Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 02-2018 sorted by title, page: 15

» New products
Abstract:
Provides various new product announcements.
Autors: Robert Goldberg;
Appeared in: IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 21, issue:1, pages: 63 - 67
Publisher: IEEE
 
» New SMC Materials for Small Electrical Machine With Very Good Mechanical Properties
Abstract:
A new technology may be proposed for the realization of the magnetic parts of electromechanical devices, mainly for small electric machines. Such a technology provides the substitution of the traditional magnetic sheets with parts obtained by molding special magnetic powders [soft magnetic composites (SMC)]. The advantages may be constituted not only by economical reasons, but mostly by the possibility to realize parts having shapes otherwise impossible with the traditional lamination. Some commercial products are available in the market as “ready to press” powders, but their mechanical properties are in general not sufficient. To investigate the possibility to obtain good mechanical properties maintaining the magnetic characteristics of a selected commercial insulated iron powder compound, the authors have conducted a research activity based on the use of special iron powders and a selected epoxy resin as binder. The paper describes the activity carried out for the realization of SMC by mixing iron powders and Epoxy resin with different binder percentages and molding pressures. The obtained results have to be considered very satisfactory and suggest to continue the research argument to explore the possibilities of further improvements.
Autors: Marco Actis Grande;Luca Ferraris;Fausto Franchini;Emir Pošković;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 195 - 203
Publisher: IEEE
 
» New Version of “PaWaIC” Helix-TWT Particle-Wave Interaction Code Based on Pseudospectral Analytical Time-Domain Technique With Collocated Space and Time-Marching Scheme: “PaWaIC-PSATD-CSaT”
Abstract:
Pseudospectral solvers (i.e., demonstrating equations in spatial Fourier domain) have extraordinary accuracy that makes them attractive in numerical modeling research. In this paper, we introduce a new and efficient version of recently introduced code “PaWaIC” based on pseudospectral analytical time-domain implementation named “PaWaIC-PSATD-CSaT. ” This new code is validated by a traveling wave tube product measurement results and the previous version code “PaWaIC-PSAOFDTD” (with pseudospectral arbitrary-order accurate temporal and spatial derivatives finite-difference time-domain technique). We show that for a unique grid cell size and time step length, the new code PaWaIC-PSATD-CSaT realizes the phase velocity of the tube better than the earlier version PaWaIC-PSAOFDTD while still has a fast simulation time. As well, we demonstrate the ability of the new code for pulse amplification response of wideband tubes by a single-run simulation.
Autors: Amir Setayesh;Mohammad Sadegh Abrishamian;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 716 - 723
Publisher: IEEE
 
» New Year, continuing the journey [President's Message]
Abstract:
Greetings and best wishes for a happy and prosperous new year from the Instrumentation and Measurement Society! As engineers we often are faced with problems, and our first step is to assess the resources available to help us solve them. The IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Society (IMS) faces many of the same pressures and problems of the IEEE as a whole. As the new President of the IMS, I am greatly encouraged by the resources we have to solve them. It amazes me that people of such high caliber are dedicated enough to their profession to volunteer significant amounts of their valuable time. As members of the IMS, you have elected some wonderful people to provide leadership on the Administrative Committee (AdCom). I am truly honored to be serving as President of your society in 2018, and I believe I am well equipped through the talent on the AdCom to address our needs as a profession.
Autors: J. Max Cortner;
Appeared in: IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 21, issue:1, pages: 3 - 3
Publisher: IEEE
 
» No Overlength Page Charges for One Page of References
Abstract:
The IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation (TAP) has changed its editorial policy by allowing one free page of references, i.e., one page that does not incur overlength page charges, provided that such a page is used only for references.
Autors: Danilo Erricolo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 531 - 532
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Noise Adaptive Kalman Filter for Joint Polarization Tracking and Channel Equalization Using Cascaded Covariance Matching
Abstract:
We propose a noise adaptive Kalman filter for joint polarization tracking and channel equalization using cascaded covariance matching. With the process noise covariance (Q) and the measurement noise covariance (R) estimated in a cascaded manner, the proposed Kalman filter scheme can be implemented in adaptive mode. The experimental results demonstrate that in wide range of OSNR and polarization rotation, the scheme can adaptively configure noise covariance parameters and consequently can achieve optimal performance even in long transmission cases. Besides, the scheme is more robust against the initial errors in Q and R compared to nonadaptive filter and R /Q-adaptive algorithms with the allowable initial values of Q and R within 6 and 9 magnitudes, respectively.
Autors: Qun Zhang;Yanfu Yang;Qian Xiang;Qianwen He;Zhongqing Zhou;Yong Yao;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 1 - 11
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Noise Performance Comparison Between Continuous Wave and Stroboscopic Pulse Ground Penetrating Radar
Abstract:
Although stroboscopic pulse (SP) ground penetrating radar (GPR) is the most popular and widespread equipment for subsoil investigation, continuous-wave (CW) radar has better performance in terms of noise, system dynamic range, and penetration depth, at the expense of greater complexity and cost of the components. The aim of this letter is a direct comparison between SP GPR and CW GPR through an extensive measurement campaign in five different locations representative of the different conditions where a GPR could operate.
Autors: Massimiliano Pieraccini;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 15, issue:2, pages: 222 - 226
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Noise Reduction of Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography via Compressed Sensing
Abstract:
In this paper, we investigate noise reduction in swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT) using compressed sensing (CS). Multiple scan averaging is a classical method used to enhance the quality of OCT images by reducing the noise of a system. However, the conventional averaging method requires a repetitive scan at the same location and thus reduces the imaging speed. In this paper, the sparsity property of an OCT A-scan is utilized, and one full A-scan OCT image can be reconstructed from a portion of the acquired data during one sweep period using CS. Thus, multiple OCT A-scans can be reconstructed from a single sweep. The average A-scans yield a better quality than the single A-scan obtained from the whole data acquired during a sweep period. We demonstrate that the average of five reconstructed A-scans from a single sweep using CS offers an image quality and depth resolution similar to those obtained by averaging three sequential A-scans from three sweeps using the conventional averaging method. This proposed method can shorten the time required to perform repetitive scans and thus improve the imaging speed.
Autors: Site Luo;Qiang Guo;Hui Zhao;Xin An;Liang Zhou;Huikai Xie;Jianyu Tang;Xiao Wang;Hongwei Chen;Li Huo;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 1 - 9
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Non-interactive Identity-Based Underwater Data Transmission With Anonymity and Zero Knowledge
Abstract:
Due to the lack of security infrastructures for underwater wireless communications among vehicles, data transmission protocols typically use identity-based cryptography for protecting transmitted data. However, current identity-based cryptographic schemes transmit vehicles’ real identities along with the messages, which makes the communication schemes vulnerable to attacks. For example, the adversaries can infer real identities of the vehicles and thus collect important information about underwater vehicles, track them, and thus be in an advantageous position to attack them. In addition, during data transmission, adversaries can count the number of underwater vehicles that are communicating and thus evaluate the enemy's scale of operations. At the same time, due to the complex underwater environment, transmitted messages can be easily lost. Therefore, non-interactive data transmission schemes that ensure the underwater vehicles do not transmit additional messages for authentication and key establishment are needed. To address these needs, we present two novel non-interactive identity-based data transmission protocols. Similar to the protocols in this field, our protocols provide integrity and confidentiality protections for transmitted messages. However, as opposed to the other well-known approaches, our protocols do not expose information of vehicles’ real identities and use different identities for transmitting each message. By doing so, our protocols provide protection against adversaries’ collection of information about underwater vehicles. Moreover, in our protocols, underwater vehicles can transmit messages directly, without previously sending authentication and key establishment messages, thus achieving the non-interactivity goal. In addition, one of our protocol even permits vehicles transmitting messages without knowing any information about each other. Therefore, we posit that our- protocols are quite suitable for transmitting messages for underwater environment. Experimental results show that the proposed protocols are feasible for real-world applications.
Autors: Changsheng Wan;Vir Virander Phoha;Yuzhe Tang;Aiqun Hu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 67, issue:2, pages: 1726 - 1739
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Non-Rigid Event-by-Event Continuous Respiratory Motion Compensated List-Mode Reconstruction for PET
Abstract:
Respiratory motion during positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) imaging can cause significant image blurring and underestimation of tracer concentration for both static and dynamic studies. In this paper, with the aim to eliminate both intra-cycle and inter-cycle motions, and apply to dynamic imaging, we developed a non-rigid event-by-event (NR-EBE) respiratory motion-compensated list-mode reconstruction algorithm. The proposed method consists of two components: the first component estimates a continuous non-rigid motion field of the internal organs using the internal–external motion correlation. This continuous motion field is then incorporated into the second component, non-rigid MOLAR (NR-MOLAR) reconstruction algorithm to deform the system matrix to the reference location where the attenuation CT is acquired. The point spread function (PSF) and time-of-flight (TOF) kernels in NR-MOLAR are incorporated in the system matrix calculation, and therefore are also deformed according to motion. We first validated NR-MOLAR using a XCAT phantom with a simulated respiratory motion. NR-EBE motion-compensated image reconstruction using both the components was then validated on three human studies injected with 18F-FPDTBZ and one with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) tracers. The human results were compared with conventional non-rigid motion correction using discrete motion field (NR-discrete, one motion field per gate) and a previously proposed rigid EBE motion-compensated image reconstruction (R-EBE) that was designed to correct for rigid motion on a target lesion/organ. The XCAT results demonstrated that NR-MOLAR incorporating both PSF and TOF kernels effectively corrected for non-rigid motion. The 18F-FPDTBZ studies showed that NR-EBE out-performed NR-Discrete, and yielded comparable results with R-EBE on target organs while yielding superior image quality in other regions. The FDG study showed that NR- EBE clearly improved the visibility of multiple moving lesions in the liver where some of them could not be discerned in other reconstructions, in addition to improving quantification. These results show that NR-EBE motion-compensated image reconstruction appears to be a promising tool for lesion detection and quantification when imaging thoracic and abdominal regions using PET.
Autors: Chung Chan;John Onofrey;Yiqiang Jian;Mary Germino;Xenophon Papademetris;Richard E. Carson;Chi Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 37, issue:2, pages: 504 - 515
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Non-Uniform Wavelet Sampling for RF Analog-to-Information Conversion
Abstract:
Feature extraction, such as spectral occupancy, interferer energy and type, or direction-of-arrival, from wideband radio-frequency (RF) signals finds use in a growing number of applications as it enhances RF transceivers with cognitive abilities and enables parameter tuning of traditional RF chains. In power and cost limited applications, e.g., for sensor nodes in the Internet of Things, wideband RF feature extraction with conventional, Nyquist-rate analog-to-digital converters is infeasible. However, the structure of many RF features (such as signal sparsity) enables the use of compressive sensing (CS) techniques that acquire such signals at sub-Nyquist rates; while such CS-based analog-to-information (A2I) converters have the potential to enable low-cost and energy-efficient wideband RF sensing, they suffer from a variety of real-world limitations, such as noise folding, low sensitivity, aliasing, and limited flexibility. This paper proposes a novel CS-based A2I architecture called non-uniform wavelet sampling. Our solution extracts a carefully-selected subset of wavelet coefficients directly in the RF domain, which mitigates the main issues of existing A2I converter architectures. For multi-band RF signals, we propose a specialized variant called non-uniform wavelet bandpass sampling (NUWBS), which further improves sensitivity and reduces hardware complexity by leveraging the multi-band signal structure. We use simulations to demonstrate that NUWBS approaches the theoretical performance limits of -norm-based sparse signal recovery. We investigate hardware-design aspects and show ASIC measurement results for the wavelet generation stage, which highlight the efficacy of NUWBS for a broad range of RF feature extraction tasks in cost- and power-limited applications.
