional-plus-integral-based cascaded control, the proposed cascaded control does not require a precise model for the GSI system. The proposed secondary control level implements distributed-consensus-based economic automatic generation control and distributed automatic voltage control, which integrates the conventional secondary control and tertiary control into a single control level by bridging a gap between traditional secondary control and tertiary control. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed hierarchical control strategy.
Autors: Zhongwen Li;Chuanzhi Zang;Peng Zeng;Haibin Yu;Shuhui Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 14, issue:2, pages: 679 - 690
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fully Polarimetric Bistatic Radar Calibration With Modified Dihedral Objects
Abstract:
We introduce the design of dihedral reflectors that are used to calibrate an instrumented, dual-linearly polarized, wide-bistatic compact radar range operating at 160 GHz. The polarization scattering matrix of this bistatic calibration object may be tailored to rotate the incident linear polarization state to a slant polarization state in a fashion that is similar to the 90° dihedral that is used for calibrating monostatic polarimeters. The bistatic calibration object that we describe here is capable of introducing this polarization rotation while simultaneously steering the mainlobe of its specular reflection to the receiver. As we demonstrate, this characteristic of the mainlobe-steered dihedral (MSD) object can be achieved over a wide range of bistatic angles. The MSD object possesses a variety of desirable qualities for the calibration of bistatic polarimeters, but they are particularly useful for those systems that do not possess the capability to rotate their feed arrangement (e.g., millimeter-/ submillimeter-wave waveguide-based systems). Through both computational and experimental results, we demonstrate the capability of the MSD object to calibrate and characterize the accuracy (better than 0.5 dB) and polarization purity (~50 dB) of a 160 GHz dual-linearly polarized, bistatic compact radar range at 15°, 45°, and 75° bistatic angles.
Autors: C. Beaudoin;T. Horgan;G. Demartinis;M. J. Coulombe;A. J. Gatesman;W. E. Nixon;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 937 - 950
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Functionalized Long Period Grating—Plasmonic Fiber Sensor Applied to the Detection of Glyphosate in Water
Abstract:
Selectivity was added to a refractometric fiber sensor based on a long-period grating coated with a film of gold nanoparticles by the functionalization with cysteamine. The sensor was applied to the detection of glyphosate in water. Sensor operation is based on the reaction between glyphosate molecules and cysteamine that modifies the effective refractive index of the long-period grating cladding modes. In the presence of water containing glyphosate, spectral changes occur in the long-period grating attenuation bands, allowing the sensor interrogation both in wavelength and intensity. The sensor relies on the high sensitivity of long-period gratings operating at the visible spectral range near the turning point, as well as on the resonance between the cladding modes and the plasmon resonance band of the nanoparticles. It was shown that the resonance between the LPG and LSPR bands increases the sensitivity of the LPG attenuation bands to the glyphosate in the samples. The sensor configuration proposed in this paper was tested with water samples deliberately contaminated with glyphosate showing a limit of detection about 0.02 μM.
Autors: Bárbara Rutyna Heidemann;Ismael Chiamenti;Marcela Mohallem Oliveira;Marcia Muller;José Luís Fabris;
Appeared in: Journal of Lightwave Technology
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 36, issue:4, pages: 863 - 870
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fundamental Study of Hexadecane Removal by Atmospheric Microplasma
Abstract:
In recent years, the deterioration of indoor air quality (IAQ) became a big concern. Because indoors is the place where we spend most of our life, an IAQ is an important factor to be considered for comfortable and healthy living. In this study, we evaluated the products and decomposition process of hexadecane in small and large capacity spaces by using microplasma electrode. In the case of hexadecane removal, both small and large capacity microplasma process could reduce hexadecane by 83% and 89%, respectively. In the process, we found various hydrocarbons such as 1-hexene (C6H12), 1-heptene (C7H14), and 1-octene (C8H 16) as intermediate products. CO2 and N2O were also confirmed as final products of the microplasma treatment process.
Autors: Kazuo Shimizu;Yusuke Kurokawa;Marius Blajan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 599 - 604
Publisher: IEEE
 
