Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 02-2018 sorted by title, page: 11

» Global Routing With Timing Constraints
Abstract:
We show how to incorporate global static timing constraints into global routing. Our approach is based on the min–max resource sharing model that proved successful for global routing in theory and practice. Static timing constraints are modeled by a linear number of additional resources and customers. The algorithm dynamically adjusts delay budgets and can, thus, tradeoff wiring congestion for delay. As a subroutine, the algorithm routes a single net. If this subroutine is near-optimal, we will find near-optimal solutions for the overall problem very efficiently. The approach works for many delay models; here we discuss a linear delay model (before buffering) and the Elmore delay model (after buffering). We demonstrate the benefit of our timing-constrained global routing algorithm by experimental results on industrial chips.
Autors: Stephan Held;Dirk Müller;Daniel Rotter;Rudolf Scheifele;Vera Traub;Jens Vygen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 37, issue:2, pages: 406 - 419
Publisher: IEEE
 
» GNSS Interference Detection Using Statistical Analysis in the Time-Frequency Domain
Abstract:
This paper presents a precorrelation interference detection method based on statistical analysis in the time-frequency (TF) domain for global navigation satellite system signals. In particular, the short-time Fourier transform (STFT) is considered as the TF tool due to its linear property and low computational complexity. A goodness-of-fit (GoF) test is applied to each frequency slice in the spectrogram of the received signal, which approximately follows a chi-square distribution in the absence of interference. The expected probability density function (PDF) of the observed TF-domain samples can be computed based on an interference-free signal or the noise power estimate. Two versions of the proposed technique are presented: one based on the canonical STFT with the maximum overlap size, and the other based on the block-wise STFT using nonoverlapped samples. The canonical STFT-based method shows better detection capability at the expense of degraded false alarm performance caused by the PDF distortion in the canonical STFT samples. The block-wise STFT-based method alleviates the false alarm issue but slightly weakens the detection capability. Simulations show that the proposed canonical and block-wise STFT-based methods improve the detection performance for both narrow- and wideband interference in low jammer-to-noise ratio environments when compared with the existing GoF test applied to the time-domain samples.
Autors: Pai Wang;Ediz Cetin;Andrew G. Dempster;Yongqing Wang;Siliang Wu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 416 - 428
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Goal-Driven Service Composition in Mobile and Pervasive Computing
Abstract:
Mobile, pervasive computing environments respond to users’ requirements by providing access to and composition of various services over networked devices. In such an environment, service composition needs to satisfy a request’s goal, and be mobile-aware even throughout service discovery and service execution. A composite service also needs to be adaptable to cope with the environment’s dynamic network topology. Existing composition solutions employ goal-oriented planning to provide flexible composition, and assign service providers at runtime, to avoid composition failure. However, these solutions have limited support for complex service flows and composite service adaptation. This paper proposes a self-organizing, goal-driven service model for task resolution and execution in mobile pervasive environments. In particular, it proposes a decentralized heuristic planning algorithm based on backward-chaining to support flexible service discovery. Further, we introduce an adaptation architecture that allows execution paths to dynamically adapt, which reduces failures, and lessens re-execution effort for failure recovery. Simulation results show the suitability of the proposed mechanism in pervasive computing environments where providers are mobile, and it is uncertain what services are available. Our evaluation additionally reveals the model’s limits with regard to network dynamism and resource constraints.
Autors: Nanxi Chen;Nicolás Cardozo;Siobhán Clarke;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Services Computing
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 11, issue:1, pages: 49 - 62
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Gold Enhanced Hemoglobin Interaction in a Fabry–Pérot Based Optical Fiber Sensor for Measurement of Blood Refractive Index
Abstract:
A Fabry–Pérot based optical fiber sensor to measure the oxygen concentration through monitoring the change of refractive index in red blood cells is reported. The optical fiber sensor with a diameter of 220 μm is made entirely of fused silica glass fibers, which can be integrated within standard brachytherapy seed delivery needle to be used in vivo. Isopropanol solution and pig blood are prepared to produce refractive index in the range 1.344–1.365. Gold is coated to a thickness of 100 nm at the tip of the sensor to enhance the interaction between hemoglobin and light. A fast Fourier transform algorithm is used to analyze the phase angle from the reflected output spectrum. The gold-coated sensor has up to almost ten times higher sensitivity to hemoglobin concentration in blood solutions compared to isopropanol solutions. A sensitivity of 9.82 rad/RIU with a refractive index resolution of 2.09 × 10–3 RIU is achieved for the sensor with a 16 μm thickness diaphragm.
Autors: Charusluk Viphavakit;Sinead O’ Keeffe;Minghong Yang;Stefan Andersson-Engels;Elfed Lewis;
Appeared in: Journal of Lightwave Technology
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 36, issue:4, pages: 1118 - 1124
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Good Preparation [Electrical Safety]
Abstract:
The author argues that it is easy to find connections between good preparation and safety, and electrical safety in particular. Many incidents, injuries, and fatalities occur when the scope changes on an electrical job. The workers may go into areas or equipment by mistake that are not properly de-energized. A well-prepared plan of action will clearly identify the scope of the job and help warn the workers to stop a job when the scope is changing. Good preparation will help identify the proper tools and test equipment needed and any special training that is required for the workers; without the right tools, test equipment, and training, there is a higher chance of an accident. A team that puts together a well-prepared plan of action can often reduce the number of electrical switching operations; this can dramatically lower the chance of a fault in the equipment during the job. As Miguel de Cervantes (1547–1616) said, "To be prepared is half the victory." For an electrical task, it should be considered a victory to have the job completed safely. Is your team prepared for every contingency?
Autors: Daniel Doan;
Appeared in: IEEE Industry Applications Magazine
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 24, issue:1, pages: 6 - 6
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Grading electric field in high voltage insulation using composite materials
Abstract:
Localized overstress due to electric field concentration is a threat to the long-term performance of the insulation in almost all high voltage apparatus. Resistive field grading using field grading materials (FGMs) may be a solution to this problem. Insulation matrixes such as ethylene propylene diene monomer, epoxy, or silicone rubbers, blended with fillers such as ZnO microvaristors, are reported to possess field dependent conductivity with greater and more stable nonlinearity than traditional FGMs [1]. Their application in high voltage apparatus such as bushings [1], cable accessories [2]-[4], insulators [5], [6], and stator coils [7] has been studied recently. It is well known [8] that the most important parameters for FGMs are the nonlinear coefficient α and switching field Eb; the challenge is to tailor these two parameters to a specific application. FGMs can function effectively in most cases when α >10 [9], but the adjustment of Eb is more complex.
Autors: Xiao Yang;Xiaolei Zhao;Jun Hu;Jinliang He;
Appeared in: IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 34, issue:1, pages: 15 - 25
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Granular Differentiability of Fuzzy-Number-Valued Functions
Abstract:
In this paper, using the concept of horizontal membership functions, a new definition of fuzzy derivative called granular derivative is proposed based on granular difference. Moreover, a new definition of fuzzy integral called granular integral is defined, and its relation with the granular derivative is given. A new definition of a metric—granular metric—on the space of type-1 fuzzy numbers, and a concept of continuous fuzzy functions are also presented. Restrictions associated to previous approaches—Hukuhara differentiability, strongly generalized Hukuhara differentiability, generalized Hukuhara differentiability, generalized differentiability, Zadeh's extension principle, and fuzzy differential inclusions—dealing with fuzzy differential equations (FDEs) are expressed. It is shown that the proposed approach does not have the drawbacks of the previous approaches. It is also demonstrated how this approach enables researchers to solve FDEs more conveniently than ever before. Moreover, we showed that this approach does not necessitate that the diameter of the fuzzy function be monotonic. It is also proved that the result of each of the four basic operations on fuzzy numbers introduced based on the proposed approach leads to a fuzzy number. Moreover, the condition for the existence of the granular derivative of a fuzzy function is provided by a theorem. Additionally, by two examples, it is shown that the existence of the granular derivative of a fuzzy function does not imply the existence of the generalized Hukuhara differentiability of the fuzzy function, and vice versa. The terms doubling property and unnatural behavior in modeling phenomenon are also introduced. Furthermore, using some examples, the paper proceeds to elaborate on the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed approach. Moreover, as an application of the proposed approach, the response of Boeing 747 to i- pulsive elevator input is obtained in the presence of uncertain initial conditions and parameters.
Autors: Mehran Mazandarani;Naser Pariz;Ali Vahidian Kamyad;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 310 - 323
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Graph-Based Modeling of Mobile Molecular Communication Systems
Abstract:
This letter develops a graph-based model of mobile molecular communication systems to study the spatio-temporal dynamics of bio-nanomachine concentration in a complex environment, such as the human circulatory system. We first consider the steady-state problem under the assumption that background flows are absent, and show that, at steady-state, bio-nanomachines on a graph distribute according to the target distribution. We then examine through numerical experiments the evolution of bio-nanomachine concentration on a graph in the presence of background flows. The graph-based model developed in this letter is useful to examine optimal conditions, under which drug-carrying bio-nanomachines distribute at target locations in a circulatory system.
Autors: Satoru Iwasaki;Tadashi Nakano;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 22, issue:2, pages: 376 - 379
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Graphene Terahertz Amplitude Modulation Enhanced by Square Ring Resonant Structure
Abstract:
A terahertz amplitude modulator based on graphene on a metallic square ring resonant structure is proposed. By separating the graphene and the metallic structure with a thin organic dielectric layer, both the resonant frequency and the amplitude of the transmission resonant peak are modulated when graphene is electrically tuned by a bias voltage. A maximal amplitude modulation depth of 72% at the frequency of 0.6 THz is achieved for the fabricated Terahertz modulator. An analysis model based on the transmission line theory is built to explore the modulation mechanism. Results of the transmission spectrum and the amplitude modulation indicate a good agreement between the transmission line theoretical predictions and the experimental measurements.
Autors: Liangping Xia;Xin Zhang;Dongshan Wei;Hong-Liang Cui;Chunlei Du;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 1 - 7
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Graphene–Silicon-Based High-Sensitivity and Broadband Phototransistor
Abstract:
Graphene–silicon vertical junction is utilized here for fabrication of high-responsivity and broadband phototransistor. Graphene–silicon as a Schottky junction plays the role of collector–base junction in a bipolar junction phototransistor. We propose graphene–silicon-based phototransistor as a promising candidate for fabrication of high-gain photodetector with responsivity as high as 11 A/W. Gain and ON/OFF ratio of our fabricated device reach up to 18 and 100, respectively. Our results show that the graphene–silicon-based phototransistor is sensitive to a broad range of incident light from visible to IR spectrum. Our results open up a way to fabricate highly sensitive photodetectors suitable for silicon integrated electronics.
Autors: Aliakbar Hekmatikia;Yaser Abdi;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 39, issue:2, pages: 216 - 219
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Graphene-Oxide-Coated Long-Period Grating-Based Fiber Optic Sensor for Relative Humidity and External Refractive Index
Abstract:
Graphene oxide is a very attractive material for refractive index and humidity sensing due to its unique 2-D structure, which results in faster response times and improved sensitivity over alternative materials. In this paper, response of a graphene-oxide-coated long-period grating-based sensor to changes in relative humidity (RH) and external refractive index (as well as temperature to provide a correction for any changes) is reported. In fabricating the probes, an improved Hummer's method was used to synthesize the graphene oxide dispersion used as its basis, allowing coating of a functionalized long-period grating by using a dip-coating technique. A consistent and stable response of the resonance band intensity of the graphene-oxide-coated long-period grating was observed to the change in humidity, achieving a sensitivity of 0.15 dB/%RH with a linear correlation coefficient of 0.980 over the RH range from 60%RH to 95%RH, at room temperature (25 °C). A blue shift of the resonance band wavelength was recorded when the sensor was exposed to vary temperature conditions from 25 °C to 70 °C and the response was found to be linear, with a correlation coefficient of 0.997. When evaluating its performance as an external refractive index sensor, sensitivities of ∼17 dB/RIU in the lower refractive index region (1.33–1.38) and ∼55 dB/RIU over the higher refractive index region (1.40–1.45) were achieved. The graphene-oxide-coated long-period grating sensor probe performed well, showing a good stability and repeatability over a number of test cycles in the performance evaluation carried out.
Autors: Kasun Prabuddha Wasantha Dissanayake;Weiping Wu;Hien Nguyen;Tong Sun;Kenneth T. V. Grattan;
Appeared in: Journal of Lightwave Technology
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 36, issue:4, pages: 1145 - 1151
Publisher: IEEE
 