Autors: Michaël Pelissier;Christoph Studer;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 471 - 484
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Nonbinary Tree-Based Phylogenetic Networks
Abstract:
Rooted phylogenetic networks are used to describe evolutionary histories that contain non-treelike evolutionary events such as hybridization and horizontal gene transfer. In some cases, such histories can be described by a phylogenetic base-tree with additional linking arcs, which can, for example, represent gene transfer events. Such phylogenetic networks are called tree-based. Here, we consider two possible generalizations of this concept to nonbinary networks, which we call tree-based and strictly-tree-based nonbinary phylogenetic networks. We give simple graph-theoretic characterizations of tree-based and strictly-tree-based nonbinary phylogenetic networks. Moreover, we show for each of these two classes that it can be decided in polynomial time whether a given network is contained in the class. Our approach also provides a new view on tree-based binary phylogenetic networks. Finally, we discuss two examples of nonbinary phylogenetic networks in biology and show how our results can be applied to them.
Autors: Laura Jetten;Leo van Iersel;
Appeared in: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 205 - 217
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Nonlinear Characterization for Microstrip Circuits With Low Passive Intermodulation
Abstract:
Products of passive intermodulation (PIM) generated by weak nonlinearities of passive circuits subjected to relatively high transmit power of multicarrier signals may cause strong interference in emerging broadband and multiradio communication systems. This paper presents a new approach to a characterization of distributed nonlinearities in printed circuits fabricated on commercial grade microwave laminate materials. An efficient procedure for PIM characterization has been devised using the commercial RF-CAD software. The phenomenological model has been developed to take into account concurrent distributed nonlinearities of printed transmission lines and to evaluate PIM products of arbitrary order. It has been observed for the first time that the sources of nonlinearity in typical microstrip circuits may have highly uneven distributions which require a different means for PIM characterization and modeling. The proposed methodology has been validated by accurate predictions of the PIM response of complex circuit layouts. The results of this paper pave the way to a holistic approach to the design of planar microwave circuits and devices under given linearity constraints.
Autors: Alexey P. Shitvov;Dmitry S. Kozlov;Alexander G. Schuchinsky;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 865 - 874
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Nonlinear Hyperspectral Unmixing Based on Geometric Characteristics of Bilinear Mixture Models
Abstract:
Recently, many nonlinear spectral unmixing algorithms that use various bilinear mixture models (BMMs) have been proposed. However, the high computational complexity and intrinsic collinearity between true endmembers and virtual endmembers considerably decrease these algorithms’ unmixing performances. In this paper, we come up with a novel abundance estimation algorithm based on the BMMs. Motivated by BMMs’ geometric characteristics that are related to collinearity, we conduct a unique nonlinear vertex to replace all the virtual endmembers. Unlike the virtual endmembers, this vertex actually works as an additional true endmember that gives affine representations of pixels with other true endmembers. When the pixels’ normalized barycentric coordinates with respect to true endmembers are obtained, they will be directly projected to be their approximate linear mixture components, which removes the collinearity effectively and enables further linear spectral unmixing. After that, based on the analysis of projection bias, two strategies using the projected gradient algorithm and a traditional linear spectral unmixing algorithm, respectively, are provided to correct the bias and estimate more accurate abundances. The experimental results on simulated and real hyperspectral data show that the proposed algorithm performs better compared with both traditional and state-of-the-art spectral unmixing algorithms. Both the unmixing accuracy and speed have been improved.
Autors: Bin Yang;Bin Wang;Zongmin Wu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 56, issue:2, pages: 694 - 714
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Nonlocal Effect Compensation in Frequency-Fixed Probe Based BOTDA Sensor
Abstract:
The robustness of a recently proposed Brillouin optical time-domain analysis sensor based on dual-tone probe wave with fixed frequency separation is deeply studied. It is discovered that when the distribution of Brillouin frequency shift (BFS) along the sensing fiber is not entirely uniform, non-local effect might be imposed at the middle of sensing fiber, which gives rise to systematic frequency error on the local estimated BFS. Aiming at solving this problem, we propose an approach that acquires both the upper and lower probe sidebands simultaneously using two photodiodes, and the average between the Brillouin gain and loss spectral is calculated to eliminate the detrimental impact of the non-local effect. Moreover, the impact of probe power on the distortions of both pump pulse and Brillouin gain/loss spectrum is experimentally investigated, thus the maximum allowable power of the injection probe wave is determined.
Autors: Sheng Wang;Zhisheng Yang;Xiaobin Hong;Wenqiao Lin;Jian Wu;
Appeared in: Journal of Lightwave Technology
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 36, issue:4, pages: 1005 - 1010
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Not All Negatives Are Equal: Learning to Track With Multiple Background Clusters
Abstract:
Conventional tracking-by-detection approaches for visual object tracking often assume that the task at hand is a binary foreground-versus-background classification problem, in which the background is a single, generic, and all-inclusive class. In contrast, here we argue that the background appearance, for the most part, possesses a more complicated structure that would benefit from further partitioning into multiple contextual clusters. Our observation is that, although the background class is contemplated to contain a vast intra-class variation, during the tracking process, only a small portion of this diversity is present at the current frame around the foreground object. This observation motivates us to build multiple fine-grained foreground-versus-contextual-cluster models that provide more discriminative classifications, and consequently more robust and accurate foreground object tracking. For each cluster, we employ a structured output support vector machine (SSVM), and in an online manner, we combine the responses of multiple classifiers. To this end, we apply a top-level SSVM that models the tracked foreground object. We show that our refined modeling of the background is better than naïvely growing the complexity of a single foreground–background classifier, i.e., increasing the number of support vectors that existing approaches rely on, which cause overfitting issues. Our extensive evaluations on large benchmark data sets demonstrate that our tracker consistently outperforms the current state-of-the-art while having comparable computational requirements.
Autors: Gao Zhu;Fatih Porikli;Hongdong Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 28, issue:2, pages: 314 - 326
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Not All VANET Broadcasts Are the Same: Context-Aware Class Based Broadcast
Abstract:
A major building block of Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) is broadcasting: the use of wireless communication for sharing information among vehicles, or between the vehicles and infrastructure. Dozens of broadcast protocols have been developed in recent years, including protocols for 1-hop broadcasting of vehicle status information (beaconing) and for geocasting-based applications. However, most of these protocols were designed for one application and cannot co-exist, nor can one broadcast solution meet the demands of all applications. These observations motivated our effort to develop a holistic network layer for VANETs. We identify the need for making VANET broadcast context-aware, and for supporting four different classes of broadcast protocols, each with its own properties. These classes are not only able to co-exist on the same network layer, but also to complement one another’s functionality. Thus, large applications as well as more holistic Transport protocols can be designed by combining two or more broadcast classes. We discuss the specific characteristics of these classes and design candidate protocols for each class.
Autors: Falko Dressler;Florian Klingler;Christoph Sommer;Reuven Cohen;
Appeared in: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 17 - 30
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Not your Father's analog computer
Abstract:
WHEN NEIL ARMSTRONG and Buzz Aldrin landed on the moon in 1969 as part of the Apollo 11 mission, it was perhaps the greatest achievement in the history of engineering. Many people don't realize, though, that an important ingredient in the success of the Apollo missions and their predecessors were analog and hybrid (analog- digital) computers, which NASA used for simulations and in some cases even flight control. Indeed, many people today have never even heard of analog computers, believing that a computer is, by definition, a digital device.
Autors: Yannis Tsividis;
Appeared in: IEEE Spectrum
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 55, issue:2, pages: 38 - 43
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Novel Addressable Test Structure for Detecting Soft Failure of Resistive Elements When Developing Manufacturing Procedures
Abstract:
A novel addressable test structure for detecting soft failures of resistive elements is proposed. Its architecture is much simpler than that of previous works, but all functions needed to analyze the electrical properties of detected failures, for example, the aging test with overcurrent, can be realized within the architecture. This makes it more powerful than previous designs. Since the addressable test structure proposed here also has a smaller footprint, it can realize cost effective evaluations.
Autors: Shingo Sato;Yasuhisa Omura;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 31, issue:1, pages: 124 - 129
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Novel Design Space of Load Modulated Continuous Class-B/J Power Amplifier
Abstract:
A novel design space of load modulated (LM) continuous Class-B/J power amplifiers (PAs) is proposed, and a detailed mathematical analysis is presented. The combination of LM technique and continuous mode is introduced to enhance the wideband performance of LM PAs. An inversely proportional relationship between and is derived, which indicates that the nonlinear can affect the optimal load impedances at output power backoff (OPBO) and the design parameter should be appropriately adjusted. The measured results of a PA prototype show that the PAE is 39%–45% under LM when OPBO = 5 dB across 1.6–2.4 GHz. Compared with the same PA with fixed , the proposed PA with optimum at 2 GHz achieves a PAE improvement with 11% when OPBO = 5 dB.
Autors: Xuekun Du;Chang Jiang You;Jingye Cai;Mohamed Helaoui;Fadhel M. Ghannouchi;Yulong Zhao;Xiang Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 28, issue:2, pages: 156 - 158
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Novel Dynamic State-Deflection Method for Gate-Level Design Obfuscation
Abstract:
The emerging security threats in the integrated circuit supply chain do not only challenge the chip integrity, but also raise serious concerns on hardware intellectual property (IP) piracy. Hardware design obfuscation is a promising countermeasure to resist reverse engineering attacks and IP piracy. The majority of existing hardware obfuscation methods modify the original finite state machine (FSM) by adding additional state transitions and utilizing a key sequence to lock the transition from the nonfunctional states to the functional reset state. Those methods are effective to prevent attackers from entering the normal functional mode but they lack resilience if the FSM is already in the normal mode. This paper proposes to protect all the states with a low-cost state-deflection-based obfuscation method, which dynamically deflects state transitions from the original transition path to a black hole cluster if a wrong key is applied. Unlike other works that use static transitions between legal states to black hole states at the design time, this method utilizes a state rotation function (Rotatefunc) and selective register flipping function (Mapfunc) to dynamically control the state deflection paths. Hence, the difficulty of reverse engineering and thwarting register overwrite attacks is increased. Simulations performed on ISCAS’89 benchmark circuits show that the proposed method significantly reduces the difference of the net toggle activities between the correct and wrong key scenarios, and achieves up to 56% higher code coverage than the most efficient obfuscation method. Thanks to the dynamic deflection feature, on average, this method generates about 100 more unique state register patterns than other methods with moderate power increase. Moreover, the proposed method achieves the Hamming distance of primary outputs and state registers close to 50%.
Autors: Jaya Dofe;Qiaoyan Yu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 37, issue:2, pages: 273 - 285
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Novel High-Performance Bondwire Chip-to-Chip Interconnections for Applications Up to 220 GHz
Abstract:
This letter presents a novel chip-to-chip interconnect technology for millimeter-wave and ultra-wideband applications. The technique relies on magnetic coupling between half-loop bondwires to transfer power over pads of semiconductor dies provided with crack stops. Conventional aluminum wires with a diameter of are used to fabricate a set of low-cost half-loops, investigating the performance of the interface. The technique demonstrated minimum insertion loss of 1.9 dB over frequency bands wider than 40 GHz located in the band 140–220 GHz. Agreement with simulations is also shown. To the best of the author’s knowledge, the presented solution is the first bondwire chip-to-chip interconnections for ultra-wideband operations up to 220 GHz and suitable to chips provided with crack stops.