» FUNNEL: Assessing Software Changes in Web-Based Services
Abstract:
The detection of performance changes in software change roll-outs in Internet-based services is crucial for an operations team, because it allows timely roll-back of a software change when performance degrades unexpectedly. However, it is infeasible to manually investigate millions of performance measurements of many roll-outs. In this paper, we present an automated tool, FUNNEL, for rapid and robust impact assessment of software changes in large Internet-based services. FUNNEL automatically collects the related performance measurements for each software change. To detect significant performance behavior changes, FUNNEL adopts singular spectrum transform (SST) algorithm as the core algorithm, uses various techniques to improve its robustness and reduce its computational cost, and applies a difference-in-difference (DiD) method to differentiate the true causality from the random correlations between the performance change and the software change. Evaluation through historical data in real-word services shows that FUNNEL achieves accuracy of more than 99.7 percent. Compared with previous methods, FUNNEL’s detection delay is 38.02 to 64.99 percent shorter, and its computation speed is 4.59-7,098 times faster. In real deployment, FUNNEL achieves a 98.21 percent precision, high robustness, fast detection speed, and shows its capability in detecting unexpected behavior changes.
Autors: Shenglin Zhang;Ying Liu;Dan Pei;Yu Chen;Xianping Qu;Shimin Tao;Zhi Zang;Xiaowei Jing;Mei Feng;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Services Computing
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 11, issue:1, pages: 34 - 48
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Further Progress in the Electrostatic Nucleation of Water Vapor
Abstract:
The planet's atmosphere holds a vast amount of water. Existing state-of-the-art “atmospheric water generation” systems mostly work by cooling the entire air flow below the dew point, which require significant amounts of energy per liter of water. As a result, the cost of this water is similar to that of imported bottled water in small single-use plastic containers. Therefore, there is an urgent need for any technology that generates usable water in an energy-efficient manner. It is known that the native dipole moment of water molecule results in the nucleation of liquid phase on carriers of electrical charge due to the suppressed evaporation. Nevertheless, the practical implementation of electrostatic water nucleation (EWN) is still in the stage of laboratory demonstrations. This work summarizes the theoretical background of the phenomenon and past experimental data, presents further experimental results and new data from practical implementation of EWN, and analyzes options for the further development.
Autors: Michael Reznikov;Matthew Salazar;Martin Page;Melixa Rivera-Sustache;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 591 - 598
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fused Silica Micro Shell Resonator With T-Shape Masses for Gyroscopic Application
Abstract:
This paper presents a novel micro shell resonator (MSR) with T-shape masses based on fused silica using out-of-plane electrode structures. Eight circular-distributed T-shape masses are designed along the rim of resonator shell to improve transduction efficiency, including drive efficiency and detection efficiency. The dynamic parameters and transduction efficiency are calculated and optimized with finite element method, revealing 3.76 times improvement in drive efficiency, 4.65 times improvement in detection efficiency, and 17.81 times increase in mechanical sensitivity. In addition, it is feasible to trim the frequency by adding or removing mass on the T-shape masses. The key feature of the process is based on micro blow-torching process and whirling platform, which form the resonator structure with smooth roughness and good structure uniformity. Femtosecond laser ablation is used to release the T-shape masses for good symmetry and high processing quality. Then, metalized MSR with T-shape masses is assembled on a glass substrate. Electrostatic transduction is used to detect spatial deformation of resonators by out-of-plane electrodes, which reveals a frequency mismatch of 0.175% at 6904.4 Hz and 6916.5 Hz with quality factors of 20.39 k ( s) and k (). [2017-0086]
Autors: Dingbang Xiao;Wei Li;Zhanqiang Hou;Kun Lu;Yan Shi;Yulie Wu;Xuezhong Wu;
Appeared in: Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 27, issue:1, pages: 47 - 58
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fusion of Multifrequency GPR Data Freed From Antenna Effects
Abstract:
Several data fusion approaches have been developed to optimize both resolution and characterization depth for multifrequency ground-penetrating radar (GPR). In this study, we propose a novel physically based method to merge radar data coming from antennas operating in different frequency ranges. The strategy relies on the removal of the source and antenna effects from GPR data and the subsequent fusion of the resulting signals, which are now normalized, in the frequency domain. The approach used to filter out antenna effects resorts to an intrinsic, closed-form solution of Maxwell's equations to describe the radar-antenna-medium system. We validated the multifrequency GPR data fusion approach through laboratory experiments with measurements performed in far- and near-field conditions above a copper plane and pipes buried at different depths in a sandbox. The results demonstrated the benefit of filtering the frequency-dependent antennas effects before data fusion. Enhanced radargrams were subsequently obtained as a result of the broadening of the spectral bandwidth. This physically based fusion approach appears to be very promising to improve subsurface imaging.
Autors: Albéric De Coster;Sébastien Lambot;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 11, issue:2, pages: 664 - 674
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Gain Enhancement for Wideband CP ME-Dipole Antenna by Loading With Spiral Strip in Ku-Band
Abstract:
One novel single-feed single-layer wideband circularly polarized magnetoelectric dipole antenna with enhanced gain property is presented in this communication. By loading coplanar spiral with the radiating patch, the unidirectional radiation gain of the antenna is effectively improved while the impedance bandwidth and axial ratio (AR) bandwidth unaffected. Surface current distributions with/without the spiral are compared to reveal the antenna’s mechanism. The measurement shows that the left-hand circular polarized antenna features the impedance bandwidth from 11.4 to 18.5 GHz (or 52%), an AR bandwidth from 13.2 to 18 GHz (or 32%), and the maximum gain of 11.1 dBic at 16.9 GHz with 3 dB gain bandwidth from 12.5 to 18.6 GHz (or 36.1%). Owning to the low profile, broadband, and high gain, the proposed antenna is a capable candidate for satellite communication.
Autors: Wenquan Cao;Qianqian Wang;Zuping Qian;Shujie Shi;Jun Jin;Kang Ding;Bing Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 962 - 966
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Gain-Switched 2-μm Fiber Laser System Providing Kilowatt Peak-Power Mode-Locked Resembling Pulses and Its Application to Supercontinuum Generation in Fluoride Fibers
Abstract:
A fast gain-switched Tm-doped fiber laser and amplifier system providing stable 17-ns pulses with a 0.64-mJ energy and 35.6-kW peak power at 25 kHz is demonstrated. Then, self-starting mode-locked resembling pulses with duration of <200 ps, recorded within the gain-switched pulse envelope, were achieved in the same laser cavity. By amplifying the pulse train in a Tm-doped fiber amplifier, an average output power of 6.8 W at a ∼15-ns full width at half maximum gain-switch envelope and a ∼36.9-μJ subpulse with a peak power of up to 115.6 kW were demonstrated. To the best of our knowledge, this is the shortest gain-switched and mode-locked-like pulse as well as the highest peak-power that has been demonstrated in this type of laser system. A mid-infrared supercontinuum generation with a total output power of 2.45 W and a cutoff wavelength at 4.4 μm is also reported.
Autors: Pawel Grzes;Jacek Swiderski;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 1 - 8
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Gallager Bound for MIMO Channels: Large- $N$ Asymptotics
Abstract:
The use of multiple antenna arrays in transmission and reception has become an integral part of modern wireless communications. To quantify the performance of such systems, the evaluation of bounds on the error probability of realistic finite length codewords is important. In this paper, we analyze the standard Gallager error bound for both constraints of maximum average power and maximum instantaneous power. Applying techniques from random matrix theory, we obtain analytic expressions of the error exponent when the length of the codeword increases to infinity at a fixed ratio with the antenna array dimensions. Analyzing its behavior at rates close to the ergodic rate, we find that the Gallager error bound becomes asymptotically close to an upper error bound obtained recently by Hoydis et al. 2015. We also obtain an expression for the Gallager exponent in the case when the codelength spans several Rayleigh fading blocks, hence taking into account the situation when the channel varies during each transmission.
Autors: Apostolos Karadimitrakis;Aris L. Moustakas;Romain Couillet;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 1323 - 1330
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Gamesman Problems [Gamesman Problems]
Abstract:
Various puzzles, games, humorous definitions, or mathematical that should engage the interest of readers.
Autors: Athanasios Kakarountas;
Appeared in: IEEE Potentials
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 37, issue:1, pages: 48 - 48
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Gamesman Solutions [Gamesman Solutions]
Abstract:
Various puzzles, games, humorous definitions, or mathematical that should engage the interest of readers.
Autors: Athanasios Kakarountas;
Appeared in: IEEE Potentials
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 37, issue:1, pages: 5 - 6
Publisher: IEEE
 