» GreenTouch GreenMeter core network energy-efficiency improvement measures and optimization
Abstract:
In this paper, we discuss energy-efficiency improvements in core networks obtained as a result of work carried out by the GreenTouch consortium over a five-year period. A number of techniques that yield substantial energy savings in core networks were introduced, including (i) the use of improved network components with lower power consumption, (ii) putting idle components into sleep mode, (iii) optically bypassing intermediate routers, (iv) the use of mixed line rates, (v) placing resources for protection into a low power state when idle, (vi) optimization of the network physical topology, and (vii) the optimization of distributed clouds for content distribution and network equipment virtualization. These techniques are recommended as the main energy-efficiency improvement measures for 2020 core networks. A mixed integer linear programming optimization model combining all the aforementioned techniques was built to minimize energy consumption in the core network. We consider group 1 nations' traffic and place this traffic on a US continental network represented by the AT&T network topology. The projections of the 2020 equipment power consumption are based on two scenarios: a business as usual (BAU) scenario and a GreenTouch (GT) (i.e., BAU + GT) scenario. The results show that the 2020 BAU scenario improves the network energy efficiency by a factor of 4.23 x compared with the 2010 network as a result of the reduction in the network equipment power consumption. Considering the 2020 BAU + GT network, the network equipment improvements alone reduce network power by a factor of 20 x compared with the 2010 network. Including of all the BAU + GT energy-efficiency techniques yields a total energy efficiency improvement of 315×. We have also implemented an experimental demonstration that illustrates the feasibility of energy-efficient content distribution in IP/WDM networks.
Autors: J. M. H. Elmirghani;T. Klein;K. Hinton;L. Nonde;A. Q. Lawey;T. E. H. El-Gorashi;M. O. I. Musa;X. Dong;
Appeared in: IEEE/OSA Journal of Optical Communications and Networking
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 10, issue:2, pages: A250 - A269
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Greetings from the New Editor-in-Chief [From the Editor's Desk]
Abstract:
Presents the introductory editorial for this issue of the publication.
Autors: Robert Caverly;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 19, issue:1, pages: 6 - 16
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Grid Design for Efficient and Accurate Point Mass Filter-Based Terrain Referenced Navigation
Abstract:
This paper proposes an optimal grid design method for point mass filter-based terrain referenced navigation (PTRN) by considering the process and measurement uncertainties or noise to efficiently obtain accurate results. The estimation performance of the point mass filter (PMF) is generally known to improve when very large support and a high-resolution grid are implemented. However, when this condition is applied to the PTRN, the algorithm cannot be executed in real-time due to the high computational load. In addition, even though the grid condition is improved, the filter accuracy is limited by the given process and measurement noises. Therefore, it is possible to perform efficient and accurate PTRN by finding the minimum number of grid points that can achieve the maximum performance. In this paper, a grid design method is carried out by considering each noise, and the selection logic between the two design results are proposed. By applying the proposed grid design method, it is possible to obtain almost the same accuracy as the results that are obtained when a very high resolution is applied, with a much lower computational load, and it is expected for the highly accurate PTRN to be available in real-time.
Autors: Hyun Cheol Jeon;Woo Jung Park;Chan Gook Park;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 18, issue:4, pages: 1731 - 1738
Publisher: IEEE
 
» GrIMS: Green Information-Centric Multimedia Streaming Framework in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks
Abstract:
Information-centric networking (ICN), as a novel network paradigm, is expected to natively support mobility, multicast, and multihoming in vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs). In this paper, the adoption of ICN principles for multimedia streaming in multihomed VANETs is investigated, with a major emphasis on the tradeoff between the quality of experience and energy efficiency (EnE). To formalize this problem, a cost optimization model is first proposed, based on queueing theory arguments. Then, a novel green information-centric multimedia streaming (GrIMS) framework is designed to drive the system toward optimal working points in practical settings. GrIMS consists of three enhanced mechanisms for on-demand cloud-based processing, adaptive multipath transmission, and cooperative in-network caching. Finally, a massive simulation campaign has been carried out, demonstrating that, thanks to its core components, the GrIMS enables flexible multimedia service provisioning and achieves an improved performance in terms of start-up delay, playbacks continuity, and EnE with respect to state-of-the-art solutions.
Autors: Changqiao Xu;Wei Quan;Hongke Zhang;Luigi Alfredo Grieco;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 28, issue:2, pages: 483 - 498
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Ground Moving Target Refocusing in SAR Imagery Using Scaled GHAF
Abstract:
In this paper, a new method is proposed to refocus a ground moving target in synthetic aperture radar imagery. In this method, range migration is compensated in the 2-D frequency domain, which can easily be implemented by using the complex multiplications, the fast Fourier transform (FFT), and the inverse FFT operations. Then, the received target signal in a range gate is characterized as a quadratic frequency-modulated (QFM) signal. Finally, a novel parameter estimation method, i.e., scaled generalized high-order ambiguity function (HAF), is proposed to transform the target signal into a signal on 2-D time–frequency plane and realize the 2-D coherent integration, where the peak position accurately determines the second- and third-order parameters of a QFM signal. Compared with our previously proposed generalized Hough-HAF method, the proposed method can obtain a better target focusing performance, since it can eliminate the incoherent operations in both range and azimuth directions. In addition, the proposed method is computationally efficient, since it is free of searching in the whole target focusing procedure. Both simulated and real data processing results are provided to validate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
Autors: Penghui Huang;Xiang-Gen Xia;Guisheng Liao;Zhiwei Yang;Jianjiang Zhou;Xingzhao Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 56, issue:2, pages: 1030 - 1045
Publisher: IEEE
 
» GSEH: A Novel Approach to Select Prostate Cancer-Associated Genes Using Gene Expression Heterogeneity
Abstract:
When a gene shows varying levels of expression among normal people but similar levels in disease patients or shows similar levels of expression among normal people but different levels in disease patients, we can assume that the gene is associated with the disease. By utilizing this gene expression heterogeneity, we can obtain additional information that abets discovery of disease-associated genes. In this study, we used collaborative filtering to calculate the degree of gene expression heterogeneity between classes and then scored the genes on the basis of the degree of gene expression heterogeneity to find “differentially predicted” genes. Through the proposed method, we discovered more prostate cancer-associated genes than 10 comparable methods. The genes prioritized by the proposed method are potentially significant to biological processes of a disease and can provide insight into them.
Autors: Hyunjin Kim;Sang-Min Choi;Sanghyun Park;
Appeared in: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 129 - 146
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Guest Editorial
Abstract:
The IEEE MTT-S International Conference on Numerical Electromagnetic Modeling and Optimization for RF, Microwave, and Terahertz Applications (NEMO) is an annual international conference founded by the IEEE Microwave Theory and Techniques Society (MTT-S) in 2014. The idea of NEMO conference originated from the need to give special attention to the topics related to computational electromagnetics, advanced numerical techniques, and optimization algorithms and strategies. NEMO conferences are expected to be ideal venues to share new ideas on numerical techniques for electromagnetic/multiphysics modeling, propose efficient design algorithms and tools, and anticipate the modeling needs of future technologies and applications.
Autors: Francisco Mesa;Raúl Rodríguez-Berral;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 621 - 622
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Guest Editorial Focused Section on Health Monitoring, Management, and Control of Complex Mechatronic Systems
Abstract:
Autors: Shen Yin;Steven Ding;Jiancheng Fang;Michael V. Basin;Reinaldo Martinez Palhares;
Appeared in: IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 23, issue:1, pages: 1 - 4
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Guest Editorial JLT Special Issue on OFS-25
Abstract:
Autors: Y. Chung;W. Jin;B. Lee;J. Canning;K. Nakamura;L. Yuan;
Appeared in: Journal of Lightwave Technology
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 36, issue:4, pages: 841 - 843
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Guest Editorial Special Issue on Micropropulsion and Cubesats
Abstract:
This Special Issue is a broad forum presenting a series of topical reviews and original papers, addressing the hottest trends and recent progress in plasma propulsion physics, design, material solutions, and other aspects, as well as several review papers outlining progress in the selected regions and countries. Most were presented at the International Workshop on Micropropulsion and CubeSats (MPCS-2017), which took place at the CNR-Nanotec–P.Las.M.I. Lab, Bari, Italy. The third Conference will be held at the Micropropulsion and Nanotechnology Laboratory, George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA, followed by the fourth MPCS-IV in Beijing.
Autors: Igor Levchenko;Michael Keidar;Shuyan Xu;Francesco Taccogna;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 46, issue:2, pages: 210 - 213
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Guest Editorial Special Section on Engineering Industrial Big Data Analytics Platforms for Internet of Things
Abstract:
Over the last few years, a large number of Internet of Things (IoT) solutions have come to the IoT marketplace. Typically, each of these IoT solutions are designed to perform a single or minimal number of tasks (primary usage). We believe a significant amount of knowledge and insights are hidden in these data silos that can be used to improve our lives; such data include our behaviors, habits, preferences, life patterns, and resource consumption. To discover such knowledge, we need to acquire and analyze this data together in a large scale. To discover useful information and deriving conclusions toward supporting efficient and effective decision making, industrial IoT platform needs to support variety of different data analytics processes such as inspecting, cleaning, transforming, and modeling data, especially in big data context. IoT middleware platforms have been developed in both academic and industrial settings in order to facilitate IoT data management tasks including data analytics. However, engineering these general-purpose industrial-grade big data analytics platforms need to address many challenges. We have accepted six manuscripts out of 24 submissions for this special section (25% acceptance rate) after the strict peerreview processes. Each manuscript has been blindly reviewed by at least three external reviewers before the decisions were made. The papers are briefly summarized.
Autors: C. Perera;A. V. Vasilakos;G. Calikli;Q. Z. Sheng;K.-C. Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 14, issue:2, pages: 744 - 747
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Guest Editorial Special Section on Frontiers of DC Technology
Abstract:
Autors: D. Jovcic;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 259 - 259
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Half-Duplex or Full-Duplex Communications: Degrees of Freedom Analysis Under Self-Interference
Abstract:
In-band full-duplex (FD) communication provides a promising alternative to half-duplex (HD) for wireless systems, due to increased spectral efficiency and capacity. In this paper, HD and FD radio implementations of two way, two hop, and two way two hop communication are compared in terms of degrees of freedom (DoF) under a realistic residual self-interference (SI) model. DoF analysis is carried out for each communication scenario for HD, antenna conserved (AC), and RF chain conserved (RC) FD radio implementations. The DoF analysis indicates that for the two way channel, the achievable AC FD with imperfect SI cancellation performs strictly below HD, and RC FD DoF tradeoff is superior when the SI can be sufficiently cancelled. For the two hop channel, FD is better when the relay has a large number of antennas and enough SI cancellation. For the two way two hop channel, when both nodes require similar throughput, the achievable DoF pairs for FD do not outperform HD. FD still can achieve better DoF pairs than HD, provided the relay has sufficient number of antennas and SI suppression.
Autors: Nirmal V. Shende;Özgür Gürbüz;Elza Erkip;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 1081 - 1093
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hall Thrusters With Permanent Magnets: Current Solutions and Perspectives
Abstract:
We present a focused review of selected design solutions for the permanent magnet-based magnetic circuitry of Hall-type thrusters, with the emphasis on their relevance to miniaturized devices potentially suitable for application in CubeSats and other types of small satellites. Coaxial, cylindrical, and cusped designs of Hall-type thrusters are considered. The issues related to the influence of magnetic configurations on channel wear are also addressed. This paper also outlines a state of the art in the high-temperature permanent magnets and offers some perspective views onto the further development of miniaturized Hall-type thrusters. Several nontrivial design solutions are considered, and schematics of the potentially promising ones for the reduction of wear and damage were examined. Overall, this paper demonstrates the usability and several significant advantages of Hall thrusters with permanent magnetic system.
Autors: Ludovico Lorello;Igor Levchenko;Kateryna Bazaka;Michael Keidar;Luxiang Xu;S. Huang;J. W. M. Lim;Shuyan Xu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 46, issue:2, pages: 239 - 251
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hand Gesture Recognition With Multiscale Weighted Histogram of Contour Direction Normalization for Wearable Applications
Abstract:
This paper proposes a static hand gesture recognition method with low computation and memory consumption for wearable applications. The hand contour is chosen as the hand gesture feature and support vector machine is used to classify the feature. A multiscale weighted histogram of contour direction-based direction normalization is proposed to ensure good recognition performance. In order to improve efficiency, the proposed histogram only counts the direction of the contour point to focus on the most significant hand feature in the first-person view of wearable devices. Based on the hand’s anatomy, the proposed histogram is weighted by considering each contour point’s position and direction jointly using the direction-angle map, to ensure robustness. Experimental results show that the proposed method can give a recognition accuracy of 97.1% with a frame rate of 30 fps on a PC.
Autors: Yiyi Ren;Xiang Xie;Guolin Li;Zhihua Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 28, issue:2, pages: 364 - 377
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hans Peter Luhn and the birth of the hashing algorithm
Abstract:
NOVEMBER 1958, AT A SIX-DAY INTERNATIONAL CONFERence devoted to scientific information, the inventor Hans Peter Luhn demonstrated a series of his electromechanical machines. They looked rather ordinary. Much like other computing devices of the day, they were boxy and utilitarian, designed to scoop and sort tall stacks of punch cards into slots and bins.
Autors: Hallam Stevens;
Appeared in: IEEE Spectrum
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 55, issue:2, pages: 44 - 49
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hardware Implementation of the Preprocessing QR-Decomposition for the Soft-Output MIMO Detection With Multiple Tree Traversals
Abstract:
Compared with the single tree detector, the layered orthogonal lattice detector (LORD), developed by Siti et al., is a well-known soft-output multiple input multiple output detector to exploit parallel tree traversals to deliver data with times of detection throughput rate. The preprocessing QR-decomposition (QRD) of the -by- channel matrix for the single tree detector is of complexity proportional to . However, the preprocessing QRD for the LORD needs to compute the permuted channel matrices that are constructed from the original -by- channel matrix through the root conditioning criterion. The original LORD algorithm for this root conditioning QRD (RC-QRD) relies on the Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization and is of complexity proportional to for large . In this brief, we apply the Givens rotation and take advantage of the relationships among the permuted matrices to develop an RC-QRD algorithm with complexity proportional to . Furthermore, when , our proposed RC-QRD hardware architecture requires gate count 2.1 times that required by the conventional triangular systolic array to compute a matrix QRD. Accordingly, with only about two times of complexity for the preprocessing RC-QRD, the LORD is able to perform tree traversals to deliver data with times of throughput rate.
Autors: Tsung-Hsien Liu;Yi-Kuang Ko;Yen-Ju Chiu;Wen-Yen Lin;Yuan-Sun Chu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 186 - 190
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Harmonically-Driven Snapping of a Micromachined Bistable Mechanism With Ultra-Small Actuation Stroke
Abstract:
In this paper, we study the snapping action of a micromachined bistable mechanism harmonically driven with an ultra-small actuation stroke, which is realized through the mode amplification in a two-degrees-of-freedom (2-DOF) vibration system using an on-chip electrostatic actuator. The micromachined bistable mechanism is based on a curved beam configuration. The dynamic response of the device is theoretically predicted with the harmonic balance method. Further, to demonstrate this proposed study, a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) prototype device is designed, fabricated, and tested. In experiments, the forward and backward state switching actions of the prototype device are realized with actuation stroke smaller than , while the traveling distance between the two states is about . To the best of our knowledge, we demonstrate for the first time the state switching of a cured beam bistable mechanism using harmonic driving in a 2-DOF vibration system. This paper has potential in applications including MEMS switches and MEMS filters. [2017-0221]
Autors: Han Du;Fook Siong Chau;Guangya Zhou;
Appeared in: Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 27, issue:1, pages: 34 - 39
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Harnessing Laguerre-Gaussian Beams to Construct Quasi-Nondiffracting Optical Ring Lattices
Abstract:
We construct a family of optical ring lattices that manifest the quasi-nondiffracting property via superposition of high-radial-order Laguerre-Gaussian beams. A theoretical derivation of the optical ring lattice along with the validity condition is presented, and its evolution behaviors are investigated in comparison with the diffraction-free Bessel beams. Moreover, multiple ultralong bright channels or optical tubes with various transverse profiles can be formed with the ring optical lattices. As a proof of concept, flexible generation of the lattice beams was demonstrated by complex wavefront engineering using a binary digital micromirror device. We anticipate that the quasi-nondiffracting ring lattices and the ultralong optical channels might motivate novel applications in optical trapping and high-resolution microscopy.
Autors: Qian Zhao;Lei Gong;Xin-Yao Hu;Pan-Pan Yu;Zi-Qiang Wang;Yin-Mei Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 1 - 7
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hello, World!—Code Responsibly
Abstract:
Many security exploits target vulnerabilities that are a result of poorly designed and implemented software. Despite its critical importance, secure coding is primarily taught in upper-level elective computer science (CS) classes. As a result, most students graduate with little or no exposure to secure coding techniques. We believe that it is important to teach responsible coding early, starting in the first programming course, and often, by repeating and reinforcing security concepts in advanced courses. At Towson University, we have developed modules that teach students to code securely and responsibly from the first class: the Security Injections @Towson project.
Autors: Siddharth Kaza;Blair Taylor;Kyle Sherbert;
Appeared in: IEEE Security & Privacy
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 16, issue:1, pages: 98 - 100
Publisher: IEEE
 