Autors: Paolo Valerio Testa;Corrado Carta;Frank Ellinger;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 28, issue:2, pages: 102 - 104
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Novel Particle Swarm Optimization-Based Variational Mode Decomposition Method for the Fault Diagnosis of Complex Rotating Machinery
Abstract:
The vibration signals of faulty rotating machinery are typically nonstationary, nonlinear, and mixed with abundant compounded background noise. To extract the potential excitations from the observed rotating machinery, signal demodulation and time–frequency analysis are indispensable. This work proposes a novel particle swarm optimization-based variational mode decomposition method, which adopts the minimum mean envelope entropy to optimize the parameters ( and ) in the existing variational mode decomposition. The proposed fault-detection framework separated the observed vibration signals into a series of intrinsic modes. A certain number of the intrinsic modes are then selected by means of the Hilbert transform-based square envelope spectral kurtosis. Subsequently, in this study, the feature representations were reconstructed via the selected intrinsic modes; then, the envelope spectra of the real faulty conditions were generated in the rotating machinery. To verify the performance of the proposed method, a testbed platform of a gearbox with a combination of different faults was implemented. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed method represented the patterns of the fault frequency more explicitly than the available empirical mode decomposition, the local mean decomposition, and the wavelet package transform method.
Autors: Xian-Bo Wang;Zhi-Xin Yang;Xiao-An Yan;
Appeared in: IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 23, issue:1, pages: 68 - 79
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Novel Quantitative Analytical Approaches for Rotor Identification and Associated Implications for Mapping
Abstract:
Goal: Clinical studies identifying rotors and confirming these sites for ablation in treating cardiac arrhythmias have had inconsistent results with the currently available analysis techniques. The aim of this study is to evaluate four new signal analysis approaches—multiscale frequency (MSF), Shannon entropy (SE), Kurtosis (Kt), and multiscale entropy (MSE)—in their ability to identify the pivot point of rotors. Methods: Optical mapping movies of ventricular tachycardia were used to evaluate the performance and robustness of SE, Kt, MSF, and MSE techniques with respect to several clinical limitations: decreased time duration, reduced spatial resolution, and the presence of meandering rotors. To quantitatively assess the robustness of the four techniques, results were compared to the “true” rotor(s) identified using optical mapping-based phase maps. Results: The results demonstrate that MSF, Kt, and MSE accurately identified both stationary and meandering rotors. In addition, these techniques remained accurate under simulated clinical limitations: shortened electrogram duration and decreased spatial resolution. Artifacts mildly affected the performance of MSF, Kt, and MSE, but strongly impacted the performance of SE. Conclusion: These results motivate further validation using intracardiac electrograms to see if these approaches can map rotors in a clinical setting and whether they apply to more complex arrhythmias including atrial or ventricular fibrillation. Significance: New techniques providing more accurate rotor localization could improve characterization of arrhythmias and, in turn, offer a means to accurately evaluate whether rotor ablation is a viable and effective treatment for chaotic cardiac arrhythmias.
Autors: Elizabeth M. Annoni;Shivaram Poigai Arunachalam;Suraj Kapa;Siva K. Mulpuru;Paul A. Friedman;Elena G. Tolkacheva;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 273 - 281
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Novel Radar Techniques and Applications [Book Review]
Abstract:
Autors: Hao Ling;
Appeared in: IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 60, issue:1, pages: 132 - 134
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Novel Single-Source Surface Integral Equation for Scattering Problems by 3-D Dielectric Objects
Abstract:
A new single-source integral equation is proposed for the solution of electromagnetic wave scattering problems. The traditional volume electric field integral equation is reduced to the new single-source surface integral equation by representing the electric field inside the scatterer as a superposition of spherical waves emanating from its boundary. Such new integral equation formulation has been previously developed for the scalar and vector cases of 2-D scattering problems. In this paper, the 3-D form of this new single-source surface integral equation for scattering on homogeneous nonmagnetic dielectrics is proposed. Detailed description of the method of moments (MoMs) discretization and its resultant matrices is presented. In order to validate the new integral equation formulation and verify the accuracy of its MoMs discretization, its solution is compared against the analytical Mie series solution and fields computed using the commercial electromagnetic analysis software.
Autors: Farhad Sheikh Hosseini Lori;Anton Menshov;Reza Gholami;Jamiu Babatunde Mojolagbe;Vladimir I. Okhmatovski;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 797 - 807
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Numerical Model Reduction for the Prediction of Interface Pressure Applied by Compression Bandages on the Lower Leg
Abstract:
Objective: To develop a new method for the prediction of interface pressure applied by medical compression bandages. Methods: A finite element simulation of bandage application was designed, based on patient-specific leg geometries. For personalized interface pressure prediction, a model reduction approach was proposed, which included the parametrization of the leg geometry. Pressure values computed with this reduced model were then confronted to experimental pressure values. Results: The most influencing parameters were found to be the bandage tension, the skin-to-bandage friction coefficient and the leg morphology. Thanks to the model reduction approach, it was possible to compute interface pressure as a linear combination of these parameters. The pressures computed with this reduced model were in agreement with experimental pressure values measured on 66 patients’ legs. Conclusion: This methodology helps to predict patient-specific interface pressure applied by compression bandages within a few minutes whereas it would take a few days for the numerical simulation. The results of this method show less bias than Laplace's Law, which is for now the only other method for interface pressure computation.
Autors: Fanette Chassagne;Jérôme Molimard;Reynald Convert;Pascal Giraux;Pierre Badel;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 449 - 457
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Numerical Simulation and Field Test of the Transient Temperature Rise of HVdc Grounding Electrodes
Abstract:
This paper investigates the temperature rise of vertical/horizontal high-voltage direct current (HVdc) grounding electrodes by simulations and field tests. Based on a field-circuit coupling current distribution model and a three dimensional (3-D) finite element model, a comprehensive methodology is proposed to analyze the transient temperature rise. Since soil resistivity varies with temperature around the electrodes, the temperature-dependent soil resistivity is tested, and then approximated by an empirical formula. Moreover, two practical tests are implemented to validate the simulation model. By ignoring the underground water fluctuations, the calculation results match test results nicely, which demonstrates that the terminal effect of the vertical electrode significantly affects the temperature distribution. But for a horizontal grounding electrode, the current distribution is more uniform than the vertical one. This study provides valuable references for design of HVdc grounding electrodes.
Autors: Yu Wang;Zhuohong Pan;Zhipeng Zha;Bo Tan;Xishan Wen;Yu Liu;Jingzhuo Zhang;Lei Lan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 22 - 31
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Obituary for Lotfi A. Zadeh [In Memoriam]
Abstract:
Recounts the career and contributions of Lotfi A. Zadeh.
Autors: Piero P. Bonissone;
Appeared in: IEEE Computational Intelligence Magazine
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 13, issue:1, pages: 13 - 22
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Object Tracking in Satellite Videos by Fusing the Kernel Correlation Filter and the Three-Frame-Difference Algorithm
Abstract:
Object tracking is a popular topic in the field of computer vision. The detailed spatial information provided by a very high resolution remote sensing sensor makes it possible to track targets of interest in satellite videos. In recent years, correlation filters have yielded promising results. However, in terms of dealing with object tracking in satellite videos, the kernel correlation filter (KCF) tracker achieves poor results due to the fact that the size of each target is too small compared with the entire image, and the target and the background are very similar. Therefore, in this letter, we propose a new object tracking method for satellite videos by fusing the KCF tracker and a three-frame-difference algorithm. A specific strategy is proposed herein for taking advantage of the KCF tracker and the three-frame-difference algorithm to build a strong tracker. We evaluate the proposed method in three satellite videos and show its superiority to other state-of-the-art tracking methods.
Autors: Bo Du;Yujia Sun;Shihan Cai;Chen Wu;Qian Du;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 15, issue:2, pages: 168 - 172
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Observation of Single-Event Burnout During Inductive Switching
Abstract:
A power MOSFET demonstrated destructive single-event effect (SEE) during ion irradiation in a switching circuit. Further investigation showed that the inductive load causing a spike in the drain-to-source voltage () that exceeded the manufacturer’s rating for several nanoseconds was enough to allow single-event effect (SEB). These results indicate that SEB may occur in a very short window and flyback is critical for disciplined power supply design.
Autors: Leif Scheick;Greg Allen;Larry Edmonds;Rembrandt Schaefer;Rob Menke;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 719 - 723
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On Channel Selection for Carrier Aggregation Systems
Abstract:
In this paper, the problem of sub-channel selection for carrier aggregation (CA) systems is examined. CA enables the achievement of high data rate links via simultaneous transmissions over multiple component carriers. A CA system usually occupies only a limited number of sub-channels of these components due to limitations on the maximum permitted number of sub-channels per system. From an information theoretic point of view, a CA system should detect and employ the -best sub-channels out of the available ones. To that end, such a system probes a subset of sub-channels during each coherence time via pilot transmission. Then, for the best sub-channels, one-bit feedback information is transmitted in order to prohibit the transmission through sub-channels with gain below a threshold. The aim is to derive tractable forms via employing the extreme value theory for the sum rate (lower bound on ergodic capacity) achieved by the system under Rayleigh fading and then, to optimize jointly the training length and power, the number of the probed sub-channels (probing bandwidth size) and the feedback threshold such that the sum rate is maximized by considering the sub-channel estimation error. The accuracy of the theoretical analysis is verified by numerical results.
Autors: Christos G. Tsinos;Fotis Foukalas;Tamer Khattab;Lifeng Lai;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Communications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 808 - 818
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On Coding for Endurance Enhancement and Error Control of Phase Change Memories With Write Latency Reduction
Abstract:
This paper addresses at coding-level the challenge of providing a write latency reduction with either endurance enhancement and/or error control for a phase change memory (PCM) system. Endurance enhancement is assessed by considering the skewed write operations among the cells of a PCM system, i.e., when the maximal number of cell write operations is smaller, then the coding scheme achieves a better endurance, because the access of the memory cells in the system is more uniform (less skewed). As a first contribution, simulation of different industrial benchmarks shows that for realistic code rates (such as at / = 4/5), the write time speed-up (WTS) code not only reduces the write latency as previously reported, but it also reduces the skewed (nonuniform) use of PCM cells. This occurs because the WTS code uses as many cells as possible to reduce the number of SET operations in a PCM cell. Then, error control is considered. An encoding/decoding scheme that is compatible with a write latency reduction code, such as WTS, is proposed. For compatibility with the write latency reduction, a partition-based error control code (ECC) must be used. Also, the ECCs employed in these cases are systematic. The original information always appears in the codeword without modification. Evaluation by simulation shows that also in this case, the maximal number of write operations of the WTS code is smaller.
Autors: Kazuteru Namba;Fabrizio Lombardi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 26, issue:2, pages: 230 - 238
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On Constructions of Reed-Muller Subcodes
Abstract:
In this letter, subcodes constructed from Reed–Muller codes by removal of generator matrix rows are considered. A new greedy algorithm based on the overlap of generator matrix rows is developed. To select the best subcode generated by the greedy algorithm, the number of minimum weight code words is determined. Computer simulations confirm that the greedy algorithm outperforms the three other construction methods, generating the best codes among all presented subcodes.
Autors: Johannes Van Wonterghem;Joseph J. Boutros;Marc Moeneclaey;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 22, issue:2, pages: 220 - 223
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On DC Fault Dynamics of MMC-Based HVdc Connections
Abstract:
This paper studies the dc fault development stages and analyzes the fault dynamics in a point-to-point multilevel modular converters (MMC)-based dc connection. First, the effect of the dc grid configuration on the normal operation was investigated by comparing an asymmetric monopole with metallic return and a symmetric monopole. Then, the main parameters that affect the dc fault response of a grid, such as the fault type, impedance and converter blocking, were examined. Compared to previous studies, which are based on simulation results, the analysis is performed hereby both in theory, deriving the equations that describe the dc fault stages, as well as using experimental results obtained in the designed laboratory setup. The setup consists of two MMC terminals connected to two ac sources representing independent ac grids. These terminals are connected using a simple dc link based on pi-section equivalent of dc cables. The obtained results, which verified the theoretical analysis, can be used to determine the protection function thresholds of the MMC, as well as to estimate the developed stresses on dc lines during fault conditions and to define the design requirements for dc breakers.