» GaN Nanowire MOSFET With Near-Ideal Subthreshold Slope
Abstract:
Wrap-around gate GaN nanowire MOSFETs using Al2O3 as gate oxide have been experimentally demonstrated. The fabricated devices exhibit a minimum subthreshold slope of 60 mV/dec, an average subthreshold slope of 68 mV/dec over three decades of drain current, drain-induced barrier lowering of 27 mV/V, an on-current of (normalized by nanowire circumference), on/off ratio over , an intrinsic transconductance of , for a switching efficiency figure of merit, /SS of -dec/mV. These performance metrics make GaN nanowire MOSFETs a promising candidate for emerging low-power applications, such as sensors and RF for the Internet of Things.
Autors: Wenjun Li;Matt D. Brubaker;Bryan T. Spann;Kris A. Bertness;Patrick Fay;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 39, issue:2, pages: 184 - 187
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Gaussian Distributions on Riemannian Symmetric Spaces: Statistical Learning With Structured Covariance Matrices
Abstract:
The Riemannian geometry of covariance matrices has been essential to several successful applications, in computer vision, biomedical signal and image processing, and radar data processing. For these applications, an important ongoing challenge is to develop Riemannian-geometric tools which are adapted to structured covariance matrices. This paper proposes to meet this challenge by introducing a new class of probability distributions, Gaussian distributions of structured covariance matrices. These are Riemannian analogs of Gaussian distributions, which only sample from covariance matrices having a preassigned structure, such as complex, Toeplitz, or block-Toeplitz. The usefulness of these distributions stems from three features: 1) they are completely tractable, analytically, or numerically, when dealing with large covariance matrices; 2) they provide a statistical foundation to the concept of structured Riemannian barycentre (i.e., Fréchet or geometric mean); and 3) they lead to efficient statistical learning algorithms, which realise, among others, density estimation and classification of structured covariance matrices. This paper starts from the observation that several spaces of structured covariance matrices, considered from a geometric point of view, are Riemannian symmetric spaces. Accordingly, it develops an original theory of Gaussian distributions on Riemannian symmetric spaces, of their statistical inference, and of their relationship to the concept of Riemannian barycentre. Then, it uses this original theory to give a detailed description of Gaussian distributions of three kinds of structured covariance matrices, complex, Toeplitz, and block-Toeplitz. Finally, it describes algorithms for density estimation and classification of structured covariance matrices, based on Gaussian distribution mixture models.
Autors: Salem Said;Hatem Hajri;Lionel Bombrun;Baba C. Vemuri;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 64, issue:2, pages: 752 - 772
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Gaussian Process Regression for Virtual Metrology-Enabled Run-to-Run Control in Semiconductor Manufacturing
Abstract:
Incorporating virtual metrology (VM) into run-to-run (R2R) control enables the benefits of R2R control to be maintained while avoiding the negative cost and cycle time impacts of actual metrology. Due to the potential for prediction errors from VM models, the prediction as well as the corresponding confidence information on the predictions should be properly considered in VM-enabled R2R control schemes in order to guarantee control performance. This paper proposes the use of Gaussian process regression (GPR) models in VM-enabled R2R control due to their ability to provide this information in an integrated fashion. The mean value of the GPR prediction is treated as the VM value and the variance of the GPR prediction is used as a measure of confidence to adjust the coefficient of an exponentially weighted-moving-average R2R controller. The effectiveness of the proposed GPR VM-enabled R2R control approach is demonstrated using a chemical mechanical polishing process case study. Results show that better control performance is achieved with the proposed methodology than with implementations that do not take prediction reliability into account.
Autors: Jian Wan;Seán McLoone;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 31, issue:1, pages: 12 - 21
Publisher: IEEE
 