» HEMEsPred: Structure-Based Ligand-Specific Heme Binding Residues Prediction by Using Fast-Adaptive Ensemble Learning Scheme
Abstract:
Heme is an essential biomolecule that widely exists in numerous extant organisms. Accurately identifying heme binding residues (HEMEs) is of great importance in disease progression and drug development. In this study, a novel predictor named HEMEsPred was proposed for predicting HEMEs. First, several sequence- and structure-based features, including amino acid composition, motifs, surface preferences, and secondary structure, were collected to construct feature matrices. Second, a novel fast-adaptive ensemble learning scheme was designed to overcome the serious class-imbalance problem as well as to enhance the prediction performance. Third, we further developed ligand-specific models considering that different heme ligands varied significantly in their roles, sizes, and distributions. Statistical test proved the effectiveness of ligand-specific models. Experimental results on benchmark datasets demonstrated good robustness of our proposed method. Furthermore, our method also showed good generalization capability and outperformed many state-of-art predictors on two independent testing datasets. HEMEsPred web server was available at http://www.inforstation.com/HEMEsPred/ for free academic use.
Autors: Jian Zhang;Haiting Chai;Bo Gao;Guifu Yang;Zhiqiang Ma;
Appeared in: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 147 - 156
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hepta-Band Coupled-Fed Loop Antenna For LTE/WWAN Unbroken Metal-Rimmed Smartphone Applications
Abstract:
A hepta-band coupled-fed loop antenna for LTE/WWAN unbroken metal-rimmed smartphone applications is proposed. The unbroken metal rim is designed as a part of the loop antenna radiation structure, which is also composed of a system ground, a coupled-fed U-shaped microstrip line, and an L-shaped microstrip line. The feeding and L-shaped microstrip lines are located on an ungrounded area of 72 × 8 mm2 along the top short edge of the system ground plane on an FR4 substrate. The operating band of the antenna is widened by the matching circuit elements on the feeding line. Combining multiple resonant modes generated by the coupling loop, the proposed antenna can operate on two wide operating bands of 824–960 and 1710–2690 MHz. The detailed working principles of the proposed antenna are described. Good antenna radiation characteristics are obtained. Both experimental and simulation results are presented and discussed.
Autors: Zi-Qiang Xu;Qiang-Qiang Zhou;Yong-Ling Ban;Simon S. Ang;
Appeared in: IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 311 - 314
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Heuristic Algorithm for a WIP Projection Problem at Finite Capacity in Semiconductor Manufacturing
Abstract:
In this paper, we propose a heuristic approach for fixing work-in-progress (WIP) projection issues in the semiconductor industry especially for high mix low volume facilities. The considered problem consists of estimating the start and end dates for each remaining process step of the production lots in the WIP and anticipating the fab loading taking into account the constraints of the maximum throughput of machines considered as capacity constraints and customer delivery commitments. The objective being to guarantee on-time delivery, we focus on minimizing the total weighted tardiness. We have formulated the problem into a mixed-integer programming and we have empirically shown its computational intractability. Due to the computational intractability using actual production data, a heuristic algorithm is proposed. It is an iterative finite capacity planning system that considers as inputs lots due dates and equipment capabilities and capacities. The performance of the heuristic is assessed using industrial instances. It turns out that it achieves targeted objectives with satisfactory results in terms of quality of the solution and computation time.
Autors: Emna Mhiri;Fabien Mangione;Mireille Jacomino;Philippe Vialletelle;Guillaume Lepelletier;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 31, issue:1, pages: 62 - 75
Publisher: IEEE
 