Autors: Epameinondas Kontos;Georgios Tsolaridis;Remus Teodorescu;Pavol Bauer;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 497 - 507
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On Decoding Rank-Metric Codes Over Large Fields
Abstract:
A decoding algorithm is presented for a rank-metric array codes that are based on diagonal interleaving of maximum-distance separable codes. With respect to this metric, such array codes are known to be optimal when the underlying field is algebraically closed. It is also shown that for any list decoding radius that is smaller than the minimum rank distance, the list size can be bounded from above by an expression that is independent of the field.
Autors: Ron M. Roth;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 64, issue:2, pages: 944 - 951
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On Demand Spatial Beam Self-Focusing in Hexagonal Multicore Fiber
Abstract:
Combination of the classical effect of light self-focusing and recently emerged multicore fiber technology offers new opportunities for the spatio-temporal control and manipulation of high-power light radiation. Here, we apply genetic algorithm to design a system enabling self-focusing of light in various fiber cores on demand. The proposed concept is general and can be applied and adapted to any multicore fiber or two-dimensional array of coupled waveguides paving a way for numerous applications.
Autors: Igor S. Chekhovskoy;Mariia A. Sorokina;Alexander M. Rubenchik;Mikhail P. Fedoruk;Sergei K. Turitsyn;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 1 - 8
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On Detection and Mitigation of Reused Pilots in Massive MIMO Systems
Abstract:
In a time-division duplex multiple antenna system the channel state information (CSI) can be estimated using reverse training. In multi-cell multi-user massive MIMO systems, pilot contamination degrades CSI estimation performance and adversely affects massive MIMO system performance. In this paper we consider a subspace-based semi-blind approach where we have training data as well as information bearing data from various users (both in-cell and neighboring cells) at the base station (BS). Existing semi-blind approaches assume that the interfering users from neighboring cells are always at distinctly lower power levels at the BS compared with the in-cell users. This requires (perfect) power control. In this paper we do not make any such assumption. Unlike existing approaches, the BS estimates the channels of all users: in-cell and significant neighboring cell users, i.e., ones with comparable power levels at the BS. We exploit both subspace method using correlation as well as blind source separation using higher-order statistics. Finally, the estimated channels are used to detect information symbols, which, in turn, are used as pseudo-pilots to re-estimate the in-cell users’ channels. The proposed approach is illustrated via simulation examples and compared with some existing semi-blind methods.
Autors: Jitendra K. Tugnait;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Communications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 688 - 699
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On Distributed Fuzzy Decision Trees for Big Data
Abstract:
Fuzzy decision trees (FDTs) have shown to be an effective solution in the framework of fuzzy classification. The approaches proposed so far to FDT learning, however, have generally neglected time and space requirements. In this paper, we propose a distributed FDT learning scheme shaped according to the MapReduce programming model for generating both binary and multiway FDTs from big data. The scheme relies on a novel distributed fuzzy discretizer that generates a strong fuzzy partition for each continuous attribute based on fuzzy information entropy. The fuzzy partitions are, therefore, used as an input to the FDT learning algorithm, which employs fuzzy information gain for selecting the attributes at the decision nodes. We have implemented the FDT learning scheme on the Apache Spark framework. We have used ten real-world publicly available big datasets for evaluating the behavior of the scheme along three dimensions: 1) performance in terms of classification accuracy, model complexity, and execution time; 2) scalability varying the number of computing units; and 3) ability to efficiently accommodate an increasing dataset size. We have demonstrated that the proposed scheme turns out to be suitable for managing big datasets even with a modest commodity hardware support. Finally, we have used the distributed decision tree learning algorithm implemented in the MLLib library and the Chi-FRBCS-BigData algorithm, a MapReduce distributed fuzzy rule-based classification system, for comparative analysis.
Autors: Armando Segatori;Francesco Marcelloni;Witold Pedrycz;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 174 - 192
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On Effectiveness of Transfer Learning Approach for Neural Network-Based Virtual Metrology Modeling
Abstract:
Virtual metrology (VM) technologies have been successfully developed to enable wafer-to-wafer quality monitoring with reduced costs in the semiconductor manufacturing process. VM estimates an inspection task by predicting metrology variables as a function of process variables using prediction models trained with previous wafer records collected from the involved set of equipment. However, it is difficult to obtain accurate prediction models, in particular for a newly adopted equipment set, if the number of wafer records for the target equipment set are insufficient. While collecting more records is time-consuming and costly, the abundant data of related equipment sets are fruitful sources to improve VM modeling for an equipment set. Here, we investigate the effectiveness of a transfer learning approach based on neural networks to circumvent data insufficiency. This approach exploits knowledge acquired from previously established VM models of other equipment sets to improve the VM modeling on the target equipment set. Experimental results of the implementation with neural networks on actual datasets demonstrate its superiority in both aspects of metrology accuracy and computational efficiency compared with a traditional independent learning approach.
Autors: Seokho Kang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 31, issue:1, pages: 149 - 155
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On Practical Construction of Quality Fault-Tolerant Virtual Backbone in Homogeneous Wireless Networks
Abstract:
Over years, many efforts are made for the problem of constructing quality fault-tolerant virtual backbones in wireless network. In case that a wireless network consists of physically equivalent nodes, e.g., with the same communication range, unit disk graph (UDG) is widely used to abstract the wireless network and the problem is formulated as the minimum -connected -dominating set problem on the UDG. So far, most results are focused on designing a constant factor approximation algorithm for this NP-hard problem under two positive integers and satisfying and . This paper introduces an approximation algorithm for the problem with . This algorithm is simple to implement; it connects the components by adding a bounded number of paths, which first computes a 1-connected -dominating set and repeats the following steps: (a) search the separators arbitrarily in -CDS with , (b) add a bounded number of paths connecting the components separated by separators in -CDS to improve the connectivity of $(i-1,m)$ -CDS, until it becomes -connected, and (c) remove redundant paths if there exist at every iteration. We provide a rigorous theoretical analysis to prove that the proposed algorithm is correct and its approximation ratio is a constant, for any fixed .
Autors: Bei Liu;Wei Wang;Donghyun Kim;Yingshu Li;Sung-Sik Kwon;Yaolin Jiang;
Appeared in: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 412 - 421
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On Properties of the Support of Capacity-Achieving Distributions for Additive Noise Channel Models With Input Cost Constraints
Abstract:
We study the classical problem of characterizing the channel capacity and its achieving distribution in a generic fashion. We derive a simple relation between three parameters: the input–output function, the input cost function, and the noise probability density function, one which dictates the type of the optimal input. In layman terms, we prove that the support of the optimal input is bounded whenever the cost grows faster than a “cutoff” growth rate equal to the logarithm of the inverse of the noise probability density function evaluated at the input–output function. Furthermore, we prove a converse statement that says whenever the cost grows slower than the “cutoff” rate, the optimal input has necessarily an unbounded support. In addition, we show how the discreteness of the optimal input is guaranteed whenever the triplet satisfy some analyticity properties. We argue that a suitable cost function to be imposed on the channel input is one that grows similarly to the “cutoff” rate. Our results are valid for any cost function that is super-logarithmic. They summarize a large number of previous channel capacity results and give new ones for a wide range of communication channel models, such as Gaussian mixtures, generalized-Gaussians, and heavy-tailed noise models, that we state along with numerical computations.
Autors: Jihad Fahs;Ibrahim Abou-Faycal;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 64, issue:2, pages: 1178 - 1198
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On Protocol and Physical Interference Models in Poisson Wireless Networks
Abstract:
This paper analyzes the connection between the protocol and physical interference models in the setting of Poisson wireless networks. A transmission is successful under the protocol model if there are no interferers within a parameterized guard zone around the receiver, while a transmission is successful under the physical model if the signal to interference plus noise ratio at the receiver is above a threshold. The parameterized protocol model forms a family of decision rules for predicting the success or failure of the same transmission attempt under the physical model. For Poisson wireless networks, we employ stochastic geometry to determine the prior, evidence, and posterior distributions associated with this estimation problem. With this in hand, we proceed to develop six sets of results: 1) the maximum correlation of protocol and physical model success indicators; 2) the minimum Bayes risk in estimating physical success from a protocol observation; 3) the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) of false rejection (Type I) and false acceptance (Type II) probabilities; 4) the impact of Rayleigh fading versus no fading on the correlation and ROC; 5) the impact of multiple prior protocol model observations in the setting of a wireless network with a fixed set of nodes in which the nodes employ the slotted Aloha protocol in each time slot; and 6) a numerical investigation of the effect of different pathloss models.
Autors: Jeffrey Wildman;Steven Weber;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 808 - 821
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On Some Input–Output Dynamic Properties of Complex Networks
Abstract:
In this brief, we obtain the relationship between dynamic properties of system and network structures of complex networks. We show that the sum of the product of weights of the shortest paths between control and output nodes is equal to the gain factor of the pole-zero-gain transfer function of the complex network. We also show that dc-gain for the peripheral nodes of the complex network depends on the distance between the control and output nodes in the network. Existence of non-minimum phase zeros for collocated control and output nodes is discussed. The theoretical developments are verified using IEEE-4 bus power networked system application.
Autors: Ram Niwash Mahia;Deepak M. Fulwani;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 216 - 220
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On the Algorithmization of Janashia-Lagvilava Matrix Spectral Factorization Method
Abstract:
We consider three different ways of algorithmization of the Janashia–Lagvilava spectral factorization method. The first algorithm is faster than the second one, however, it is only suitable for matrices of low dimension. The second algorithm, on the other hand, can be applied to matrices of substantially larger dimension. The third algorithm is a superfast implementation of the method, but only works in the polynomial case under the additional restriction that the zeros of the determinant are not too close to the boundary. All three algorithms fully utilize the advantage of the method, which carries out spectral factorization of leading principal submatrices step-by-step. The corresponding results of numerical simulations are reported in order to describe the characteristic features of each algorithm and compare them to other existing algorithms.
Autors: Lasha Ephremidze;Faisal Saied;Ilya Matvey Spitkovsky;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 64, issue:2, pages: 728 - 737
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On the Capacity of the AWGN Channel With Additive Radar Interference
Abstract:
This paper investigates the capacity of a communications channel that, in addition to additive white Gaussian noise, also suffers from interference caused by a co-existing radar transmission. The radar interference (of short duty-cycle and of much wider bandwidth than the intended communication signal) is modeled as an additive term whose amplitude is known and constant, but whose phase is independent and identically uniformly distributed at each channel use. The capacity achieving input distribution, under the standard average power constraint, is shown to have independent modulo and phase. The phase is uniformly distributed in . The modulo is discrete with countably infinite many mass points, but only finitely many in any bounded interval. From numerical evaluations, a proper-complex Gaussian input is seen to perform quite well for weak radar interference. We also show that for very large radar interference, and for signal to noise ratio equal to , the capacity is equal to and a proper-complex Gaussian input achieves it. It is concluded that the presence of the radar interference results in a loss of half of the degrees of freedom compared with an AWGN channel without radar interference.
Autors: Sara Shahi;Daniela Tuninetti;Natasha Devroye;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Communications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 629 - 643
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On the Convergence of the Sparse Possibilistic C-Means Algorithm
Abstract:
In this paper, a convergence proof for the recently proposed cost function optimization sparse possibilistic c-means (SPCM) algorithm is provided. Specifically, it is shown that the algorithm will converge to one of the local minima of its associated cost function. It is also shown that similar convergence results can be derived for the well-known possibilistic c-means (PCM) algorithm proposed by Krishnapuram and Keller, 1996, if we view it as a special case of SPCM. Note that the convergence results for PCM are stronger than those established in previous works.