» General Formulation of the Magnetostatic Field and Temperature Distribution in Electrical Machines Using Spectral Element Analysis
Abstract:
In this paper, a general approach to the description of the magnetic field and temperature distribution in electrical machines using the spectral element analysis is presented. In the spectral element method, higher order Legendre–Gauss–Lobatto polynomials are applied to describe the different fields. The magnetic flux distribution is derived using the magnetic vector potential, and nonlinear magnetic material is modeled based on its curve. The thermal model is based on the heat equation. The magnetic and thermal domains are coupled by the ohmic and iron losses, and the latter is computed using the loss separation model of Bertotti. The results are compared with the finite element method, and a good agreement is obtained for both the spatial magnetic flux density and the temperature distributions.
Autors: M. Curti;T. A. Van Beek;J. W. Jansen;B. L. J. Gysen;E. A. Lomonova;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:2, pages: 1 - 9
Publisher: IEEE
 
» General Lagrange-Type Jacobian Inverse for Nonholonomic Robotic Systems
Abstract:
This paper discusses the nonholonomic robotic systems whose motion constraints assume the Pfaffian form, and the equations of motion are represented by driftless control systems with outputs. By reference to the end point map of such a control system, we define the system's Jacobian and study Jacobian motion-planning algorithms. A new Lagrange-type Jacobian inverse, referred to as the General Lagrangian Jacobian Inverse (GLJI), is designed as the solution of an optimal control problem with a Lagrange-type objective function. Singularities of GLJI are examined. A special choice of the objective function illustrates features of GLJI. A new motion-planning algorithm based on GLJI is proposed. Theoretical arguments are illustrated with a motion-planning problem of a space robot.
Autors: Krzysztof Tchoń;Joanna Ratajczak;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Robotics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 34, issue:1, pages: 256 - 263
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Generalized Buffer-State-Based Relay Selection With Collaborative Beamforming
Abstract:
In this paper, we propose a generalized buffer-state-based relaying protocol in the context of finite buffer-aided cooperative systems. The proposed relaying scheme relies on two concepts: the simultaneous activation of multiple source-to-relay links and buffer-state-based relay selection for packet transmission and reception. In order to avoid buffer overflow, as well as an empty buffer at the relay nodes, we introduce a novel thresholding scheme that gives priority to link selection. The proposed scheme is capable of achieving a lower outage probability and a lower end-to-end packet delay than existing buffer-aided relaying protocols. Moreover, the concept of collaborative beamforming is invoked for the proposed buffer-aided relaying scheme, in order to improve the received signal-to-noise ratio at the destination node. We also derive analytical bounds of the outage probability and the average packet delay of the proposed scheme with the aid of Markov-chain analysis. Our simulation results demonstrate the clear performance advantages of the proposed scheme over conventional schemes, which are especially explicit for scenarios with a high number of relay nodes.
Autors: Ryota Nakai;Miharu Oiwa;Kyungchun Lee;Shinya Sugiura;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 67, issue:2, pages: 1245 - 1257
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Generalized Global Bandit and Its Application in Cellular Coverage Optimization
Abstract:
Motivated by the engineering problem of cellular coverage optimization, we propose a novel multiarmed bandit model called generalized global bandit. We develop a series of greedy algorithms that have the capability to handle nonmonotonic but decomposable reward functions, multidimensional global parameters, and switching costs. The proposed algorithms are rigorously analyzed under the multiarmed bandit framework, where we show that they achieve bounded regret, and hence, they are guaranteed to converge to the optimal arm in finite time. The algorithms are then applied to the cellular coverage optimization problem to achieve the optimal tradeoff between sufficient small cell coverage and limited macroleakage without prior knowledge of the deployment environment. The performance advantage of the new algorithms over existing bandits solutions is revealed analytically and further confirmed via numerical simulations. The key element behind the performance improvement is a more efficient “trial and error” mechanism, in which any trial will help improve the knowledge of all candidate power levels.
Autors: Cong Shen;Ruida Zhou;Cem Tekin;Mihaela van der Schaar;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 12, issue:1, pages: 218 - 232
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Generalized HARQ Protocols with Delayed Channel State Information and Average Latency Constraints
Abstract:
In many wireless systems, the signal-to-interference-and-noise ratio that is applicable to a certain transmission, referred to as channel state information (CSI), can only be learned after the transmission has taken place and is thereby delayed (outdated). In such systems, hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) protocols are often used to achieve high throughput with low latency. This paper put forth the family of expandable message space (EMS) protocols, that generalize the HARQ protocol and allow for rate adaptation based on delayed CSI at the transmitter (CSIT). Assuming a block-fading channel, the proposed EMS protocols are analyzed using dynamic programming. When full delayed CSIT is available and there is a constraint on the average decoding time, it is shown that the optimal zero outage EMS protocol has a particularly simple operational interpretation and that the throughput is identical to that of the backtrack retransmission request (BRQ) protocol. We also devise EMS protocols for the case in which CSIT is only available through a finite number of feedback messages. The numerical results demonstrate that BRQ approaches the ergodic capacity quickly compared with HARQ, while EMS protocols with only three and four feedback messages achieve throughputs, that are only slightly worse than that of BRQ.
Autors: Kasper Fløe Trillingsgaard;Petar Popovski;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 64, issue:2, pages: 1262 - 1280
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Generalized Memory Polynomial Model Dimension Selection Using Particle Swarm Optimization
Abstract:
This letter presents a new method which uses particle swarm optimization and the Akaike information criterion for determining the dimensions of nonlinear amplifier behavioral models, applied to the generalized memory polynomial model. Determining the size of this model has always been a challenge as it depends on eight parameters, and the proposed method provides a fast and efficient solution which can discover the smallest possible model at a very short amount of time.
Autors: A. Abdelhafiz;L. Behjat;F. M. Ghannouchi;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 28, issue:2, pages: 96 - 98
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Generating Music from Literature Using Topic Extraction and Sentiment Analysis
Abstract:
This article presents Tambr, a new software for translating literature into sound using multiple synthesized voices selected for the way in which their timbre relates to the meaning and sentiment of the topics conveyed in the story. It achieves this by leveraging a large lexical semantic database to implement a machine-learning-based synthesizer search engine used to select the synthesizers whose meaning best reflects the ideas of the novel. Tambr uses sentiment analysis to generate the pitches, durations, and intervals of the output melodies in a way corresponding to the sentiment of the novel-implementing algorithmic composition of literature-based music at a level of musicality not previously explored.
Autors: Jessie Salas;
Appeared in: IEEE Potentials
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 37, issue:1, pages: 15 - 18
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Generation of Perfect Cylindrical Vector Beams With Complete Control Over the Ring Width and Ring Diameter
Abstract:
We propose the generation of high-purity perfect cylindrical vector beams (PCVB) using the Fourier transformation of Bessel–Gauss vector beams. The demonstration of PCVBs is implemented via an interferometric method employing a spatial light modulator that allows a fully independent control of the ring diameter ( ) and ring width () of the PCVB. The proposed scheme enables to generate different types of cylindrical vector beams with precise user-defined transverse dimensions. The dynamic control of the ring width, ring diameter, and the specific type of PCVBs desired is theoretically as well as experimentally demonstrated. The proposed experimental setup can not only be employed in the generation of arbitrary PCVB, but also in perfect vortex beams. The ability to generate fully tailorable cylindrical vector beams and vortex beams has implications for the efficient launch of exotic optical modes in specialty fibers, in the field of optical tweezers as well as for superresolution microscopy.
Autors: Prabin Pradhan;Manish Sharma;Bora Ung;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 1 - 10
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Generation of Polarization-Locked Vector Solitons in Mode-Locked Thulium Fiber Laser
Abstract:
In this paper, we report polarization-locked vector soliton (PLVS) generation in a linear thulium-doped fiber laser. The fiber laser was composed of all-anomalous-dispersion fibers, passively mode-locked with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror. Approximately 1.2-ps single vector soliton pulses centered at 2023.7 nm were generated. Extra “peak-dip” spectral sidebands were clearly visible in the polarization-resolved optical spectra, indicating coherent energy exchange between the two polarization components of the vector solitons. In addition, multiple-PLVS operation modes were experimentally investigated, and our experimental results were confirmed by numerical simulations. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first observation of polarization-locked single vector soliton generation operating in the 2-μm spectral range.