» HfO2/Ti Interface Mediated Conductive Filament Formation in RRAM: An Ab Initio Study
Abstract:
We address the role of the Ti/HfO2 interface on the conductive filament (CF) formation within the context of oxide-based resistive random access memories (OxRRAMs). We investigate oxygen defects formation and diffusion at the interface through ab initio calculations. The calculated diffusion energy barriers compare well with the available experimental data. Through the interface region charge analysis and the associated energies with O defect formation and migration into Ti, our results support a probable CF growth from the interface region toward the electron injecting electrode, which acts as a cathode. Hence, for a Ti/HfO2-based OxRRAM supported by the calculation results, we present a pertinent CF growth model by considering its earliest stages, which is relevant for device modeling.
Autors: Boubacar Traore;Philippe Blaise;Benoît Sklénard;Elisa Vianello;Blanka Magyari-Köpe;Yoshio Nishi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 507 - 513
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hierarchical Control Design for a Shipboard Power System With DC Distribution and Energy Storage Aboard Future More-Electric Ships
Abstract:
DC distribution is now becoming the major trend of future mobile power systems, such as more-electric aircrafts and ships. As dc distribution has different nature to the conventional ac system, a new design of well-structured control and management methods will be mandatory. In this paper, a shipboard power system with dc distribution and energy storage system (ESS) is picked as the study case. To meet the requirement of control and management of such a large-scale mobile power system, a hierarchical control design is proposed in this paper. In order to fully exploit the benefit of the ESS, as well as to overcome the limitation in controllability, a novel inverse-droop control method is proposed, in which the power sharing is according to the source characteristic, instead of their power rating. A frequency-division method is also proposed as an extension to the inverse-droop method for enabling a hybrid ESS and its autonomous operation. On the basis of the proposed methods, the control methods for management and voltage restoration levels are also proposed to establish a comprehensive control solution. Real-time simulations are carried out to validate the performance of the proposed control design under different operating conditions. When compared to more conventional droop-based approaches, the new proposal shows enhancement in efficiency.
Autors: Zheming Jin;Lexuan Meng;Josep M. Guerrero;Renke Han;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 14, issue:2, pages: 703 - 714
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hierarchical Coordinated Control of Flywheel Energy Storage Matrix Systems for Wind Farms
Abstract:
Flywheel energy storage technology plays an important role in enhancing the operation reliability and efficiency of wind power generation farms. This work investigates an aggregated connection topology of flywheel energy storage matrix system, which is composed of multiple flywheel energy storage system (FESS) units within a wind farm. Based on this architecture, an effective charge/discharge strategy is introduced in order to ensure cooperative operation among flywheels, so as to realize smooth power transients, quality regulation, and voltage restoration. For each FESS unit, a structurally simple and computationally inexpensive neural-adaptive proportional integration derivative (PID) control algorithm based on Lyapunov stability theory is developed to control each flywheel individually in coordinated and stable manner. The merits and benefits of the proposed method are validated and demonstrated by both numerical simulations and experimental results.
Autors: Junfeng Lai;Yongduan Song;Xiaoqiang Du;
Appeared in: IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 23, issue:1, pages: 48 - 56
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hierarchical Decentralized Optimization Architecture for Economic Dispatch: A New Approach for Large-Scale Power System
Abstract:
In this paper, a new hierarchical decentralized optimization architecture is proposed to solve the economic dispatch problem for a large-scale power system. Conventionally, such a problem is solved in a centralized way, which is usually inflexible and costly in computation. In contrast to centralized algorithms, in this paper we decompose the centralized problem into local problems. Each local generator only solves its own problem iteratively, based on its own cost function and generation constraint. An extra coordinator agent is employed to coordinate all the local generator agents. Besides, it also takes responsibility to handle the global demand supply constraint based on a newly proposed concept named virtual agent. In this way, different from existing distributed algorithms, the global demand supply constraint and local generation constraints are handled separately, which would greatly reduce the computational complexity. In addition, as only local individual estimate is exchanged between the local agent and the coordinator agent, the communication burden is reduced and the information privacy is also protected. It is theoretically shown that under proposed hierarchical decentralized optimization architecture, each local generator agent can obtain the optimal solution in a decentralized fashion. Several case studies implemented on the IEEE 30-bus and the IEEE 118-bus are discussed and tested to validate the proposed method.
Autors: Fanghong Guo;Changyun Wen;Jianfeng Mao;Jiawei Chen;Yong-Duan Song;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 14, issue:2, pages: 523 - 534
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hierarchical Force and Positioning Task Specification for Indirect Force Controlled Robots
Abstract:
Indirect force control (IFC) architectures are a common approach for dealing with unknown environments. What all IFC schemes have in common is that the relation between the set point and the actual configuration of the robot is determined by a mechanical relationship (e.g., a mass–spring–damper system). In this paper, we propose a set-point generation method for IFC schemes, enabling intuitive specification of mixed force and positioning tasks on joint and Cartesian levels. In addition, the formulation of equality and inequality tasks is supported and a passivity-based stability proof is formulated using the concept of virtual energy storage. The resulting task programming interface is demonstrated on a 7-degree-of-freedom robot, running a joint space impedance controller. One sample task demonstrates the application of the developed approach and highlights the basic features.
Autors: Ewald Lutscher;Emmanuel C. Dean-León;Gordon Cheng;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Robotics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 34, issue:1, pages: 280 - 286
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hierarchical System Modeling
Abstract:
In this study, we present a methodology of building a hierarchical framework of system modeling by engaging concepts and design methodology of granular computing. We demonstrate that it arises as a result of designing and using locally constructed models to develop a model of a global nature. Two main categories of development of hierarchical models are proposed and discussed. In the first one, given a collection of local models, designed is a granular output space and the ensuing hierarchical model produces information granules of the corresponding type depending upon the depth of the hierarchy of the overall hierarchical structure. The crux of the second category of modeling is about selecting one of the original models and elevating its level of information granularity so that it becomes representative of the entire family of local models. The formation of the most “promising” granular model identified in this way involves mechanisms of allocation of information granularity. The focus of the study is on information granules represented as intervals and fuzzy sets (which in case of type-2 information granules lead to so-called granular intervals and interval-valued fuzzy sets) while the detailed models come as rule-based architectures and neural networks. A series of experiments is presented along with a comparative analysis.
Autors: Rami Al-Hmouz;Witold Pedrycz;Abdullah Saeed Balamash;Ali Morfeq;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 258 - 269
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hierarchical Trajectory Planning of an Autonomous Car Based on the Integration of a Sampling and an Optimization Method
Abstract:
This paper presents a hierarchical trajectory planning based on the integration of a sampling and an optimization method for urban autonomous driving. To manage a complex driving environment, the upper behavioral trajectory planner searches the macro-scale trajectory to determine the behavior of an autonomous car by using environment models, such as traffic control device and objects. This planner infers reasonable behavior and provides it to the motion trajectory planner. For planning the behavioral trajectory, the sampling-based approach is used due to its advantage of a free-form cost function for discrete models of the driving environments and simplification of the searching area. The lower motion trajectory planner determines the micro-scale trajectory based on the results of the upper trajectory planning with the environment model. The lower planner strongly considers vehicle dynamics within the planned behavior of the behavioral trajectory. Therefore, the planning space of the lower planner can be limited, allowing for improvement of the efficiency of the numerical optimization of the lower planner to find the best trajectory. For the motion trajectory planning, the numerical optimization is applied due to its advantages of a mathematical model for the continuous elements of the driving environments and low computation to converge minima in the convex function. The proposed algorithms of the sampling-based behavioral and optimization-based motion trajectory were evaluated through experiments in various scenarios of an urban area.
Autors: Wonteak Lim;Seongjin Lee;Myoungho Sunwoo;Kichun Jo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 19, issue:2, pages: 613 - 626
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hierarchical, Portfolio Theory-Based Virtual Machine Consolidation in a Compute Cloud
Abstract:
Improving the energy efficiency of cloud computing systems has become an important issue because the electric energy bill for 24/7 operation of these systems can be quite large. The focus of this paper is on the virtual machine consolidation in a cloud computing system as a way of lowering daily energy consumption of the system. In contrast to the existing works that assume resource demands of virtual machines are given as scalar variables, this paper treats these demands as random variables with known means and standard deviations because the demands are not deterministic in many situations. These random variables may be correlated with one another, and there are several types of resources which can be performance bottlenecks. Therefore, both correlations and resource type heterogeneity must be considered. The virtual machine consolidation problem is thus formulated as a multi-capacity stochastic bin packing problem. This problem is NP-hard, so we present a heuristic method to efficiently solve the problem. Simulation results show that, in spite of its simplicity and scalability, the proposed method produces high quality solutions.
Autors: Inkwon Hwang;Massoud Pedram;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Services Computing
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 11, issue:1, pages: 63 - 77
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High Al-Content AlGaN Transistor With 0.5 A/mm Current Density and Lateral Breakdown Field Exceeding 3.6 MV/cm
Abstract:
We report on ultra-wide bandgap (UWBG) Al0.7Ga0.3N channel metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Employing reverse Al composition graded ohmic contact layers and 20 nm Al2O3 gate-dielectric, 250 nm thick Al0.7Ga0.3N:Si channel MOSFETs resulted in the maximum current density of 0.5 A/mm, which is the highest value reported for AlGaN channels with Al composition >0.25. Transistors with a gate-drain spacing ( of demonstrated a breakdown voltage ( of ~620 V, translating in an average lateral breakdown field of ~3.6 MV/cm. This work establishes UWBG AlGaN as a promising candidate for advanced RF applications.
Autors: Sanyam Bajaj;Andrew Allerman;Andrew Armstrong;Towhidur Razzak;Vishank Talesara;Wenyuan Sun;Shahadat H. Sohel;Yuewei Zhang;Wu Lu;Aaron R. Arehart;Fatih Akyol;Siddharth Rajan;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 39, issue:2, pages: 256 - 259
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High Dynamics Control for MMC Based on Exact Discrete-Time Model With Experimental Validation
Abstract:
Due to the complexity of the system, the control of the modular multilevel converter (MMC) constitutes an intense research activity. The stored energy inside the MMC presents a new degree of freedom, which can be exploited to provide ancillary services (oscillation damping for example). In order to do so, the response time of the energy loop has to be as fast as possible. However, when a cascaded approach is used to control the structure, this purpose cannot be achieved without fast inner loops. This paper presents a novel inner loops controller in order to obtain a high response dynamic. These controllers have been developed based on exact discrete-time models obtained from an analytic calculation of exponential of matrices. A pole placement method using feedback control has been chosen to derive their control laws. For stability matters, a pole location analysis is used to set appropriately the controller parameters, which are the sampling period and the controller gains. After validation with offline simulations and in order to show the advantages of the proposed controllers compared to the existing solutions, experimental tests have been performed using a real small-scale MMC.
Autors: Ahmed Zama;Abdelkrim Benchaib;Seddik Bacha;David Frey;Sébastien Silvant;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 477 - 488
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High Efficiency Quantum Cascade Lasers Based on Excited-States Injection
Abstract:
In this letter, quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) based on excited-states injection are presented. The operating voltage is significantly reduced compared with the conventional ground-state injection design. Devices emitting at were fabricated through standard buried-heterostructure processing. Stable single-mode emission was observed by implementing a buried first-order distributed feedback (DFB) grating. The maximum output power of the DFB QCL with 2-mm cavity length was more than 300 mW at 10 °C with a high wall-plug efficiency of 5.6% in continuous-wave mode.
Autors: Chuan-Wei Liu;Jin-Chuan Zhang;Feng-Min Cheng;Yue Zhao;Ning Zhuo;Shen-Qiang Zhai;Li-Jun Wang;Jun-Qi Liu;Shu-Man Liu;Feng-Qi Liu;Zhan-Guo Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 30, issue:4, pages: 299 - 302
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High Frequency SSVEP-BCI With Hardware Stimuli Control and Phase-Synchronized Comb Filter
Abstract:
We present an efficient implementation of brain–computer interface (BCI) based on high-frequency steady state visually evoked potentials (SSVEP). Individual shape of the SSVEP response is extracted by means of a feedforward comb filter, which adds delayed versions of the signal to itself. Rendering of the stimuli is controlled by specialized hardware (BCI Appliance). Out of 15 participants of the study, nine were able to produce stable response in at least eight out of ten frequencies from the 30–39 Hz range. They achieved on average 96±4% accuracy and 47±5 bit/min information transfer rate (ITR) for an optimized simple seven-letter speller, while generic full-alphabet speller allowed in this group for 89±9% accuracy and 36±9 bit/min ITR. These values exceed the performances of high-frequency SSVEP-BCI systems reported to date. Classical approach to SSVEP parameterization by relative spectral power in the frequencies of stimulation, implemented on the same data, resulted in significantly lower performance. This suggests that specific shape of the response is an important feature in classification. Finally, we discuss the differences in SSVEP responses of the participants who were able or unable to use the interface, as well as the statistically significant influence of the layout of the speller on the speed of BCI operation.
Autors: Anna Chabuda;Piotr Durka;Jarosław Żygierewicz;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 26, issue:2, pages: 344 - 352
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High Performance Parallel Single-Phase Converter Reconfiguration for Enhanced Availability
Abstract:
Paralleling power converters is a common practice in industries to enhance total power rating, reliability, and availability of the system. In case of fault occurring in systems with parallel converters, the faulty power converter can be isolated and the system can still be operated at reduced power level. In this paper, a grid-connected power converter consisting of two parallel H-bridge converters with low ground leakage current is considered. Two contingency configurations, that are also of low ground leakage current, are proposed to enhance the availability of the system. This is done by reconfiguring the power circuit to a single H-bridge in the case of failure in one of the bridges. The power converter is experimentally tested with the proposed configurations for experimental validation. The results show that the second configuration has better performance in terms of power loss and current total harmonic distortion when operating at lower power level.
Autors: Mohammad Hassan Hedayati;Vinod John;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 388 - 394
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High Sensitivity Optical Fiber Curvature Sensor Based on Cascaded Fiber Interferometer
Abstract:
A highly sensitive optical fiber curvature sensor based on cascaded fiber interferometers (CFIs) is demonstrated theoretically and experimentally. Theoretical results show that the scheme of cascaded fiber interferometers can be regarded as an equivalent fiber interferometer with longer interference length and narrower FSR. It serves as a curvature sensor with sensitivity up to 4.362 nm/m−1 within the measurement range of 0–1.134 m−1. Compared to the single fiber modal interferometer, the curvature sensitivity of the CFI is almost doubled. In addition, simultaneous curvature and temperature measurement is achieved using the coefficient matrix method, eliminating the issue of temperature cross sensitivity.
Autors: Shandong Dong;Bo Dong;Changyuan Yu;Yongxin Guo;
Appeared in: Journal of Lightwave Technology
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 36, issue:4, pages: 1125 - 1130
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Efficiency mosfet-Based MMC Design for LVDC Distribution Systems
Abstract:
Low-voltage dc (LVdc) distribution networks have the potential to release larger capacity without having to upgrade the existing cables. One of the main challenges of LVdc networks is the extra customer-end dc–ac conversion stage. This paper proposes and evaluates a five-level Si mosfet-based modular multilevel converter (MMC) as a promising alternative to the conventional two-level insulated gate bipolar transistor-based converter. This is due to the comparatively higher efficiency, power quality and reliability, and reduced electromagnetic (EM) emissions. A comprehensive analysis of a Si mosfet five-level MMC converter design is performed to investigate the suitability of the topology for LVdc applications. Detailed theoretical analysis of the five-level MMC is presented, with simulated and experimental results to demonstrate circuit performance. To suppress the ac circulating current, especially the dominant second harmonics, this paper presents a double line-frequency proportional integral (PI) with orthogonal imaginary axis control method. Comparison of simulation and experimental results with those for double line-frequency proportional resonant control shows that the proposed PI controller has a better performance. In addition, it is simpler to implement and more immune to sampling/discretization errors.
Autors: Yanni Zhong;Nina Roscoe;Derrick Holliday;Tee Chong Lim;Stephen J. Finney;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 321 - 334
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Efficiency Input and Output Harmonically Engineered Power Amplifiers
Abstract:
This paper presents an in-depth, systematic study of the impact of input and output harmonics in the design of high-efficiency power amplifiers (PAs). The study evaluates the performance of harmonically tuned amplifiers, tackling concurrently both input and output harmonics. The proposed theory starts with deriving an altered input voltage waveform under the impact of input nonlinearity. Intrinsic drain voltage and drain current components are formulated as a function of the conduction angle considering both source and load terminations. Output power and drain efficiency are then computed as a function of input nonlinearity, , and output loading conditions. The derived formulations allow to investigate the design sensitivity to input nonlinearity and its impact on fundamental design space. The impact of source harmonics is evaluated using harmonic source pull under different output loading conditions. Thereafter, PA design and implementation has been carried out using NXP 1.95 mm die to confirm the distinctive behavior of class GF and GF−1 amplifiers with respect to the input harmonic terminations. For practical validation, four different design cases with different second harmonic source impedances are investigated. At 2.6 GHz, drain efficiencies ranging between 76% and 83% were exhibited depending on the source and load harmonic tuning for each design case. Measurement results confirm the theoretical findings reported in this paper.
Autors: Tushar Sharma;E. R. Srinidhi;Ramzi Darraji;Damon G. Holmes;Joseph Staudinger;Jeffrey K. Jones;Fadhel M. Ghannouchi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 1002 - 1014
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Level Programming Abstractions for Distributed Graph Processing
Abstract:
Efficient processing of large-scale graphs in distributed environments has been an increasingly popular topic of research in recent years. Inter-connected data that can be modeled as graphs appear in application domains such as machine learning, recommendation, web search, and social network analysis. Writing distributed graph applications is inherently hard and requires programming models that can cover a diverse set of problems, including iterative refinement algorithms, graph transformations, graph aggregations, pattern matching, ego-network analysis, and graph traversals. Several high-level programming abstractions have been proposed and adopted by distributed graph processing systems and big data platforms. Even though significant work has been done to experimentally compare distributed graph processing frameworks, no qualitative study and comparison of graph programming abstractions has been conducted yet. In this survey, we review and analyze the most prevalent high-level programming models for distributed graph processing, in terms of their semantics and applicability. We review 34 distributed graph processing systems with respect to the graph processing models they implement and we survey applications that appear in recent distributed graph systems papers. Finally, we discuss trends and open research questions in the area of distributed graph processing.
Autors: Vasiliki Kalavri;Vladimir Vlassov;Seif Haridi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 30, issue:2, pages: 305 - 324
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Order-Tilted Fiber Bragg Gratings With Superposed Refractive Index Modulation
Abstract:
A high-order-tilted fiber Bragg gratings (HO-TFBG) with superposed refractive index (RI) modulation written by a femtosecond laser and a phase mask has been demonstrated. The superposed grating structure is realized by the combined action of the pure ±1 order pulses interference and the heat accumulation effect of ±1 order and zero-order pulses. For the phase mask with the pitch of 3.33 μm, there are 11 groups of high-order Bragg resonance and cladding mode resonances sets in the wavelength range of 600–1700 nm, the information carried by which is doubled compared to the HO-TFBG written by pure two beams interference. It demonstrates that the sensitivities of the cladding mode resonances sets to surrounding RI, axial strain and temperature decrease with the increase of the grating order.
Autors: Xuan-Yu Zhang;Chao Chen;Yong-Sen Yu;Wei-Hua Wei;Qi Guo;Yong-Yi Chen;Xing Zhang;Li Qin;Yong-Qiang Ning;Hong-Bo Sun;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 1 - 8
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Performance MMIC Inductors for GaN-on-Low-Resistivity Silicon for Microwave Applications
Abstract:
Novel MMIC spiral inductors on GaN-on-low-resistivity silicon (LR-Si) substrates () are demonstrated with enhanced self-resonance frequency () and -factor. The developed technology improves inductor performance by suppressing substrate coupling effects using air-bridge technology above benzocyclobutene dielectric as an interface layer on the lossy substrate. A 0.83-nH spiral inductor with peak -factor enhancement of 57% ( at 24 GHz) and maximum of 59 GHz was achieved because of the extra 5- elevation in air. An accurate broad-band model for the fabricated inductors has been developed and verified for further performance analysis up to 40 GHz. The proposed inductors utilize cost-effective, reliable, and MMIC-compatible technology for the realization of high-performance RF GaN-on-LR Si MMIC circuits for millimeter-wave applications.
Autors: A. Eblabla;X. Li;D. J. Wallis;I. Guiney;K. Elgaid;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 28, issue:2, pages: 99 - 101
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Performance Ultrasound Needle Transducer Based on Modified PMN-PT Ceramic With Ultrahigh Clamped Dielectric Permittivity
Abstract:
A modified Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) polycrystalline ceramic with ultrahigh relative clamped dielectric permittivity () and high piezoelectric properties ( pC/N, ) was used to fabricate high-frequency miniature ultrasound transducers. A 39-MHz high-frequency ultrasound needle transducer with a miniature aperture of 0.4 mm mm was designed and successfully characterized. The fabricated needle transducer had an electromechanical coupling factor of 0.55, large bandwidth of 80% at −6 dB, and low insertion loss of −13 dB. A wire phantom and porcine eyeball imaging study showed good imaging capability of this needle transducer. The transducer performance was found to be superior to that of other needle transducers with miniature apertures, making this modified PMN-PT ceramic-based needle transducer quite promising for minimally invasive procedures in medical applications.
Autors: Zhiqiang Zhang;Fei Li;Ruimin Chen;Tianfu Zhang;Xiaodong Cao;Shujun Zhang;Thomas R. Shrout;Hairong Zheng;K. Kirk Shung;Mark S. Humayun;Weibao Qiu;Qifa Zhou;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 223 - 230
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Purity Sine Wave Generation Using Nonlinear DAC With Predistortion Based on Low-Cost Accurate DAC–ADC Co-Testing
Abstract:
Data converters are among the most widely used components in modern integrated devices and systems. A major challenge is to characterize their performances accurately and cost effectively. The analog-to-digital converter (ADC) standard test requires the input sinusoidal signal to be 3–4 b better than that of the ADC under test. Such high-quality sine waves are extremely difficult to generate and challenging to implement cost effectively. This paper presents a novel method that is capable of generating a high-purity sine wave using a nonlinear digital-to-analog converter (DAC), whose purity is significantly better than the original DAC output. In addition, with the aid of the low-cost DAC–ADC co-testing method, both DAC and ADC linearity information are accurately obtained with only 1 hit per code. Therefore, it is possible to add DAC linearity information to the DAC input codes, which cancels the nonlinearity of the DAC at output to achieve high purity. The proposed method has been validated by extensive simulation and measurement results, which demonstrated its accuracy and robustness against different resolutions, structures, or performance of the ADCs/DACs. With its low cost and easy test setup, such high-purity sine wave can be widely used for various applications where precision testing is required. In addition, the ADC and DAC linearity information is accurately obtained at the same time without any precision instrumentation, which is suitable for accurate DAC–ADC co-testing.
Autors: Yuming Zhuang;Benjamin Magstadt;Tao Chen;Degang Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 67, issue:2, pages: 279 - 287
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Q Tuneable 10-GHz Bragg Resonator for Oscillator Applications
Abstract:
This paper describes the design, simulation, and measurement of a tuneable 9.365-GHz aperiodic Bragg resonator. The resonator utilizes an aperiodic arrangement of non (/4) low-loss alumina plates (, loss tangent of to ) mounted in a cylindrical metal waveguide. Tuning is achieved by varying the length of the center section of the cavity. A multi-element bellows/probe assembly is presented. A tuning range of 130 MHz (1.39%) is demonstrated. The insertion loss varies from −2.84 to −12.03 dB while the unloaded Q varies from 43 788 to 122 550 over this tuning range. At 10 of the 13 measurement points, the unloaded Q exceeds 1 00 000, and the insertion loss is above −7 dB. Two modeling techniques are discussed; these include a simple ABCD circuit model for rapid simulation and optimization and a 2.5-D field solver, which is used to plot the field distribution inside the cavity.
Autors: Simon J. Bale;Pratik D. Deshpande;Mark Hough;Stuart J. Porter;Jeremy K. A. Everard;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 281 - 291
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Quality Soft Video Delivery With GMRF-Based Overhead Reduction
Abstract:
Soft video delivery i.e. analog video transmission has been proposed to provide high video quality in unstable wireless channels. However existing analog schemes need to transmit a significant amount of metadata to a receiver for power allocation and decoding operations causing large overhead and quality degradation due to rate and power losses. To reduce the overhead while keeping the video quality high we propose a new analog transmission scheme. Our scheme exploits a Gaussian Markov random field for modeling video sequences to significantly reduce the required amount of metadata which are obtained by fitting into the Lorentzian function. Our scheme achieves not only reduced overhead but also improved video quality by using the fitting function and parameters for metadata. Evaluations using several test video sequences demonstrate that the proposed scheme reduces overhead by 99.7% with -dB improvement of video quality (in terms of peak signal-to-noise ratio) compared to the existing analog video transmission scheme. We also investigate the impact of bandwidth limitation showing a significant gain up to  dB for narrow-band systems.
Autors: Takuya Fujihashi;Toshiaki Koike-Akino;Takashi Watanabe;Philip V. Orlik;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Multimedia
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 20, issue:2, pages: 473 - 483
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Resolution RFI Localization Using Covariance Matrix Augmentation in Synthetic Aperture Interferometric Radiometry
Abstract:
Radio frequency interference (RFI) is a significant limiting factor in the retrieval of geophysical parameters measured by microwave radiometers. RFI localization is crucial to mitigate or remove the RFI impacts. In this paper, a novel RFI localization approach using covariance matrix augmentation in synthetic aperture interferometric radiometry (SAIR) is proposed. It utilizes the property of the sparse array configuration, which is commonly used in SAIR, where the sparse array can be viewed as a virtual filled array with much larger number of antenna elements. The approach can be applied in SAIR with a sparse array configuration, such as the European Space Agency Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission. Results on real SMOS data show that, compared with the previous approach, the presented approach has an improved performance of RFI localization with comparable accuracy of localization, such as improved spatial resolution, lower sidelobes, and larger identifiable number of RFIs.
Autors: Jun Li;Fei Hu;Feng He;Liang Wu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 56, issue:2, pages: 1186 - 1198
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Responsivity Si Photodiodes at 1060 nm in Standard CMOS Technology
Abstract:
Photodetection with high responsivity at the wavelength of 1060 nm is highly desirable for light detection and ranging (LiDAR) as well as the recent emergence of swept-source optical coherent tomography (SS-OCT) applications. However, the absorption coefficient of Si material at 1060 nm under the bias of 0 V is very low due to its approach to the absorption bandgap edge of Si material. In this letter, the carrier-collection-enhanced structure is proposed, which functions as multiple carrier collection paths, which enhances the external quantum efficiency of photodiodes. An efficient Si photodiode with responsivity of 0.49 A/W at 1060 nm at 0 V is demonstrated, which is 2.5 times of that of commercial products. The cost-effective fabrication of Si photodiodes greatly enhances the system performance of LiDAR and OCT.
Autors: Xia Guo;Qiaoli Liu;Hongyi Zhou;Xinxin Luan;Chong Li;Zonghai Hu;Anqi Hu;Xiaoying He;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 39, issue:2, pages: 228 - 231
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Speed InP-Based p-i-n Photodiodes With InGaAs/GaAsSb Type-II Quantum Wells
Abstract:
We present and discuss the performance characteristics of InP-based p-i-n photodiodes (PDs) with InGaAs/GaAsSb type-II multiple quantum wells absorption regions designed to absorb light at mid-infrared wavelengths. Top-illuminated and waveguide-integrated PDs are fabricated with dark currents as low as 100 nA at −2 V, an external responsivity as high as 0.27 A/W at 2 and 0.3 A/W at 1.55 , and a 3-dB bandwidth of 3.5 GHz at 2 .
Autors: Bassem Tossoun;Robert Stephens;Ye Wang;Sadhvikas Addamane;Ganesh Balakrishnan;Archie Holmes;Andreas Beling;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 30, issue:4, pages: 399 - 402
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Speed Low-Complexity Guided Image Filtering-Based Disparity Estimation
Abstract:
Stereo vision is a methodology to obtain depth in a scene based on the stereo image pair. In this paper, we introduce a discrete wavelet transform (DWT)-based methodology for a state-of-the-art disparity estimation algorithm that resulted in significant performance improvement in terms of speed and computational complexity. In the initial stage of the proposed algorithm, we apply DWT to the input images, reducing the number of samples to be processed in subsequent stages by 50%, thereby decreasing computational complexity and improving processing speed. Subsequently, the architecture has been designed based on this proposed methodology and prototyped on a Xilinx Virtex-7 FPGA. The performance of the proposed methodology has been evaluated against four standard Middlebury Benchmark image pairs viz. Tsukuba, Venus, Teddy, and Cones. The proposed methodology results in the improvement of about 44.4% cycles per frame, 52% frames/s, and 61.5% and 59.6% LUT and register utilization, respectively, compared with state-of-the-art designs.
Autors: Charan Kumar Vala;Koushik Immadisetty;Amit Acharyya;Charles Leech;Vibishna Balagopal;Geoff V. Merrett;Bashir M. Al-Hashimi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 606 - 617
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Time Resolved Two-Dimensional Tetra-Lateral Position-Sensitive Silicon Photomultiplier
Abstract:
A 2D tetra-lateral position-sensitive silicon photomultiplier (PS-SiPM) has the advantages of high position and photon-number resolutions and only four readout channels for imaging application. However, its time resolution is limited by the position-dependent transmission time-delay effect. In this letter, we report a method to deduct the time jitter caused by transmission time delay and to significantly improve the time resolution of PS-SiPM. Instrument response function of as low as 177.6 ps (full width at half maximum) and position measured error of were obtained at a mean photoelectron number (MPEN) of approximately 14 for the device with active area of and micro-APD cell number of . The single photon position resolution was . The position resolution was improved from 214.9 to when the MPEN increased from 2.3 to 42. Thus, a PS-SiPM with simultaneous high time, position, and photon-number resolutions is realized.
Autors: Tianqi Zhao;Yu Peng;Baicheng Li;Ran He;Kun Liang;Ru Yang;Dejun Han;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 39, issue:2, pages: 232 - 235
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Highly Biased Linear Condition Method for Separately Extracting Source and Drain Resistance in MOSFETs
Abstract:
A highly biased linear current method (HBLCM) for separately extracting source and drain resistance ( and ) in MOSFETs is proposed. The technique can be applied to a single device by using simple modeling. Compared to other methods, it provides accurate values of and because it considers carrier mobility degradation. The method basically uses linear current versus gate voltage ( and ) characteristics before and after the source/drain interchange ( and ). Afterward, by using the traditional Y-function and subsequent resistance modeling in a highly biased linear condition, and can be separately extracted. In order to evaluate and verify the accuracy of HBLCM, an external resistor was intentionally connected to a source electrode of a device, and the resulting change in source resistance was detected using the proposed method. Moreover, to demonstrate an application of the proposed method, internal resistance deliberately created by hot-carrier injection (HCI) was linked to a drain electrode, thereby changing drain resistance. The changed drain resistance was also sensed by the HBLCM. Af- erward, the HCI-stressed device was cured by electrothermal annealing driven by Joule heating, and the recovery was again clearly observed using the proposed method.
Autors: Gun-Hee Kim;Hagyoul Bae;Jae Hur;Choong-Ki Kim;Geon-Beom Lee;Tewook Bang;Yoon-Ik Son;Seong-Wan Ryu;Yang-Kyu Choi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 419 - 423
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Highly Sensitive Optical Detector for Precision Measurement of Coulomb Coupling Strength Based on a Double-Oscillator Optomechanical System
Abstract:
An optomechanical system combining a Coulomb interaction degree of freedom provides a unique platform for precision measurement of electrical charges via the optomechanically induced transparency. A new property of a second-order sideband in a double-oscillator optomechanical system is investigated beyond the conventional linearized description of optomechanical interaction. The results show that the single-second-order sideband will split into the double-second-order sideband under a weak driving field, and the separation of the split second-order sideband shows a strong dependence on the Coulomb coupling strength. Based on the current experimental conditions, such a Coulomb-interaction-induced split of the second-order sideband may enable an all-optical sensor for precision measurement of the Coulomb coupling strength with lower power.
Autors: Zeng-Xing Liu;Bao Wang;Cui Kong;Hao Xiong;Ying Wu;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 1 - 11
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Highly Sensitive Terahertz Gas Sensor Based on Surface Plasmon Resonance With Graphene
Abstract:
One of the most important applications of THz frequencies is biomedical sensing. However, in a THz range, surface plasmon waves on flat metals are not confined and therefore cannot be used for subwavelength sensing. But, it has been shown that graphene can support surface waves at THz frequencies, which has similar properties as plasmonic waves in an optical range. In this paper, a highly sensitive gas sensor in the terahertz frequencies by exciting surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of graphene is proposed. The results show that the proposed SPR gas sensor has high stability and high sensitivity (S), and the highest Smax (∼147°/RIU) has been obtained by optimizing the Fermi energy, the thickness of the dielectric layer, and the incident light frequency. Moreover, the S of the proposed THz sensor for different refractive index (RI) of gas sensing medium (n1) is also discussed.
Autors: Yuanjiang Xiang;Jiaqi Zhu;Leiming Wu;Qi You;Banxian Ruan;Xiaoyu Dai;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 1 - 7
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Highly Sensitive Two-Axis Bending Sensor Based on Arc-Induced Long Period Fiber Grating in Dual Side-Hole Fiber
Abstract:
A highly sensitive two-axis bending sensor based on long period fiber grating (LPFG) in a dual side-hole fiber (DSHF) is presented and experimentally investigated. The LPFG is fabricated by periodically collapsing a piece of DSHF with automatic arc discharge technology. The existence of the two air holes in the DSHF makes the cladding modes, regardless of the polarization state, concentrate in the area perpendicular to the connection of the two holes. Such a feature leads to quite different bending responses at the directions perpendicular and parallel to the connection of the air holes, which makes the DSHF-based LPFG suitable for two-axis bending measurement. The bending sensitivity of the LPFG are 21.03 nm/m-1 and 15.77 dB/m-1 at the orthogonal directions, respectively. Besides, compared with the general arc-induced LPFGs in solid fibers, the size of the DSHF-based LPFG is effectively reduced because the periodic air hole collapse in the DSHF causes a large geometric deformation of the fiber core and increases coupling coefficient between the core and cladding modes. The sensing characteristics of strain, polarization, surrounding refractive index, and temperature are also investigated in our experiment.
Autors: Yang Ouyang;Huiyong Guo;Xiaowei Ouyang;Xiaofeng Xu;Ciming Zhou;Ai Zhou;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 1 - 9
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Highly Sensitive Two-Dimensional Bending Vector Sensor Using an Elliptic Two-Core PCF
Abstract:
A highly sensitive and simple all-fiber interferometric two-dimensional (2D) bending vector sensor is demonstrated. Fiber interferometer works in reflection mode and formed by manually splicing a small section of elliptic two-core photonic crystal fiber at the end of a single-mode fiber. Due to the birefringence nature of the two cores, the fiber device exhibits orientation-dependent bend sensitivity which is different for different polarization states. A high sensitivity of 6.49 nm/mm is achieved for bending along the -direction, and the rms deviations for bending in the - and -directions are estimated to be 0.015 and 0.098 mm, respectively, by using the matrix method. The device is immune to bend-induced power fluctuation.
Autors: Khurram Naeem;Youngjoo Chung;Il-Bum Kwon;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 30, issue:3, pages: 273 - 276
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hollow Core Antiresonant Fiber With Radially Asymmetric Nodeless Claddings
Abstract:
We propose and numerically study a novel type of hollow core antiresonant fiber with a single layer of nodeless radially asymmetric cladding tubes, i.e., the cladding tube presents a bulb-like shape, that the local cladding curvature radius at the core/cladding boundary is larger than the other side. Compared with counterparts with conventionally used radially symmetric nodeless claddings, e.g., circular and elliptical tubes, numerical analysis shows that such structure can provide excellent broadband low-loss property and robust single-mode guidance. By tuning the local cladding tube curvature radius, the confinement loss characteristic can be less sensitive but the phase matching between core high-order modes (HOMs) and resonant cladding modes can be significantly enhanced than that of the elliptical structure. Since the cladding modal fields are moved closer to those of the core HOMs, the HOM extinction ratio can reach above 104 and maintain over an octave of bandwidth.
Autors: Tao-Ying Yu;Xuesong Liu;Zhong-Wei Fan;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 1 - 8
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Holographic Data Coding: Benchmarking and Extending HEVC With Adapted Transforms
Abstract:
Holography is an emerging technology to represent and display visual information with high expectations in terms of user experience. A hologram is a reproduction of a light field represented through the interference pattern between two wavefields the reference and the object wavefields. Whatever their creation process holograms may have a digital representation using some appropriate format. Moreover considering the huge amounts of data involved digital holographic data have to be compressed using appropriate coding solutions for example available image coding standard solutions or efficient extensions of them. In this context this paper contributes to advance the state-of-the-art on holographic data coding by: 1) benchmarking the most relevant available image coding standard solutions when using the most relevant holographic data representation formats; 2) proposing a novel mode depend directional transform-based HEVC coding solution trained with holographic data. Experimental results obtained under meaningful test conditions show that the proposed coding solution outperforms the state-of-the-art HEVC coding standard for specific formats and conditions. Altogether these two contributions are critical to understand the current status quo and advance the state-of-the-art on holographic data coding.
Autors: José Pedro Peixeiro;Catarina Brites;João Ascenso;Fernando Pereira;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Multimedia
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 20, issue:2, pages: 282 - 297
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Homeostatic Fault Tolerance in Spiking Neural Networks: A Dynamic Hardware Perspective
Abstract:
Fault tolerance is a remarkable feature of biological systems and their self-repair capability influence modern electronic systems. In this paper, we propose a novel plastic neural network model, which establishes homeostasis in a spiking neural network. Combined with this plasticity and the inspiration from inhibitory interneurons, we develop a fault-resilient robotic controller implemented on an FPGA establishing obstacle avoidance task. We demonstrate the proposed methodology on a spiking neural network implemented on Xilinx Artix-7 FPGA. The system is able to maintain stable firing (tolerance ±10%) with a loss of up to 75% of the original synaptic inputs to a neuron. Our repair mechanism has minimal hardware overhead with a tuning circuit (repair unit) which consumes only three slices/neuron for implementing a threshold voltage-based homeostatic fault-tolerant unit. The overall architecture has a minimal impact on power consumption and, therefore, supports scalable implementations. This paper opens a novel way of implementing the behavior of natural fault tolerant system in hardware establishing homeostatic self-repair behavior.
Autors: Anju P. Johnson;Junxiu Liu;Alan G. Millard;Shvan Karim;Andy M. Tyrrell;Jim Harkin;Jon Timmis;Liam J. McDaid;David M. Halliday;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 687 - 699
Publisher: IEEE
 