Autors: Konstantinos D. Koutroumbas;Spyridoula D. Xenaki;Athanasios A. Rontogiannis;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 324 - 337
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On the Design of Multi-Dimensional Irregular Repeat-Accumulate Lattice Codes
Abstract:
Most multi-dimensional (more than two dimensions) lattice partitions only form additive quotient groups and lack multiplication operations. This prevents us from constructing lattice codes based on multi-dimensional lattice partitions directly from non-binary linear codes over finite fields. In this paper, we design lattice codes from Construction A lattices where the underlying linear codes are non-binary irregular repeat-accumulate (IRA) codes. Most importantly, our codes are based on multi-dimensional lattice partitions with finite constellations. We propose a novel encoding structure that adds randomly generated lattice sequences to the encoder’s messages, instead of multiplying lattice sequences to the encoder’s messages. We prove that our approach can ensure that the decoder’s messages exhibit permutation-invariance and symmetry properties. With these two properties, the densities of the messages in the iterative decoder can be modeled by Gaussian distributions described by a single parameter. With Gaussian approximation, extrinsic information transfer charts for our multi-dimensional IRA lattice codes are developed and used for analyzing the convergence behavior and optimizing the decoding thresholds. Simulation results show that our codes can approach the unrestricted Shannon limit within 0.46 dB and outperform the previously designed lattice codes with 2-D lattice partitions and existing lattice coding schemes for large codeword length.
Autors: Min Qiu;Lei Yang;Yixuan Xie;Jinhong Yuan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Communications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 478 - 492
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On the Differential Input Impedance of an Electro-Explosive Device
Abstract:
In this paper, a model for the input impedance of a hot-wire electro-explosive device (EED) based on differential-mode measurements is proposed. The model represents the EED using three transmission line segments in cascade. The characteristics of each segment are estimated according to data reported in the literature and to measurements of the differential-mode input impedance of actual EEDs in the ultrahigh frequency range. The experimental procedure and model are presented in detail. In addition, the impedance measurements and the predictions of the proposed model are compared with previous results reported in the literature.
Autors: John J. Pantoja;Felix Vega;Francisco Román;Nestor Peña;Farhad Rachidi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 858 - 864
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On the Discrete Bisymmetry
Abstract:
It is known that bisymmetry generalizes the simultaneous commutativity and associativity in the framework of the unit interval. In this work, we will completely characterize two classes of bisymmetric aggregation operators: one with a neutral element and the other with the vertical and horizontal sections of the idempotent elements being smooth on a finite chain, but not necessarily smooth and commutative. Thus, the previous results, based on the smoothness that is known as a very restrictive condition, are improved. For example, there is only one smooth Archimedean t-norm on a finite chain. In this paper, the discrete bisymmetric aggregation operators are explored without the limit of the smoothness. As a by-product, it is deduced that for smooth aggregation operators on a finite chain, the bisymmetry is equivalent to the commutativity and associativity, which improves the conclusion obtained by Mas et al. that associativity and bisymmetry are equivalent for commutative smooth aggregation operators on a finite chain.
Autors: Yong Su;Hua-Wen Liu;Witold Pedrycz;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 374 - 378
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On the Discreteness of Capacity-Achieving Distributions for Fading and Signal-Dependent Noise Channels With Amplitude-Limited Inputs
Abstract:
We address the problem of finding the capacity of two classes of channels with amplitude-limited inputs. The first class is frequency flat fading channels with an arbitrary (but finite support) channel gain with the channel state information available only at the receiver side; while the second one we consider is the class of additive noise channels with signal-dependent Gaussian noise. We show that for both channel models and under some regularity conditions, the capacity-achieving distribution is discrete with a finite number of mass points. Furthermore, finding the capacity-achieving distribution turns out to be a finite-dimensional optimization problem, and efficient numerical algorithms can be developed using standard optimization techniques to compute the channel capacity. We demonstrate our findings via several examples. In particular, we present an example for a block fading channel where the channel gain follows a truncated Rayleigh distribution, and two instances of signal-dependent noise that are used in the literature of magnetic recording and optical communication channels.
Autors: Ahmad Elmoslimany;Tolga M. Duman;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 64, issue:2, pages: 1163 - 1177
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On the Fast and Precise Evaluation of the Outage Probability of Diversity Receivers Over $alpha -mu $ , $kappa -mu $ , and $eta -mu $ Fading Channels
Abstract:
In this paper, we are interested in determining the cumulative distribution function of the sum of , , and random variables in the setting of rare event simulations. To this end, we present a simple and efficient importance sampling approach. The main result of this work is the bounded relative error property of the proposed estimators. Capitalizing on this result, we accurately estimate the outage probability of multibranch maximum ratio combining and equal gain diversity receivers over , , and fading channels. Selected numerical simulations are discussed to show the robustness of our estimators compared with naive Monte Carlo estimators.
Autors: Chaouki Ben Issaid;Mohamed-Slim Alouini;Raul Tempone;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 1255 - 1268
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On the Geometric Ergodicity of Metropolis-Hastings Algorithms for Lattice Gaussian Sampling
Abstract:
Sampling from the lattice Gaussian distribution has emerged as an important problem in coding, decoding, and cryptography. In this paper, the classic Metropolis-Hastings (MH) algorithm in Markov chain Monte Carlo methods is adopted for lattice Gaussian sampling. Two MH-based algorithms are proposed, which overcome the limitation of Klein’s algorithm. The first one, referred to as the independent Metropolis-Hastings-Klein (MHK) algorithm, establishes a Markov chain via an independent proposal distribution. We show that the Markov chain arising from this independent MHK algorithm is uniformly ergodic, namely, it converges to the stationary distribution exponentially fast regardless of the initial state. Moreover, the rate of convergence is analyzed in terms of the theta series, leading to predictable mixing time. A symmetric Metropolis-Klein algorithm is also proposed, which is proven to be geometrically ergodic.
Autors: Zheng Wang;Cong Ling;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 64, issue:2, pages: 738 - 751
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On the Minimum Output Entropy of Random Orthogonal Quantum Channels
Abstract:
We consider the sequences of random quantum channels defined by using the Stinespring formula with Haar-distributed random orthogonal matrices. For any fixed sequence of input states, we study the asymptotic eigenvalue distribution of the outputs through the tensor powers of random channels. We show that the input states achieving minimum output entropy are tensor products of maximally entangled states (Bell states) when the tensor power is even. This phenomenon is completely different from the one for random quantum channels constructed from Haar-distributed random unitary matrices, which leads us to formulate some conjectures about the regularized minimum output entropy.
Autors: Motohisa Fukuda;Ion Nechita;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 64, issue:2, pages: 1374 - 1384
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On the Performance of MIMO-NOMA-Based Visible Light Communication Systems
Abstract:
In this letter, we apply the non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) technique to improve the achievable sum rate of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO)-based multi-user visible light communication (VLC) systems. To ensure efficient and low-complexity power allocation in indoor MIMO-NOMA-based VLC systems, a normalized gain difference power allocation (NGDPA) method is first proposed by exploiting users’ channel conditions. We investigate the performance of an indoor MIMO-NOMA-based multi-user VLC system through numerical simulations. The obtained results show that the achievable sum rate of the MIMO-VLC system can be significantly improved by employing NOMA with the proposed NGDPA method. It is demonstrated that NOMA with NGDPA achieves a sum rate improvement of up to 29.1% compared with NOMA with the gain ratio power allocation method in the MIMO-VLC system with three users.
Autors: Chen Chen;Wen-De Zhong;Helin Yang;Pengfei Du;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 30, issue:4, pages: 307 - 310
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On the Price of Proactivizing Round-Optimal Perfectly Secret Message Transmission
Abstract:
In a network of n nodes (modelled as a digraph), the goal of a perfectly secret message transmission (PSMT) protocol is to replicate sender’s message m at the receiver’s end without revealing any information about m to a computationally unbounded adversary that eavesdrops on any t nodes. The adversary may be mobile too – that is, it may eavesdrop on a different set of t nodes in different rounds. We prove a necessary and sufficient condition on the synchronous network for the existence of r-round PSMT protocols, for any given r > 0; further, we show that round-optimality is achieved without trading-off the communication complexity; specifically, our protocols have an overall communication complexity of O(n) elements of a finite field to perfectly transmit one field element. Apart from optimality/scalability, two interesting implications of our results are: (a) adversarial mobility does not affect its tolerability: PSMT tolerating a static t-adversary is possible if and only if PSMT tolerating mobile t-adversary is possible; and (b) mobility does not affect the round optimality: the fastest PSMT protocol tolerating a static t-adversary is not faster than the one tolerating a mobile t-adversary.
Autors: Ravi Kishore;Ashutosh Kumar;Chiranjeevi Vanarasa;Kannan Srinathan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 64, issue:2, pages: 1404 - 1422
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On the Rate Regions of Single-Channel and Multi-Channel Full-Duplex Links
Abstract:
We study the achievable rate regions of full-duplex links in the single- and multi-channel cases (in the latter case, the channels are assumed to be orthogonal, e.g., OFDM). We present analytical results that characterize the uplink and downlink rate region and efficient algorithms for computing rate pairs at the region’s boundary. We also provide near-optimal and heuristic algorithms that “convexify” the rate region when it is not convex. The convexified region corresponds to a combination of a few full-duplex rates (i.e., to time sharing between different operation modes). The algorithms can be used for theoretical characterization of the rate region as well as for resource (time, power, and channel) allocation with the objective of maximizing the sum of the rates when one of them (uplink or downlink) must be guaranteed (e.g., due to QoS considerations). We numerically illustrate the rate regions and the rate gains (compared with time division duplex) for various channel and cancellation scenarios. The analytical results provide insights into the properties of the full-duplex rate region and are essential for future development of scheduling, channel allocation, and power control algorithms.
Autors: Jelena Diakonikolas;Gil Zussman;
Appeared in: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 47 - 60
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On the Reliability of Individual Brain Activity Networks
Abstract:
There is intense interest in fMRI research on whole-brain functional connectivity, and however, two fundamental issues are still unresolved: the impact of spatiotemporal data resolution (spatial parcellation and temporal sampling) and the impact of the network construction method on the reliability of functional brain networks. In particular, the impact of spatiotemporal data resolution on the resulting connectivity findings has not been sufficiently investigated. In fact, a number of studies have already observed that functional networks often give different conclusions across different parcellation scales. If the interpretations from functional networks are inconsistent across spatiotemporal scales, then the whole validity of the functional network paradigm is called into question. This paper investigates the consistency of resting state network structure when using different temporal sampling or spatial parcellation, or different methods for constructing the networks. To pursue this, we develop a novel network comparison framework based on persistent homology from a topological data analysis. We use the new network comparison tools to characterize the spatial and temporal scales under which consistent functional networks can be constructed. The methods are illustrated on Human Connectome Project data, showing that the DISCOH2 network construction method outperforms other approaches at most data spatiotemporal resolutions.
Autors: Ben Cassidy;F. DuBois Bowman;Caroline Rae;Victor Solo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 37, issue:2, pages: 649 - 662
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On the Remarkable Performance of the Series-Resonance CMOS Oscillator
Abstract:
Common harmonic oscillator topologies, such as class-B and class-C, are typically unable to meet ultra stringent phase noise requirements, due to the exceedingly large capacitance (and, symmetrically, low inductance) that would be required in the parallel resonator. In this paper, we show that an oscillator making use of series resonators is ideally able to overcome this limitation, with the additional, surprising benefit that the phase noise contribution from the active oscillator core can be made negligible, provided that very good MOS switches are available.
Autors: Federico Pepe;Andrea Bevilacqua;Pietro Andreani;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 531 - 542
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On the Stability of Fast Retrial Multichannel ALOHA With Rate Control for MTC
Abstract:
We consider multichannel ALOHA for machine-type communications to support a number of devices with multiple subchannels in this letter. In particular, we focus on the stability of multichannel ALOHA when only fast retrial is employed for re-transmissions of collided packets. For the stability analysis, the Foster–Lyapunov criterion is considered. For a stable system, the rate control is applied, and a certain rate control scheme of limited feedback is proposed.