Autors: X. L. Fan;Y. Wang;W. Zhou;X. J. Ren;Z. F. Hu;Q. Y. Liu;R. J. Zhang;D. Y. Shen;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 1 - 8
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Generation of RF Intensity-Modulated Laser Pulses by Dual-Frequency Injection Seeding
Abstract:
In order to obtain high peak power RF intensity-modulated pulses for long-distance applications, a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser is injection seeded by a dual-frequency laser signal. The beat note frequency of the dual-frequency laser signal is adjusted to the frequency spacing of two adjacent longitudinal modes of the Q-switched laser. When the dual-frequency signal is injected into the Q-switched slave resonator, simultaneously two cavity axial modes are tuned to allow the injected wave frequencies within the axial modes selection range, the two selected slave cavity modes will oscillate due to phase-pulling effect. The Interference of the two modes results in intensity modulated pulses. The modulation frequency equals to a free spectral range of the Q-switched cavity, which is 225 MHz in our experiment. Maximum intensity-modulated pulse energy of 7 mJ and pulsewidth of 16 ns are measured. The dependence of locking bandwidth to the injected power is also studied experimentally, it is confirmed that the locking bandwidth increases with respect to the injected power of the seed signal. The high peak power RF intensity-modulated pulsed light source is a promising candidate for long-distance lidar-radar applications.
Autors: Lijun Cheng;Suhui Yang;Changming Zhao;Haiyang Zhang;Bingjie Sun;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 1 - 9
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Generation Scheduling Optimization of Wind-Energy Storage System Based on Wind Power Output Fluctuation Features
Abstract:
As the output from wind power generation is intermittent in nature, making the wind power output “dependable” is critical for seamless integration of wind generation. One of the most favorable solutions is incorporating energy storage system (ESS) with wind farms to establish a wind-energy storage hybrid system. Since it requires capital investment for ESS installation, it is important to estimate appropriate storage capacity and charging/discharging rate of ESS for desired applications. In this paper, the fluctuation feature of wind power output is analyzed both in time domain and frequency domain. The degree of fluctuation is extracted and illustrated as quantization index (QI). Based on QI clustering, the wind scenario with largest power fluctuation is selected as “worst performance,” according to which, scheduling time horizon, along with the capacity and charging/discharging power of ESS, can be determined. After the case study, the proposed model is proved to improve the generation scheduling process.
Autors: Jie Shi;Wei-Jen Lee;Xiaofei Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 10 - 17
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Geometric Estimation of the Deformation and the Design Method for Developing Helical Bundled-Tube Locomotive Devices
Abstract:
This paper presents a novel design method for an in-pipe locomotive device named “helical bundled-tube locomotive device.” Helical bundled-tube locomotive devices are soft robots that travel in pipes. The device only comprises inflatable tubes; it deforms into a helical shape and travels in a pipe with pneumatic power. The deformation pushes the device toward the inner wall of the pipe and generates a traction force in the pipe. Therefore, the extent of deformation should be determined. The methods for estimation and estimation-based design, which this paper presents, allow for the device to be designed without employing trial-and-error experimentation; trial-and-error experimentation is ordinarily required. The proposed methods are quick and easy to implement, and will help in putting the device to practical use. The proposed methods are based on geometrical formulations of the deformations of the device and the tubes that compose the device. This geometrical formulation is independent of the mechanical characteristics of the material. We also considered the developed design method as being independent from the tube characteristics to simplify it. Accordingly, the proposed methods can be applied regardless of material, shape, and individual differences across helical devices.
Autors: Hirozumi Takeshima;Toshio Takayama;
Appeared in: IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 23, issue:1, pages: 223 - 232
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Get Involved [Standards News]
Abstract:
As IAS Standards Department chair, my earnest appeal to all of you reading this article is to get involved in IAS standards. If you are an employer, convince your employees to join the standards-making group that aligns with your company's objectives.
Autors: Daleep Mohla;
Appeared in: IEEE Industry Applications Magazine
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 24, issue:1, pages: 114 - 115
Publisher: IEEE
 