» How Robust Is Your Development Team?
Abstract:
Given the collaborative nature of software development, a robust team is a necessity for project success in both commercial and open source environments. That is, in the event of developers’ absence due to various reasons, how could it potentially disrupt a team’s routine operations? This article offers an automatic approach to intuitively visualize development team hierarchy, quantify overall team robustness, and identify the point (developers) of risk for team robustness. An investigation of six Apache open source projects has shown its effectiveness. This article is part of a special issue on Actionable Analytics for Software Engineering.
Autors: Lu Xiao;Zhongyuan Yu;Bohong Chen;Xiao Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Software
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 35, issue:1, pages: 64 - 71
Publisher: IEEE
 
» How to Build PIC-MCC Models for Hall Microthrusters
Abstract:
This paper gives instructions on how to build a 3-D particle-based model of a Hall microthruster. Due to nonequilibrium character induced by low electron thermalization and isotropization rates, presence of different microinstabilities and strong plasma-surface interaction, a multidimensional and kinetic description is necessary. The different modules characterizing the particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo collision cycle are described presenting the last algorithms developed. The model is applied to the study of an SPT20 configuration. Results confirm the importance of a 3-D structure of the discharge with self-organized azimuthal structures. Important deviations from Maxwellian behavior have been detected.
Autors: Pierpaolo Minelli;Francesco Taccogna;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 46, issue:2, pages: 219 - 224
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Human-Driven Edge Computing and Communication: Part 2
Abstract:
Examines the new challenges posed by human-driven edge computing. The massive proliferation of personal computing devices is opening new human-centered designs that blur the boundaries between man and machine. In addition, edge services are also used to exchange the data collected and processed within the context of the IoT towards external services and/or to visualize them through traditional browser by the users. Now, the frontier for the research on the data management is related to the so-called edge computation and communication, consisting of an architecture of one or more collaborative multitude(s) of computing nodes that are placed between the sensor networks and the cloud-based services. Such a mediating level is responsible for carrying out a substantial amount of data storage and processing to reduce the retrieval time and have more control over the data with respect to cloud-based services, and to consume less resources and energy to reduce the workload.
Autors: Jiannong Cao;Aniello Castiglione;Giovanni Motta;Florin Pop;Yanjiang Yang;Wanlei Zhou;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 56, issue:2, pages: 134 - 135
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Humanitarian Activities Make a Difference [President's Message]
Abstract:
Presents the President’s message for this issue of the publication.
Autors: Tomy Sebastian;
Appeared in: IEEE Industry Applications Magazine
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 24, issue:1, pages: 4 - 5
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hybrid AC/DC Post-Contingency Power-Flow Algorithm Considering Control Interaction of Asynchronous Area
Abstract:
This paper presents an approach for the calculation and estimation of control interactions between asynchronous power systems coupled via multi-terminal high-voltage direct current grids using static analysis methods. This aims at possible application within online security assessment where, as of today, static analysis methods are still a common practice. Therefore, the postcontingency power flow is evaluated using an integrated approach for the solution of AC and DC systems in the power-flow algorithm. Thereby, equations for DC voltage control and AC frequency control of converter stations, generators, loads as well as wind turbines with frequency support are embedded into the extended system Jacobian. The results show that by using the proposed approach, the post-contingency power-flow situation can be accurately determined and the frequency changes in each subsystem can be sufficiently tracked. Using an application example of an offshore power system with frequency support by offshore wind turbines, all results have been validated against dynamic simulation, while simulation models and controllers are provided. It is shown that active power balancing controls of AC and DC systems could have a high impact on line loadings and need to be respected for security analyses.
Autors: Tobias Hennig;Lutz Hofmann;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 340 - 348
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hybrid Fuzzy Decoupling Control for a Precision Maglev Motion System
Abstract:
This paper presents a hybrid fuzzy decoupling control strategy, and its implementation for leveling and positioning a maglev wafer carrier in an integrated circuit (IC) packaging application. The maglev platform possesses micron scale positioning and can carry the wafers with precision motion between workstations. Because the maglev system is open-loop unstable, there are strong nonlinear interactions between electromagnets and the exact nonlinear system model is unknown, it is hard to achieve a good decoupling control performance by using conventional control strategy. Therefore, in this paper, a hybrid fuzzy decoupling control with good decoupling performance is proposed. The decoupling control uses a master–slave structure, which consists of a linear master decoupling control term and a nonlinear slave intelligent compensation term. The master decoupling term decouples the main interactions of the coupled maglev system. Using the decoupled main system as reference, the slave intelligent term compensates the nonlinear interactions. Furthermore, for this control strategy, establishing the exact linear or nonlinear model is not necessary, only an approximated linear model is needed. The experimental results show that the proposed control strategy decouples most of the interactions between the electromagnetic actuators. Experimental comparisons also highlight that the master–slave decoupling control has shorter settling time and smaller steady-state error than a conventional adaptive fuzzy controller and proportional-integral-differential controller.
Autors: Haibo Zhou;Hua Deng;Ji'an Duan;
Appeared in: IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 23, issue:1, pages: 389 - 401
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hybrid Labels Are the New Measure!
Abstract:
Developing minimum viable products (MVPs) is critical for start-up companies to hit the market fast with an accepted level of performance. The US Food and Drug Administration mandates additional nonfunctional requirements in healthcare systems, meaning that the MVP should provide the best availability, privacy, and security. This critical demand is motivating companies to further rely on analytics to optimize the development process. In a collaborative project with Brightsquid, the authors provided a decision-support system based on analogical reasoning to assist in effort estimation, scoping, and assignment of change requests. This experience report proposes a new metric, change request labels, for better prediction. Using different methods for textual-similarity analysis, the authors found that the combination of machine-learning techniques with experts’ manually added labels has the highest prediction accuracy. Better prediction of change impacts allows a company to optimize its resources and provide proper timing of releases to target MVPs. This article is part of a special issue on Actionable Analytics for Software Engineering.
Autors: Maleknaz Nayebi;Shaikh Jeeshan Kabeer;Guenther Ruhe;Chris Carlson;Francis Chew;
Appeared in: IEEE Software
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 35, issue:1, pages: 54 - 57
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hybrid LISA Precoding for Multiuser Millimeter-Wave Communications
Abstract:
Millimeter-wave (mm-wave) communications plays an important role in future cellular networks because of the vast amount of spectrum available in the underutilized mm-wave frequency bands. To overcome the huge free space omnidirectional path loss in those frequency bands, the deployment of a very large number of antenna elements at the base station is crucial. The complexity, power consumption, and costs resulting from the large number of antenna elements can be reduced by limiting the number of RF chains. This leads to hybrid precoding and combining, which, in contrast to the traditional fully digital precoding and combining, moves a part of the signal processing from the digital to the analog domain. This paper proposes new algorithms for the design of hybrid precoders and combiners in a multiuser scenario. The algorithms are based on the previously proposed linear successive allocation method developed for the traditional fully digital version. It successively allocates data streams to users and suppresses the respective interstream interference in two stages, which perfectly matches the hybrid architecture. Furthermore, a low-complexity version is developed by exploiting the typical structure of mm-wave channels. The good performance of the proposed method and its low-complexity version is demonstrated by simulation results.
Autors: Wolfgang Utschick;Christoph Stöckle;Michael Joham;Jian Luo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 752 - 765
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hybrid Lithium Iron Phosphate Battery and Lithium Titanate Battery Systems for Electric Buses
Abstract:
Electric buses face problems of short driving range, slow charging, and high cost. To improve the performance of electric buses, a novel hybrid battery system (HBS) configuration consisting of lithium iron phosphate (LFP) batteries and Li-ion batteries with a Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) material anode is proposed. The configuration and control of the HBS are first studied, and a LFP battery degradation model is built. Simulation result indicates that the HBS can help us to mitigate LFP battery degradation. Then, the HBS is optimally sized for electric buses to achieve minimum cost. The daily bus operation and charging patterns as well as LFP battery degradation are considered. The optimal HBS has 10.7% and 19.3% lower total cost than the single LTO-battery and LFP-battery configurations, and has higher range flexibility than the single LTO-battery configuration.
Autors: Xiaobin Zhang;Huei Peng;Hewu Wang;Minggao Ouyang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 67, issue:2, pages: 956 - 965
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hybrid Particle Swarm Optimization Combined With Genetic Operators for Flexible Job-Shop Scheduling Under Uncertain Processing Time for Semiconductor Manufacturing
Abstract:
Semiconductor manufacturing is a complicated flexible job-shop scheduling problem (FJSP) of combinatorial complexity. Because of the adoption of advanced process control and advanced equipment control, the processing time in advanced wafer fabs become uncertain. Existing approaches considering constant processing time may not be appropriate to address the present problem in a real setting. In practice, processing times can be represented as intervals with the most probable completion time somewhere near the middle of the interval. A fuzzy number that is a generalized interval can represent this processing time interval exactly and naturally. This paper developed a hybrid approach integrating a particle swarm optimization algorithm with a Cauchy distribution and genetic operators (HPSO+GA) for solving an FJSP by finding a job sequence that minimizes the makespan with uncertain processing time. In particular, the proposed hybridized HPSO+GA approach employs PSO for creating operation sequences and assigning the time and resources for each operation, and then uses genetic operators to update the particles for improving the solution. To estimate the validity of the proposed approaches, experiments were conducted to compare the proposed approach with conventional approaches. The results show the practical viability of this approach. This paper concludes with discussions of contributions and recommends directions for future research.
Autors: Thitipong Jamrus;Chen-Fu Chien;Mitsuo Gen;Kanchana Sethanan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 31, issue:1, pages: 32 - 41
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hybrid-Domain Parallel Decision Feedback Equalization for Single-Carrier Block Transmission
Abstract:
To combat intersymbol interference (ISI) in single-carrier block transmission systems, the hybrid decision feedback equalizer (HDFE) is a low-complexity, symbol-by-symbol detector that combines a frequency-domain feedforward filter and a time-domain feedback filter. To mitigate the error propagation effect of HDFE while preserving the implementation advantages of frequency-domain equalization, we propose the parallel HDFE (P-HDFE) algorithm that operates, based on the reliability of the decision variable, as an ordinary HDFE or a sequence detector that consists of multiple HDFEs running in parallel. Our study shows that, at moderate to high signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs), P-HDFE outperforms HDFE with little increase in complexity. We analyze the symbol error rate of P-HDFE at high SNRs for the case of quaternary phase-shift keying and static ISI channels, accounting for error propagation and residual ISI. Simulations demonstrate the accuracy of the analysis.
Autors: Jiun-Jie Jia;Kuei-Chiang Lai;Jian-Yu Pan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 67, issue:2, pages: 1454 - 1469
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hybridly Connected Structure for Hybrid Beamforming in mmWave Massive MIMO Systems
Abstract:
In this paper, we propose a hybridly connected structure for hybrid beamforming in millimeter-wave (mmWave) massive MIMO systems, where the antenna arrays at the transmitter and receiver consist of multiple sub-arrays, each of which connects to multiple radio frequency (RF) chains, and each RF chain connects to all the antennas corresponding to the sub-array. In this structure, through successive interference cancelation, we decompose the precoding matrix optimization problem into multiple precoding sub-matrix optimization problems. Then, near-optimal hybrid digital and analog precoders are designed through factorizing the precoding sub-matrix for each sub-array. Furthermore, we compare the performance of the proposed hybridly connected structure with the existing fully and partially connected structures in terms of spectral efficiency, the required number of phase shifters, and energy efficiency. Finally, simulation results are presented to demonstrate that the spectral efficiency of the hybridly connected structure is better than that of the partially connected structure and that its spectral efficiency can approach that of the fully connected structure with the increase in the number of RF chains. Moreover, the proposed algorithm for the hybridly connected structure is capable of achieving higher energy efficiency than existing algorithms for the fully and partially connected structures.
Autors: Didi Zhang;Yafeng Wang;Xuehua Li;Wei Xiang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Communications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 662 - 674
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hyperconnected Network: A Decentralized Trusted Computing and Networking Paradigm
Abstract:
With the development of the Internet of Things, a complex CPS system has emerged and is becoming a promising information infrastructure. In the CPS system, the loss of control over user data has become a very serious challenge, making it difficult to protect privacy, boost innovation, and guarantee data sovereignty. In this article, we propose HyperNet, a novel decentralized trusted computing and networking paradigm, to meet the challenge of loss of control over data. HyperNet is composed of the intelligent PDC, which is considered as the digital clone of a human individual; the decentralized trusted connection between any entities based on blockchain as well as smart contract; and the UDI platform, enabling secure digital object management and an identifier-driven routing mechanism. HyperNet has the capability of protecting data sovereignty, and has the potential to transform the current communication-based information system to the future data-oriented information society.
Autors: Hao Yin;Dongchao Guo;Kai Wang;Zexun Jiang;Yongqiang Lyu;Ju Xing;
Appeared in: IEEE Network
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 32, issue:1, pages: 112 - 117
Publisher: IEEE
 