Autors: Jinho Choi;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 22, issue:2, pages: 360 - 363
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On the Techniques to Develop Millimeter-Wave Textile Integrated Waveguides Using Rigid Warp Threads
Abstract:
Two millimeter-wave textile integrated wave- guides (TIWs), which only differ in the employed substrate, have been designed, manufactured, and experimentally characterized. Both waveguides are based on the conventional substrate integrated waveguide technology while being fully integrated in textile. The manufactured prototypes have been characterized by using a back to back TIW to rectangular waveguide transition. The theoretically predicted behavior of the prototypes has been experimentally verified.
Autors: Leticia Alonso-González;Samuel Ver-Hoeye;Carlos Vázquez-Antuña;Miguel Fernández-García;Fernando Las-Heras Andrés;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 751 - 761
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On-Chip Neural Data Compression Based On Compressed Sensing With Sparse Sensing Matrices
Abstract:
On-chip neural data compression is an enabling technique for wireless neural interfaces that suffer from insufficient bandwidth and power budgets to transmit the raw data. The data compression algorithm and its implementation should be power and area efficient and functionally reliable over different datasets. Compressed sensing is an emerging technique that has been applied to compress various neurophysiological data. However, the state-of-the-art compressed sensing (CS) encoders leverage random but dense binary measurement matrices, which incur substantial implementation costs on both power and area that could offset the benefits from the reduced wireless data rate. In this paper, we propose two CS encoder designs based on sparse measurement matrices that could lead to efficient hardware implementation. Specifically, two different approaches for the construction of sparse measurement matrices, i.e., the deterministic quasi-cyclic array code (QCAC) matrix and -sparse random binary matrix [-SRBM] are exploited. We demonstrate that the proposed CS encoders lead to comparable recovery performance. And efficient VLSI architecture designs are proposed for QCAC-CS and -SRBM encoders with reduced area and total power consumption.
Autors: Wenfeng Zhao;Biao Sun;Tong Wu;Zhi Yang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 12, issue:1, pages: 242 - 254
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On-the-Fly Adaptive ${k}$ -Space Sampling for Linear MRI Reconstruction Using Moment-Based Spectral Analysis
Abstract:
In high-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging applications, time-consuming, sequential acquisition of data samples in the spatial frequency domain (-space) can often be accelerated by accounting for dependencies in linear reconstruction, at the cost of noise amplification that depends on the sampling pattern. Common examples are support-constrained, parallel, and dynamic MRI, and -space sampling strategies are primarily driven by image-domain metrics that are expensive to compute for arbitrary sampling patterns. It remains challenging to provide systematic and computationally efficient automatic designs of arbitrary multidimensional Cartesian sampling patterns that mitigate noise amplification, given the subspace to which the object is confined. To address this problem, this paper introduces a theoretical framework that describes local geometric properties of the sampling pattern and relates them to the spread in the eigenvalues of the information matrix described by its first two spectral moments. This new criterion is then used for very efficient optimization of complex multidimensional sampling patterns that does not require reconstructing images or explicitly mapping noise amplification. Experiments with in vivo data show strong agreement between this criterion and traditional, comprehensive image-domain- and -space-based metrics, indicating the potential of the approach for computationally efficient (on-the-fly), automatic, and adaptive design of sampling patterns.
Autors: Evan Levine;Brian Hargreaves;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 37, issue:2, pages: 557 - 567
Publisher: IEEE
 
» One More Tag Enables Fine-Grained RFID Localization and Tracking
Abstract:
Exploiting radio frequency signals is promising for locating and tracking objects. Prior works focus on per-tag localization, in which each object is attached with one tag. In this paper, we propose a comprehensive localization and tracking scheme by attaching two RFID tags to one object. Instead of using per-tag localization pattern, adding one-more RFID tag to the object exhibits several benefits: 1) providing rich freedom in RFID reader’s antenna spacing and placement; 2) supporting accurate calibration of the reader’s antenna location and spacing, and 3) enabling fine-grained calculation on the orientation of the tags. All of these advantages ultimately improve the localization/tracking accuracy. Our extensive experimental results demonstrate that the average errors of localization and orientation of target tags are 6.415 cm and 1.330°, respectively. Our results also verify that the reader’s antenna geometry does have impact on tag positioning performance.
Autors: Fu Xiao;Zhongqin Wang;Ning Ye;Ruchuan Wang;Xiang-Yang Li;
Appeared in: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 161 - 174
Publisher: IEEE
 
» One-Dimensional Mirrored Aperture Synthesis With Rotating Reflector
Abstract:
In this letter, 1-D mirrored aperture synthesis with a rotating reflector (1-D MAS-R) is proposed to improve the spatial resolution and reduce the number of required antennas for passive microwave remote sensing. The principle of the 1-D MAS-R with an antenna array is given, and from the principle, the 1-D MAS-R with only one antenna can also reconstruct the image of the scene. Simulation results demonstrate the validity of the 1-D MAS-R even with only one antenna, and the spatial resolution is improved by increasing the distance between the reflector and the antenna or antenna array.
Autors: Haofeng Dou;Qingxia Li;Liangqi Gui;Ke Chen;Yufang Li;Congcong Huang;Menglin Hu;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 15, issue:2, pages: 197 - 201
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Online Active Learning in Data Stream Regression Using Uncertainty Sampling Based on Evolving Generalized Fuzzy Models
Abstract:
In this paper, we propose three criteria for efficient sample selection in case of data stream regression problems within an online active learning context. The selection becomes important whenever the target values, which guide the update of the regressors as well as the implicit model structures, are costly or time-consuming to measure and also in case when very fast models updates are required to cope with stream mining real-time demands. Reducing the selected samples as much as possible while keeping the predictive accuracy of the models on a high level is, thus, a central challenge. This should be ideally achieved in unsupervised and single-pass manner. Our selection criteria rely on three aspects: 1) the extrapolation degree combined with the model's nonlinearity degree , which is measured in terms of a new specific homogeneity criterion among adjacent local approximators; 2) the uncertainty in model outputs, which can be measured in terms of confidence intervals using so-called adaptive local error bars — we integrate a weighted localization of an incremental noise level estimator and propose formulas for online merging of local error bars; 3) the uncertainty in model parameters, which is estimated by the so-called A-optimality criterion, which relies on the Fisher information matrix. The selection criteria are developed in combination with evolving generalized Takagi–Sugeno (TS) fuzzy models (containing rules in arbitrarily rotated position), as it could be shown in previous publications that these outperform conventional evolving TS models (containing axis-parallel rules). The results based on three high-dimensional real-world streaming problems show that a model update based on only 10%–20% selected samples can still achieve similar ac- umulated model errors over time to the case when performing a full model update on all samples. This can be achieved with a negligible sensitivity on the size of the active learning latency buffer. Random sampling with the same percentages of samples selected, however, achieved much higher error rates. Hence, the intelligence in our sample selection concept leads to an economic balance between model accuracy and measurement as well computational costs for model updates.
Autors: Edwin Lughofer;Mahardhika Pratama;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 292 - 309
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Online Aggregation of the Forwarding Information Base: Accounting for Locality and Churn
Abstract:
This paper studies the problem of compressing the forwarding information base (FIB), but taking a wider perspective. Indeed, FIB compression goes beyond sheer compression, as the gain in memory use obtained from the compression has consequences on the updates that will have to be applied to the compressed FIB. We are interested in the situation where forwarding rules can change over time, e.g., due to border gateway protocol (BGP) route updates. Accordingly, we frame FIB compression as an online problem and design competitive online algorithms to solve it. In contrast to prior work which mostly focused on static optimizations, we study an online variant of the problem where routes can change over time and where the number of updates to the FIB is taken into account explicitly. The reason to consider this version of the problem is that leveraging temporal locality while accounting for the number of FIB updates helps to keep routers CPU load low and reduces the number of FIB updates to be transferred, e.g., from the network-attached software-defined network controller to a remote switch. This paper introduces a formal model which is an interesting generalization of several classic online aggregation problems. Our main contribution is an O(w)-competitive algorithm, where is the length of an IP address. We also derive a lower bound which shows that our result is asymptotically optimal within a natural class of algorithms, based on so-called sticks.
Autors: Marcin Bienkowski;Nadi Sarrar;Stefan Schmid;Steve Uhlig;
Appeared in: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 591 - 604
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Online Built-In Self-Test of High Switching Frequency DC–DC Converters Using Model Reference Based System Identification Techniques
Abstract:
A built-in self-test (BIST) technique that enables tracking of loop parameters of integrated DC–DC converters without affecting the normal mode of operation is presented. A digital pseudo-noise based stimulus and a mixed signal cross-correlation based analysis technique is used to derive on-chip impulse response, with minimum computational requirements in comparison to a digital correlator approach. Using measured impulse response, open-loop phase margin and closed-loop unity-gain frequency are estimated within 5.2% and 4.1% error, respectively, for the load current range of 30 mA to 200 mA. Converter parameters, such as natural frequency, -factor, and center frequency are estimated within 3.6%, 4.7%, and 3.8% error, respectively, over load inductance of 4.7 to 10.3 , and filter capacitance of 200 nF to 400 nF. A 5 MHz switching frequency, 5 V to 8.125 V input voltage range, voltage-mode controlled DC-DC buck converter is designed for the proposed model reference based parametric and non-parametric BIST analysis. The converter output voltage range is 3.3 V to 5 V and supported maximum load current is 450 mA with a peak efficiency of 87.93%. The proposed converter is fabricated on a 0.6 6 layer-metal SOI technology with a die area of 9 mm2. The system identification circuitry occupies 3.8% of the converter area with 530 quiescent current during operation.
Autors: Navankur Beohar;Venkata N. K. Malladi;Debashis Mandal;Sule Ozev;Bertan Bakkaloglu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 818 - 831
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Online Estimation of Steady-State Load Models Considering Data Anomalies
Abstract:
Several techniques have been developed to estimate the load parameters in power systems. Most of the existing algorithms mainly focus on estimating the parameters for offline studies. With on-going smart grid development, high-resolution data at faster rates are available to allow estimation of load parameters in real time. This paper addresses the challenges in online estimation of the load parameters using phasor measurement unit data. A novel adaptive search-based algorithm to estimate load model parameters is presented here. In this paper, a static load model is used with the Z (constant impedance), I (constant current), and P (constant power) components of the load. Developed estimation algorithms for the ZIP parameter estimation are validated using the IEEE 14-bus system and data provided by the industry collaborators. Simulation results demonstrate the accurate estimation of the ZIP load model using the developed method. Also, various techniques to eliminate anomalies in the input data for accurate estimation of the load parameters have been presented in this paper.
Autors: Tushar;Shikhar Pandey;Anurag K. Srivastava;Penn Markham;Mahendra Patel;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 712 - 721
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Online Soft-Error Vulnerability Estimation for Memory Arrays and Logic Cores
Abstract:
Radiation-induced soft errors are a major reliability concern in circuits fabricated at advanced technology nodes. Online soft-error vulnerability estimation offers the flexibility of exploiting dynamic fault-tolerant mechanisms for cost-effective reliability enhancement. We propose a generic run-time method with low area and power overhead to predict the soft-error vulnerability of on-chip memory arrays as well as logic cores. The vulnerability prediction is based on signal probabilities (SPs) of a small set of flip-flops, chosen at design time, by studying the correlation between the soft-error vulnerability and the flip-flop SPs for representative workloads. We exploit machine learning to develop a predictive model that can be deployed in the system in software form. Simulation results on two processor designs show that the proposed technique can accurately estimate the soft-error vulnerability of on-chip logic core, such as sequential pipeline logic and functional units as well as memory arrays that constitute the instruction cache, the data cache, and the register file.