» GeTrust: A Guarantee-Based Trust Model in Chord-Based P2P Networks
Abstract:
More and more users are attracted by P2P networks characterized by decentralization, autonomy and anonymity. However, users’ unconstrained behavior makes it necessary to use a trust model when establishing trust relationships between peers. Most existing trust models are based on recommendations, which, however, suffer from the shortcomings of slow convergence and high complexity of trust computations, as well as huge overhead of network traffic. Inspired by the establishment of trust relationships in human society, a guarantee-based trust model, GeTrust, is proposed for Chord-based P2P networks. A service peer needs to choose its guarantee peer(s) for the service it is going to provide, and they are both required to pledge reputation mortgages for the service. The request peer makes evaluations on all the candidates of service peer by referring their service reputations and their guarantee peers’ reputations, and selects the one with highest evaluation to be its service provider. In order to enhance GeTrust's availability and prevent malicious behavior, we also present incentive mechanism and anonymous reputation management strategy. Simulation results show that GeTrust is effective and efficient in terms of improving successful transaction rate, resisting complex attacks, reducing network overhead and lowering computational complexity.
Autors: Xianfu Meng;Dongxu Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 54 - 68
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Getting into Microwaves and the MTT-S [Presidents' Column]
Abstract:
In this final “President's Column” as I end of my term as president of the IEEE Microwave Theory and Techniques Society (MTT-S), I have cause to reflect on how I became a microwave engineer and on the role the MTT-S has played in my career and the careers of my colleagues. Perhaps the most important functions of the Society are the MTT-S Distinguished Microwave Lecturer (DML) program, our conferences, and our publications. All of these contributed to my career, and I hope they are doing the same in yours.
Autors: Dylan Williams;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 19, issue:1, pages: 8 - 10
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Gibbsian On-Line Distributed Content Caching Strategy for Cellular Networks
Abstract:
In this paper, we develop Gibbs sampling-based techniques for learning the optimal placement of contents in a cellular network. We consider the situation where a finite collection of base stations are scattered on the plane, each covering a cell (possibly overlapping with other cells). Mobile users request downloads from a finite set of contents according to some popularity distribution which may be known or unknown to the base stations. Each base station has a fixed memory space that can store only a strict subset of the contents at a time; hence, if a user requests content that is not stored at any of its serving base stations, the content has to be downloaded from the backhaul. Hence, we consider the problem of optimal content placement which minimizes the rate of download from the backhaul, or equivalently maximize the cache hit rate. It is known that, when multiple cells can overlap with one another (e.g., under dense deployment of base stations in small cell networks), it is not optimal to place the most popular contents in each base station. However, the optimal content placement problem is NP-complete. Using the ideas of Gibbs sampling, we propose simple sequential content update rules that decide whether to store content at a base station (if required from the base station) and which content has to be removed from the corresponding cache, based on the knowledge of contents stored in its neighboring base stations. The update rule is shown to be asymptotically converging to the optimal content placement for all nodes under the knowledge of content popularity. Next, we extend the algorithm to address the situation where content popularities and cell topology are initially unknown, but are estimated as new requests arrive to the base stations; we show that our algorithm working with the running estimates of content popularities and cell topology also converges asymptotically to the optimal content placement. Finally, we- demonstrate the improvement in cache hit rate compared with the most popular content placement and independent content placement strategies via numerical exploration.
Autors: Arpan Chattopadhyay;Bartłomiej Błaszczyszyn;H. Paul Keeler;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 969 - 981
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Global Communications Newsletter
Abstract:
Presents key events and topics in the global communications industry.
Autors: Anum Talpur;Edward Smith;Xudong Wang;Chong Han;Xinwan Li;Keattisak Chong;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 56, issue:2, pages: 9 - 12
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Global Data Registration Technology Based on Dynamic Coded Points
Abstract:
Field measurement of large aviation components is important in many fields of study. In this paper, a global data registration method based on the dynamic coded points is proposed. The system used in this method contains the local and global control binocular measurement systems. The local binocular measurement system measures the data of each subdomain as the local measurement data by scanning. The dynamic coded points, which are encoded based on time parameter as their encoded values, are projected to the measured object’s surface using a projector. Two sets of systems acquire the dynamic coded points to calculate their encoded values and match them automatically. These systems calculate the transformation relations between the local coordinate system and the global control coordinate system, so the local measurement data coordinates are integrated into the global control coordinate system through the transformation relations, achieving the global data registration. Experimental results in the laboratory show that the process of matching of dynamic coded points is accurate and has high robustness, and the global registration method based on the coded points proposed by this paper can eliminate the accumulated error, reaching the precision of 0.0150%. Field experimental results show that the registration method proposed in this paper satisfies the measurement requirements of large-scale aviation components.
Autors: Wei Liu;Zhiguang Lan;Yang Zhang;Zhiyuan Zhang;Haiyang Zhao;Fan Ye;Xiaodong Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 67, issue:2, pages: 394 - 405
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Global Land Surface Evapotranspiration Estimation From Meteorological and Satellite Data Using the Support Vector Machine and Semiempirical Algorithm
Abstract:
Evapotranspiration (ET) is the combination process of the surface evaporation and plant transpiration, which occur simultaneously, and it links the terrestrial water cycles, carbon cycles, and energy exchange. In this study, based on the observations from 242 global FLUXnet sites, with daily mean temperature, relative humidity, net radiation, wind speed, incoming shortwave radiation, maximum temperature, minimum temperature, normalized difference vegetation index, altitude, difference in temperature, and observed ET as input data, we used a support vector machine and a semiempirical algorithm to estimate the land surface daily ET at nine different vegetation-type sites. Subsequently, based on the meteorological reanalysis data combined with remote sensing data, we estimated regional land surface ET of China during 1982–2010. The results showed that, for all vegetation-type sites, when the predicted ET was validated with the eddy covariance measurements, the support vector machine algorithm undervalued ET while the semiempirical algorithm overvalued ET. When five indicators and the second classification method were selected, the semiempirical algorithm probably could explain 56%–76% of the land surface ET change, whereas the support vector machine algorithm probably could explain 71%–85%. The regional values of annual daily average ET varied from 5.8 to 110.5 W/m2, and the land surface ET overall trend decreased from the southeast to the northwest in China.
Autors: Meng Liu;Ronglin Tang;Zhao-Liang Li;Yunjun Yao;Guangjian Yan;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 11, issue:2, pages: 513 - 521
Publisher: IEEE
 

Publication archives by date

  2018:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

  2017:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

  2016:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

  2015:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

  2014:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

  2013:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

  2012:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

  2011:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

  2010:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

  2009:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

 
0-C     D-L     M-R     S-Z