» I Walk, Therefore I Am: Continuous User Authentication with Plantar Biometrics
Abstract:
The comprehensive evolution of information communication technologies on mobile sensing objects has led to the provision of versatile ubiquitous network services embedded with specific- purpose modern sensors and intelligent wearable devices. The universal Internet connectivity of such smart objects has brought about a new era of ubiquitous application development for the Internet of Things. Meanwhile, security has become critically important. In the past decade, academia and industry have dedicated great efforts to the design of continuous authentication for multi-modal networks. Multiform authentication bio-tokens have been introduced for continuous entity identification and verification. With the rapid growth and universality of wearable devices, in this article we target continuous authentication for the IoT-based environment with users possessing wearable healthcare (and wellness) related smart objects. To present the state of the art, we provide a comprehensive review of continuous authentication in recent years. Critical characteristics of new biometrics are then introduced. Second, we present a wearable plantar bio-feature extractor constructed via commercial pressure sensors and the Raspberry PI platform. The prototype is adopted to retrieve user plantar bio-data as the raw (and training) data in the proposed authentication system. Third, we apply machinelearning- based techniques to derive a user's plantar bio-features as authentication tokens in the system to support continual (and real-time) entity verification in the background without the user's notice.
Autors: Kuo-Hui Yeh;Chunhua Su;Wayne Chiu;Lu Zhou;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 56, issue:2, pages: 150 - 157
Publisher: IEEE
 
» I&M in energy efficiency [Trends in Future I&M]
Abstract:
Energy is around us, either from natural origin or created by humankind, and has deeply transformed our lives on how we interact with the environment. We take for granted, mainly in the developed world, its obtainability and almost endless supply. Just an example: we get 325,000 times more light from artificial sources now than at the end of the 19th Century, as any night satellite photo can confirm.
Autors: Santiago Barcon;
Appeared in: IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 21, issue:1, pages: 44 - 45
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Identification of Flux Linkage Map of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines Under Uncertain Circuit Resistance and Inverter Nonlinearity
Abstract:
This paper proposes a novel scheme for the identification of the whole flux linkage map of permanent magnet synchronous machines, by which the map of dq-axis flux linkages at different load or saturation conditions can be identified by the minimization of a proposed estimation model. The proposed method works on a conventional three-phase inverter based vector control system and the immune clonal based quantum genetic algorithm is employed for the global searching of minimal point. Besides, it is also noteworthy that the influence of uncertain inverter nonlinearity and circuit resistance are cancelled during the modeling process. The proposed method is subsequently tested on two PMSMs and shows quite good performance compared with the finite element prediction results.
Autors: Kan Liu;Jianghua Feng;Shuying Guo;Lei Xiao;Zi-Qiang Zhu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 14, issue:2, pages: 556 - 568
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Identification of Particles of Ionizing Radiation by the Analysis of Fluorescence Pulse Form of the Thin Pen Film Scintillator
Abstract:
Polyethylene 2.6-naphthalate (PEN) is a promising plastic scintillator material. In this paper, a thin PEN film was used for detection, identification, and energy spectrum measurements of various ionizing radiation particles. A thin PEN film was used to separate (5.49 MeV) and (up to 2.2 MeV) particles coming from 238Pu and 90Sr + 90Y sources, respectively, as well as for the neutron (up to 14 MeV) and gamma separation from the isotopic PuBe neutron source. Acquired photomultiplier pulses were analyzed by the long tail method based on the delayed fluorescence intensity dependence on the mass and charge of particles absorbed. For determination of the separation quality, the figure of merit (FOM), based on the ratio of short and long tails, was used. It was found that depending on the FOM values of neutron/gamma and separation, the thin PEN film is suitable for the ionizing radiation particle separation.
Autors: J. Garankin;A. Plukis;R. Plukienė;E. Lagzdina;V. Remeikis;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 739 - 743
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Identifying Core Concepts of Cybersecurity: Results of Two Delphi Processes
Abstract:
This paper presents and analyzes results of two Delphi processes that polled cybersecurity experts to rate cybersecurity topics based on importance, difficulty, and timelessness. These ratings can be used to identify core concepts–cross-cutting ideas that connect knowledge in the discipline. The first Delphi process identified core concepts that should be learned in any first course on cybersecurity. The second identified core concepts that any cybersecurity professional should know upon graduating from college. Despite the rapidly growing demand for cybersecurity professionals, it is not clear what defines foundational cybersecurity knowledge. Initial data from the Delphi processes lay a foundation for defining the core concepts of the field and, consequently, provide a common starting point to accelerate the development of rigorous cybersecurity education practices. These results provide a foundation for developing evidence-based educational cybersecurity assessment tools that will identify and measure effective methods for teaching cybersecurity. The Delphi results can also be used to inform the development of curricula, learning exercises, and other educational materials and policies.
Autors: Geet Parekh;David DeLatte;Geoffrey L. Herman;Linda Oliva;Dhananjay Phatak;Travis Scheponik;Alan T. Sherman;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Education
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 61, issue:1, pages: 11 - 20
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Identifying the Requirements for Qualified, Unqualified, and Competent Persons Electrical Safety Training
Abstract:
This paper provides an understanding of what constitutes a qualified person, an unqualified person, and a competent person. Also included are the training requirements for each classification. The principles for performing a needs assessment, a job/task analysis, and job hazard analysis are addressed as they relate to the information gathering needed for the development of an effective training program. This gathered information applies to all personnel who are, or may be, exposed to electrical hazards, and who may work on, near, or interact with the electrical systems and equipment.
Autors: Dennis K. Neitzel;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 5 - 9
Publisher: IEEE
 