Autors: Arunkumar Vijayan;Saman Kiamehr;Mojtaba Ebrahimi;Krishnendu Chakrabarty;Mehdi B. Tahoori;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 37, issue:2, pages: 499 - 511
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Online Vehicle Front–Rear Distance Estimation With Urban Context-Aware Trajectories
Abstract:
Access to accurate relative front–rear distance information between vehicles is of great interest to drivers as such information can be utilized to improve driving safety. Acquiring such information based on systems such as the global positioning system (GPS) in urban settings is very challenging due to the high complexity of urban environments. In this paper, we propose a scheme, called relative urban positioning system (RUPS), to tackle the relative distance fixing problem. We first investigate the pervasive global system for mobile communication (GSM) signals and find that the received signal strength indicator measures of multiple GSM channels collected over a distance has ideal temporal–spatial characteristics for temporary fingerprinting. With this key insight, an RUPS-enabled vehicle first perceives the information of its GSM-aware trajectory while moving. Then, by exchanging and comparing its own trajectory with that of a neighboring vehicle, the vehicle can identify common locations overlapped between trajectories of itself and this neighbor. Finally, the relative distance between this pair of vehicles can be perceived by further comparing their geographical trajectories based on an identified common location. As a result, RUPS is a fully distributed and lightweight scheme, requiring only a minimum hardware deployment, and does not need synchronization between vehicles or any preconstructed signal maps. We implement a prototype system to validate the feasibility of the RUPS design. Extensive trace-driven simulation results show that RUPS can work stably under complex urban environments and overwhelm the performance of GPS by 2.7 times on average.
Autors: Hongzi Zhu;Shan Chang;Wei Zhang;Fan Wu;Li Lu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 67, issue:2, pages: 1063 - 1074
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Online Wideband Spectrum Sensing Using Sparsity
Abstract:
Wideband spectrum sensing is an essential part of cognitive radio systems. Exact spectrum estimation is usually inefficient as it requires sampling rates at or above the Nyquist rate. Using prior information on the structure of the signal could allow near exact reconstruction at much lower sampling rates. Sparsity of the sampled signal in the frequency domain is one of the popular priors studied for cognitive radio applications. Reconstruction of signals under sparsity assumptions has been studied rigorously by researchers in the field of compressed sensing (CS). CS algorithms that operate on batches of samples are known to be robust but can be computationally costly, making them unsuitable for cheap low power cognitive radio devices that require spectrum sensing in real time. On the other hand, online algorithms that are based on variations of the least mean squares (LMS) algorithm have very simple updates so they are computationally efficient and can easily adapt in real time to changes of the underlying spectrum. In this paper, we will present two variations of the LMS algorithm that enforce sparsity in the estimated spectrum given an upper bound on the number of nonzero coefficients. Assuming that the number of nonzero elements in the spectrum is known, we show that under conditions the hard threshold operation can only reduce the error of our estimation. We will also show that we can estimate the number of nonzero elements of the spectrum at each iteration based on our online estimations. Finally, we numerically compare our algorithm with other online sparsity-inducing algorithms in the literature.
Autors: Lampros Flokas;Petros Maragos;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 12, issue:1, pages: 35 - 44
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Operating DC Circuit Breakers With MMC
Abstract:
High voltage direct current (HVDC) grids may be protected from dc faults through the application of HVDC circuit breakers. Recent advances in dc circuit breaker technologies may allow faults in the dc grid to be cleared without a permanent loss of power to the connected ac grids. The requirements for the protection have yet to be fully defined; especially where half-bridge modular multilevel converter (MMC) controls are concerned. This paper investigates integrating dc circuit breakers with half-bridge MMC converters, specifically looking to at how to recover from a pole-to-pole fault. The fault response of the converter to a fault is analyzed in depth. This analysis highlights key stages in the converter response to a dc fault, allowing the MMC fault currents to be predicted. This analysis is then verified in PSCAD simulations and the power flow recovery is shown. The converter controls are investigated, improvements made to the power flow recovery, and the need for arm current controllers highlighted.
Autors: Oliver Cwikowski;Alan Wood;Allan Miller;Mike Barnes;Roger Shuttleworth;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 260 - 270
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Operation and Starting of PAM Motors Using Vacuum Contactors
Abstract:
Pole amplitude modulation (PAM) motor is a single-winding two speed motor used for induced draft fans. Its cost is much less than that of an adjustable speed drive motor. This paper is prompted by a rigorous study that was undertaken to replace an existing oil filled, leaky, transfer-switch type, two-speed motor starter, with an adjunct of tens of hard wired timers in a utility installation. The paper describes the fundamental operation of a PAM motor, different torque speed and thermal withstand characteristics at two speeds, and design of an alternate starter using conventional vacuum contactors with modern multifunction microprocessor relays to provide effective protection during normal two-speed operation and starting.
Autors: J. C. Das;Kevin Lancaster;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 916 - 922
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Operation Modes and Combination Control for Urban Multivoltage-Level DC Grid
Abstract:
With the development of urban economy and the growing integration of renewable energy, there are increasing challenges on the urban power grid. Due to the transmission stress and short-circuit current limitation, the traditional urban power grid cannot satisfy the new requirements. Multivoltage-level dc grid (MDCG) is an alternative approach to the urban power grid upgrade. This paper presents an MDCG topology, which can be used in a future urban power grid. Three operation modes of an urban MDCG are proposed: auto operation mode, power-limited operation mode, and stand-alone operation mode. The auto operation mode is the normal one for urban MDCG. The power-limited operation mode is designed to keep the capability to support urban high voltage ac transmission grid in emergencies. The stand-alone operation mode is used to keep stability in case the dc–dc converter system outage occurs. The combination control of three operation modes is put forward to enhance the reliability of urban MDCG in various operating conditions. The simulation results show that the proposed operation modes and combination control are effective and have good performance.
Autors: Kaiqi Sun;Ke-Jun Li;Zhuo-di Wang;Huadong Sun;Mingqiang Wang;Zhijie Liu;Meiyan Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 360 - 370
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Operation of a Hollow Cathode Neutralizer for Sub-100-W Hall and Ion Thrusters
Abstract:
We explore the operation of the Rafael heaterless hollow cathode (RHHC) at low discharge current levels corresponding to sub-100-W Hall and ion thrusters operation. We present experimental results of the cathode operating at discharge current levels of 0.2–0.5 A and mass flow rates of 0.2 and 0.25 mg/s. For each operational condition, potential measurements near the cathode region, in the cathode plume, and on the anode were conducted. We show that the cathode may operate in a self-sustained mode at discharge current levels down to 0.35 A. We show that the cathode coupling potential increases as the discharge current is decreased and may reach values of 40 V at the lowest discharge current. Accordingly, the cathode coupling power is estimated to account for up to 14 W of the anode power supply power. We show that when the RHHC cathode is coupled with a hypothetical very low-power Hall thruster, the estimated cathode power intake would be 10%–23% of the overall thruster power. Finally, using external cathode body temperature measurements, we assess the radiated power from the cathode surface to be lower than 1 W. Overall, we demonstrate that the RHHC cathode is suitable for operation with very low-power Hall and ion thrusters for discharge power under 100 W.
Autors: Dan R. Lev;Gal Alon;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 46, issue:2, pages: 311 - 318
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Operational Interpretation of Rényi Information Measures via Composite Hypothesis Testing Against Product and Markov Distributions
Abstract:
We revisit the problem of asymmetric binary hypothesis testing against a composite alternative hypothesis. We introduce a general framework to treat such problems when the alternative hypothesis adheres to certain axioms. In this case, we find the threshold rate, the optimal error and strong converse exponents (at large deviations from the threshold), and the second order asymptotics (at small deviations from the threshold). We apply our results to find the operational interpretations of various Rényi information measures. In case the alternative hypothesis is comprised of bipartite product distributions, we find that the optimal error and strong converse exponents are determined by the variations of Rényi mutual information. In case the alternative hypothesis consists of tripartite distributions satisfying the Markov property, we find that the optimal exponents are determined by the variations of Rényi conditional mutual information. In either case, the relevant notion of Rényi mutual information depends on the precise choice of the alternative hypothesis. As such, this paper also strengthens the view that different definitions of Rényi mutual information, conditional entropy, and conditional mutual information are adequate depending on the context in which the measures are used.
Autors: Marco Tomamichel;Masahito Hayashi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 64, issue:2, pages: 1064 - 1082
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Opportunistic Beamforming Using Dumb Basis Patterns in Cognitive Multiple Access Channels
Abstract:
In this paper, we investigate multiuser diversity in interference-limited multiple access underlay cognitive radio systems with line-of-sight (LoS) interference between the secondary and primary networks. Assuming Rician- interference channels and secondary users, it is shown that the secondary network sum capacity scales like , where is the Lambert-W function. Thus, LoS interference hinders the achievable multiuser diversity gain experienced in Rayleigh interference channels, where the sum capacity grows like . To overcome this problem, we propose the usage of a single radio Electronically Steerable Parasitic Array Radiator antenna at each of the secondary mobile terminals. These antennas will be used to induce artificial fluctuations in the interference channels to restore the growth rate by assigning random weights to orthogonal basis patterns. This technique will be referred to as random aerial beamforming (RAB). It is also shown that by using RAB, one can actually exploit LoS interference to improve multiuser interference diversity by boosting the effective number of users with minimal hardware complexity.
Autors: Ahmed M. Alaa;Mahmoud H. Ismail;Hazim Tawfik;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 67, issue:2, pages: 1417 - 1427
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Optical and Mechanical Excitation Thermography for Impact Response in Basalt-Carbon Hybrid Fiber-Reinforced Composite Laminates
Abstract:
In this paper, optical and mechanical excitation thermography was used to investigate basalt-fiber-reinforced polymer, carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer, and basalt-carbon fiber hybrid specimens subjected to impact loading. Interestingly, two different hybrid structures including sandwich-like and intercalated stacking sequence were used. Pulsed phase thermography, principal component thermography, and partial least-squares thermography (PLST) were used to process the thermographic data. X-ray computed tomography was used for validation. In addition, signal-to-noise ratio analysis was used as a means of quantitatively comparing the thermographic results. Of particular interest, the depth information linked to Loadings in PLST was estimated for the first time. Finally, a reference was provided for taking advantage of different hybrids in view of special industrial applications.
Autors: Hai Zhang;Stefano Sfarra;Fabrizio Sarasini;Clemente Ibarra-Castanedo;Stefano Perilli;Henrique Fernandes;Yuxia Duan;Jeroen Peeters;Nicolas P. Avdelidis;Xavier Maldague;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 14, issue:2, pages: 514 - 522
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Optical Feedback Flowmetry: Impact of Particle Concentration on the Signal Processing Method
Abstract:
Optical feedback interferometry (OFI)-based flow-metry enables simple, robust, self-aligned, and low-cost systems to measure the fluid flow velocity with reasonable accuracy. The particle concentration in the fluid causes significant changes in the signal of OFI sensors. While the spectral analysis of the particle induced Doppler shift remains as the most usual approach to determine the flow properties, different processing algorithms have been proposed in order to evaluate the average flow velocity within the measurement volume. In this paper, the validity of the commonly used methods with regards to particle concentrations and flow rates is verified.
Autors: Reza Atashkhooei;Evelio E. Ramírez-Miquet;Raul da Costa Moreira;Adam Quotb;Santiago Royo;Julien Perchoux;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 18, issue:4, pages: 1457 - 1463
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Optical Magnetic Field Sensor Based on Electrogyratory and Electrooptic Compensation in Single Quartz Crystal
Abstract:
An optical magnetic field sensor based on electrogyratory and electrooptic compensation is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Besides natural birefringence and optical activity, single quartz crystal simultaneously exhibits the magnetooptical Faraday effect, electrooptic Pockels effect, electrogyratory effect, and so on. For the intensity-modulated light sensing signal, the Faraday rotation angle can be compensated by both electrogyratory angle and electrooptic phase retardation. The 50-Hz ac magnetic flux density has been measured within 267 Gs by using a block of single quartz crystal, and typical compensating voltage is about ~ Gs−1. Advantages of the proposed magnetic field sensor mainly include closed-loop optical measurement of magnetic field or current, low compensating voltage, moderate temperature dependence of electrooptic and electrogyratory effects, a solid sensing unit, and low cost.