» IEC/IEEE 60079-30 Standard, Parts 1 and 2: An Introduction to the Joint Standard for Trace Heating in Explosive Atmospheres
Abstract:
In 2015, the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and the IEEE released the jointly developed standard IEC/IEEE 60079-30, Parts 1 and 2 [1]. The IEE sponsor was the IEE Industry Applications Society (IAS) Petroleum and Chemical Industry Technical Conference (PCIC), and the IEC sponsor was IEC Technical Committee (TC) 31, Equipment for Explosive Atmospheres. The joint development combined the requirements and recommendations of IEEE 515 [2] with IEC 60079-30-1, 2007-01 [3] and IEC 60079-30-2, 2007-01 [4]. This joint development represented the complete harmonization of the international, IEC , and North American certification and design requirements for trace heating in explosive atmospheres. In addition to type tests for product certification, this standard has extensive requirements so that certifying bodies can determine the manufacturer's ability to predict maximum sheath temperatures for trace heaters in explosive atmospheres. This article provides a background for understanding the joint development process and provides an overview of the key technical requirements found in the standards.
Autors: Ben C. Johnson;Richard H. Hulett;
Appeared in: IEEE Industry Applications Magazine
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 24, issue:1, pages: 32 - 41
Publisher: IEEE
 
» IEEE AP-S Chapter News and Activities Planned for 2018 [Chapter News]
Abstract:
Autors: Ajay K. Poddar;
Appeared in: IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 60, issue:1, pages: 8 - 13
Publisher: IEEE
 
» IEEE Student Branch Awards [The Way Ahead]
Abstract:
Presents the recipients of the IEEE Student Branch Awards.
Autors: J. Patrick Donohoe;
Appeared in: IEEE Potentials
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 37, issue:1, pages: 4 - 4
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Image Autoregressive Interpolation Model Using GPU-Parallel Optimization
Abstract:
With the growth in the consumer electronics industry, it is vital to develop an algorithm for ultrahigh definition products that is more effective and has lower time complexity. Image interpolation, which is based on an autoregressive model, has achieved significant improvements compared with the traditional algorithm with respect to image reconstruction, including a better peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and improved subjective visual quality of the reconstructed image. However, the time-consuming computation involved has become a bottleneck in those autoregressive algorithms. Because of the high time cost, image autoregressive-based interpolation algorithms are rarely used in industry for actual production. In this study, in order to meet the requirements of real-time reconstruction, we use diverse compute unified device architecture (CUDA) optimization strategies to make full use of the graphics processing unit (GPU) (NVIDIA Tesla K80), including a shared memory and register and multi-GPU optimization. To be more suitable for the GPU-parallel optimization, we modify the training window to obtain a more concise matrix operation. Experimental results show that, while maintaining a high PSNR and subjective visual quality and taking into account the I/O transfer time, our algorithm achieves a high speedup of 147.3 times for a Lena image and 174.8 times for a 720p video, compared to the original single-threaded C CPU code with -O2 compiling optimization.
Autors: Jiaji Wu;Long Deng;Gwanggil Jeon;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 14, issue:2, pages: 426 - 436
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Image Class Prediction by Joint Object, Context, and Background Modeling
Abstract:
State-of-the-art image classification methods often use spatial pyramid matching or its variants to make use of the spatial layout of visual features. However, objects may appear at various places with different scales and orientations. Besides, traditionally object-centric-based methods only consider objects and the background without fully exploring the context information. To solve these problems, in this paper we propose a novel image classification method by jointly modeling the object, context, and background information (OCB). OCB consists of three components: 1) locate the positions of objects; 2) determine the context areas of objects; and 3) treat the other areas as the background. We use objectness proposal techniques to select candidate bounding boxes. Boxes with high confidence scores are combined to determine objects’ positions. To select the context areas, we use candidate boxes that have relatively lower confidence scores compared with boxes for object location selection. The other areas are viewed as the background. We jointly combine the object, context, and background for image representation and classification. Experiments on six data sets well demonstrate the superiority of the proposed OCB method over other spatial partition methods.
Autors: Chunjie Zhang;Guibo Zhu;Chao Liang;Yifan Zhang;Qingming Huang;Qi Tian;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 28, issue:2, pages: 428 - 438
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Image Classification With Tailored Fine-Grained Dictionaries
Abstract:
In this paper, we propose a novel fine-grained dictionary learning method for image classification. To learn a high-quality discriminative dictionary, three types of multispecific subdictionaries, i.e., class-specific dictionaries (CSDs), universal dictionary (UD), and family-specific dictionaries (FSDs), are simultaneously uncovered. Here, CSDs and UD, respectively, model the patterns for each class and the patterns irrespective of any class. FSDs can help reveal the shared patterns between multiple image classes, by filling the gap between the patterns in CSDs and UD. The dependence among image classes is revealed by the shared FSDs, and a common FSD can be assigned to several classes to represent their residual. Finally, the most discriminative FSD for each class is identified by minimizing the sparse reconstruction error. Extensive experiments are conducted on different widely used data sets for image classification. The results demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed method over some state-of-the-art methods.
Autors: Xiangbo Shu;Jinhui Tang;Guo-Jun Qi;Zechao Li;Yu-Gang Jiang;Shuicheng Yan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 28, issue:2, pages: 454 - 467
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Image Encryption Based on Interleaved Computer-Generated Holograms
Abstract:
An encryption method based on interleaved computer-generated holograms (CGHs) displayed by a spatial light modulator (SLM) is demonstrated. Arbitrary decrypted complex optical wave fields are reconstructed in the rear focal plane of two phase-only holograms, generated from original image using a vector decomposition algorithm. Two CGHs are encoded into one hologram by interleaving the column of pixels, which optically combines the optical wave fields of two neighboring phase-only modulated pixels. The designed image encryption system may avoid the inherent silhouette problem and alleviate the precise alignment requirements of interference encryption. Video encryption and real-time dynamic decryption is demonstrated using one SLM.
Autors: Dezhao Kong;Liangcai Cao;Xueju Shen;Hao Zhang;Guofan Jin;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 14, issue:2, pages: 673 - 678
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Image-Based Characterization of Alternative Fuel Combustion With Multifuel Burners
Abstract:
Many industrial high-temperature processes such as cement production employ multifuel burners in order to achieve the required energy input with low-cost alternative fuel. So far, a constant operation of multifuel burners with high fractions of alternative fuel (>70%) is not possible due to inherent fluctuating fuel properties. Energy input and product quality are directly affected by varying points of combustion time, different scattering of fuel, and insertion of unburned fuel or chemical substances into the product. We propose an image-processing system based on infrared images that detects the alternative fuel streakline and derives parameters for the characterization of the flight and burning behavior. Using these parameters, an adjustment of the burner settings depending on the fluctuating fuel properties can be carried out. This automatic monitoring and control of the combustion process allows an increased use of alternative fuels in constant operation. Experimental data from a rotary kiln for cement clinker production are used to validate the image-processing system.
Autors: Markus Vogelbacher;Patrick Waibel;Jörg Matthes;Hubert B. Keller;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 14, issue:2, pages: 588 - 597
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Imaging Corneal Biomechanical Responses to Ocular Pulse Using High-Frequency Ultrasound
Abstract:
Imaging corneal biomechanical changes or abnormalities is important for better clinical diagnosis and treatment of corneal diseases. We propose a novel ultrasound-based method, called ocular pulse elastography (OPE), to image corneal deformation during the naturally occurring ocular pulse. Experiments on animal and human donor eyes, as well as synthetic radiofrequency (RF) data, were used to evaluate the efficacy of the OPE method. Using very high-frequency ultrasound (center frequency = 55 MHz), correlation-based speckle tracking yielded an accuracy of less than 10% error for axial tissue displacements of or above. Satisfactory speckle tracking was achieved for out-of-plane displacements up to . Using synthetic RF data with or without a pre-defined uniform strain, the OPE method detected strains down to 0.0001 axially and 0.00025 laterally with an error less than 10%. Experiments in human donor eyes showed excellent repeatability with an intraclass correlation of 0.98. The measurement outcome from OPE was also shown to be highly correlated with that of standard inflation. These results suggest the feasibility of OPE as a potential clinical tool for evaluating corneal biomechanics in vivo.
Autors: Elias Pavlatos;Hong Chen;Keyton Clayson;Xueliang Pan;Jun Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 37, issue:2, pages: 663 - 670
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Immutable Authentication and Integrity Schemes for Outsourced Databases
Abstract:
Database outsourcing enables organizations to offload their data management overhead to the external service providers. Immutable signatures are ideal tools to provide authentication and integrity for such applications with an important property called immutability. Signature immutability ensures that, no attacker can derive a valid signature for unposed queries from previous queries and their corresponding signatures. This prevents an attacker from creating his own de-facto services via such derived signatures. Unfortunately, existing immutable signatures are very computation/communication costly, which make them impractical for real-life applications. In this paper, we developed three new schemes called practical and immutable signature bouquets (), which achieve efficient immutability for outsourced databases.  schemes are simple, non-interactive, and computation/communication efficient. Our generic scheme can be constructed from any aggregate signature coupled with a standard signature. Our specific scheme is constructed from Condensed-RSA and Sequential Aggregate RSA. It has a low verifier computational overhead and compact signature. Our third scheme offers the lowest end-to-end delay among existing alternatives by enabling efficient signature pre-computability. We provide formal security analysis of  schemes (in Random Oracle Model) and give a theoretical analysis on the relationship between signature immutability and signature extraction. We also showed that  schemes are more efficient than previous alternatives.
Autors: Attila Altay Yavuz;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 69 - 82
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Impact of Cross-Sectional Shape on 10-nm Gate Length InGaAs FinFET Performance and Variability
Abstract:
Three cross sections (rectangular, bullet shaped, and triangular), resulting from the fabrication process, of nanoscale In0.53Ga0.47As-on-insulator FinFETs with a gate length of 10.4 nm are modeled using in-house 3-D finite-element density-gradient quantum-corrected drift–diffusion and Monte Carlo simulations. We investigate the impact of the shape on – characteristics and on the variability induced by metal grain granularity (MGG), line-edge roughness (LER), and random dopants (RDs) and compared with their combined effect. The more triangular the cross section, the lower the OFF-current, the drain-induced-barrier-lowering, and the subthreshold slope. The ratio is three times higher for the triangular-shaped FinFET than for the rectangular-shape one. Independent of the cross section, the MGG variations are the preeminent fluctuations affecting the FinFETs, with four to two times larger than that from the LER and the RDs, respectively. However, the variability induced threshold voltage () shift is minimal for the MGG (around 2 mV), but shift increases 4-fold and 15-fold for the LER and the RDs, respectively. The cross-sectional shape has a very small influence in and OFF-current of the MGG, LER, and RD variabilities, both separated and in combination, with standard deviatio- differences of only 4% among the different device shapes. Finally, the statistical sum of the three sources of variability can predict simulated combined variability with only a minor overestimation.
Autors: Natalia Seoane;Guillermo Indalecio;Daniel Nagy;Karol Kalna;Antonio J. García-Loureiro;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 456 - 462
Publisher: IEEE
 

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