Autors: Changsheng Li;He Cui;Xuan Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 18, issue:4, pages: 1427 - 1434
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Optical Mapping of RF Field Profiles in Resonant Microwave Circuits
Abstract:
We demonstrate a technique for mapping the electric field profiles in resonant microwave circuits. Optical pumping of microwave circuits fabricated on semiconductor substrates is shown to result in a modulation of the load power dependent on the local electric field of the microwave signal in the resonant circuit. By reading out the modulation in transmitted signal as a function of the position of the optical excitation, for a range of driving frequencies, we are able to produce 2D images related to the microwave electric fields in our circuits. Images are generated for a range of resonator designs and compared to numerical simulations. The presented technique is analytically modeled for insight to the relationship between electric field and modulation signal.
Autors: Sukrith Dev;Runyu Liu;Jeffery W. Allen;Monica S. Allen;Brett R. Wenner;Daniel Wasserman;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 30, issue:4, pages: 331 - 334
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Optical Monitoring of Electrochemical Processes With ITO-Based Lossy-Mode Resonance Optical Fiber Sensor Applied as an Electrode
Abstract:
In this paper, we discuss the application of optical fiber sensors based on lossy-mode resonance (LMR) phenomenon for real-time optical monitoring of electrochemical processes. The sensors were obtained by a reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering of indium tin oxide (ITO) on a 2.5 cm long core of polymer-clad silica fibers. The LMR effect made monitoring of changes in optical properties of both ITO and its surrounding medium possible. Moreover, since ITO is electrically conductive and electrochemically active, it was used as a working electrode in a three-electrode cyclic voltammetry setup. The investigations have shown that the sensor's optical response strongly depends on the potential applied to the sensor, as well as on electrochemical modification of its surface. The obtained LMR effect can be applied in parallel to electrochemical measurements for real-time optical monitoring of the electrode conditions and properties of the surrounding medium.
Autors: Mateusz Śmietana;Michał Sobaszek;Bartosz Michalak;Paweł Niedziałkowski;Wioleta Białobrzeska;Marcin Koba;Petr Sezemsky;Vitezslav Stranak;Jakub Karczewski;Tadeusz Ossowski;Robert Bogdanowicz;
Appeared in: Journal of Lightwave Technology
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 36, issue:4, pages: 954 - 960
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Optical Properties of Eu3+-Doped Y2O3 Nanotubes and Nanosheets Synthesized by Hydrothermal Method
Abstract:
Y2O3:Eu3+ nanomaterials were obtained using a low-cost, large-scale, solution-based hydrothermal method followed by a thermal annealing process. The morphology of the Y2O3 :Eu3+ nanomaterials can be controlled by tuning the aging time, aging temperature, and the pH values of the suspension. The optical properties of Y2O3:Eu3+ nanosheets and nanotubes were investigated with the goal of improving the material's functionalities. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction patterns, field emission scanning electron microscopy images, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy images, emission spectra, excitation spectra, and fluorescence decay curves were measured and compared. The results showed that a novel Eu3+ environment exists in Y2O3:Eu3+ nanosheets, which led to rapid decay of emission at 611 nm. The unique properties of Y2O3:Eu 3+ nanosheets could lead to potential applications in white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) based on GaAlN deep UV LEDs.
Autors: Peifen Zhu;William Wang;Hongyang Zhu;Preston Vargas;August Bont;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 1 - 10
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Optically disaggregated data centers with minimal remote memory latency: Technologies, architectures, and resource allocation [Invited]
Abstract:
Disaggregated rack-scale data centers have been proposed as the only promising avenue to break the barrier of the fixed CPU-to-memory proportionality caused by main-tray direct-attached conventional/traditional server-centric systems. However, memory disaggregation has stringent network requirements in terms of latency, energy efficiency, bandwidth, and bandwidth density. This paper identifies all the requirements and key performance indicators of a network to disaggregate IT resources while summarizing the progress and importance of optical interconnects. Crucially, it proposes a rack-and-cluster scale architecture, which supports the disaggregation of CPU, memory, storage, and/or accelerator blocks. Optical circuit switching forms the core of this architecture, whereas the end-points (IT resources) are equipped with on-chip programmable hybrid electrical packet/circuit switches. This architecture offers dynamically reconfigurable physical topology to form virtual ones, each embedded with a set of functions. It analyzes the latency overhead of disaggregated DDR4 (parallel) and the proposed hybrid memory cube (serial) memory elements on the conventional and the proposed architecture. A set of resource allocation algorithms are introduced to (1) optimally select disaggregated IT resources with the lowest possible latency, (2) pool them together by means of a virtual network interconnect, and (3) compose virtual disaggregated servers. Simulation findings show up to a 34% resource utilization increase over traditional data centers while highlighting the importance of the placement and locality among compute, memory, and storage resources. In particular, the network-aware locality-based resource allocation algorithm achieves as low as 15 ns, 95 ns, and 315 ns memory transaction round-trip latency on 63%, 22%, and 15% of the allocated virtual machines (VMs) accordingly while utilizing 100% of the CPU resources. Furthermore, a formulation to parameterize and evaluate the- additional financial costs endured by disaggregation is reported. It is shown that the more diverse the VM requests are, the higher the net financial gain is. Finally, an experiment was carried out using silicon photonic midboard optics and an optical circuit switch, which demonstrates forward error correction free 10−12 bit error rate performance on up to five-tier scale-out networks.
Autors: Georgios Zervas;Hui Yuan;Arsalan Saljoghei;Qianqiao Chen;Vaibhawa Mishra;
Appeared in: IEEE/OSA Journal of Optical Communications and Networking
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 10, issue:2, pages: A270 - A285
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Optically Pumped Hybrid Plasmonic-Photonic Waveguide Modulator Using the VO2 Metal-Insulator Phase Transition
Abstract:
The need for ever faster and more efficient computation and communication devices has spurred interest in the field of all-optical modulators. Here a small-size hybrid plasmonic-photonic all-optical waveguide modulator utilizing a subwavelength Au/VO2 nanostructure is proposed as a high-modulation optically actuatable modulator. Using finite-difference-time-domain simulations, a nanoscale (320 nm × 300 nm cross-section) optimized modulator is designed. The modulator design has an extinction ratio as high as 26.85 dB/μm, and a length of only 550 nm.
Autors: J. Kenji Clark;Ya-Lun Ho;Hiroaki Matsui;Jean-Jacques Delaunay;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 1 - 9
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Optimal and Suboptimal Velocity Estimators for ArcSAR With Distributed Target
Abstract:
Two new methods of radial velocity estimation for distributed targets in arc-scanning synthetic aperture radar (ArcSAR) systems, namely, the maximum-likelihood estimator (MLE) and the suboptimal method based on the least squares estimation (LSE), are proposed, derived, and analyzed. To this end, we establish that scatterers of the distributed target are uniformly dispersed within the radar resolution cell of dimensions and they move randomly at different velocities. Furthermore, the effect of the antenna pattern is considered to characterize the amplitude of the scattered signal. Thus, from the coherent integration of the scatters at each pulse repetition interval in radar scanning, data sequences are obtained as samples of the composite signal, which follows a multivariate normal distribution. From this, the covariance matrix, upon which the methods are based, is derived. Simulations have been carried out to compare the new methods with existing methods, namely, phase, energy, and correlation, as a function of the signal-to-noise ratio. Finally, the results show that the MLE and LSE methods outperform the conventional methods, providing a gain of more than 10 dB.
Autors: Andrea Carolina Flores Rodriguez;Gustavo Fraidenraich;Tarcísio A. P. Soares;José Cândido S. Santos Filho;Marco A. M. Miranda;Michel Daoud Yacoub;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 15, issue:2, pages: 252 - 256
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Optimal Control for Generalized Network-Flow Problems
Abstract:
We consider the problem of throughput-optimal packet dissemination, in the presence of an arbitrary mix of unicast, broadcast, multicast, and anycast traffic, in an arbitrary wireless network. We propose an online dynamic policy, called Universal Max-Weight (UMW), which solves the problem efficiently. To the best of our knowledge, UMW is the first known throughput-optimal policy of such versatility in the context of generalized network flow problems. Conceptually, the UMW policy is derived by relaxing the precedence constraints associated with multi-hop routing and then solving a min-cost routing and max-weight scheduling problem on a virtual network of queues. When specialized to the unicast setting, the UMW policy yields a throughput-optimal cycle-free routing and link scheduling policy. This is in contrast with the well-known throughput-optimal back-pressure (BP) policy which allows for packet cycling, resulting in excessive latency. Extensive simulation results show that the proposed UMW policy incurs a substantially smaller delay as compared with the BP policy. The proof of throughput-optimality of the UMW policy combines ideas from the stochastic Lyapunov theory with a sample path argument from adversarial queueing theory and may be of independent theoretical interest.
Autors: Abhishek Sinha;Eytan Modiano;
Appeared in: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 506 - 519
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Optimal Decision Making for Big Data Processing at Edge-Cloud Environment: An SDN Perspective
Abstract:
With the evolution of Internet and extensive usage of smart devices for computing and storage, cloud computing has become popular. It provides seamless services such as e-commerce, e-health, e-banking, etc., to the end users. These services are hosted on massive geodistributed data centers (DCs), which may be managed by different service providers. For faster response time, such a data explosion creates the need to expand DCs. So, to ease the load on DCs, some of the applications may be executed on the edge devices near to the proximity of the end users. However, such a multiedge-cloud environment involves huge data migrations across the underlying network infrastructure, which may generate long migration delay and cost. Hence, in this paper, an efficient workload slicing scheme is proposed for handling data-intensive applications in multiedge-cloud environment using software-defined networks (SDN). To handle the inter-DC migrations efficiently, an SDN-based control scheme is presented, which provides energy-aware network traffic flow scheduling. Finally, a multileader multifollower Stackelberg game is proposed to provide cost-effective inter-DC migrations. The efficacy of the proposed scheme is evaluated on Google workload traces using various parameters. The results obtained show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.
Autors: Gagangeet Singh Aujla;Neeraj Kumar;Albert Y. Zomaya;Rajiv Ranjan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 14, issue:2, pages: 778 - 789
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Optimal Guaranteed Cost Sliding-Mode Control of Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Time-Delay Systems
Abstract:
This paper is concerned with the optimal guaranteed cost sliding-mode control problem for interval type-2 (IT2) Takagi–Sugeno fuzzy systems with time-varying delays and exogenous disturbances. In the presence of the uncertain parameters hidden in membership functions, an adaptive method is presented to handle the time-varying weight coefficients reflecting the change of the uncertain parameters. A new integral sliding surface is presented based on the system output. By designing a novel adaptive sliding-mode controller, system perturbation or modeling error can be compensated, and the reachability of the sliding surface can be guaranteed with the ultimate uniform boundedness of the closed-loop system. Optimal conditions of an guaranteed cost function and an performance index are established for the resulting time-delay control system. Finally, an inverted pendulum system represented by the IT2 fuzzy model is applied to illustrate the advantages and effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.
Autors: Hongyi Li;Jiahui Wang;Ligang Wu;Hak-Keung Lam;Yabin Gao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 246 - 257
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Optimal Objective-Based Experimental Design for Uncertain Dynamical Gene Networks with Experimental Error
Abstract:
In systems biology, network models are often used to study interactions among cellular components, a salient aim being to develop drugs and therapeutic mechanisms to change the dynamical behavior of the network to avoid undesirable phenotypes. Owing to limited knowledge, model uncertainty is commonplace and network dynamics can be updated in different ways, thereby giving multiple dynamic trajectories, that is, dynamics uncertainty. In this manuscript, we propose an experimental design method that can effectively reduce the dynamics uncertainty and improve performance in an interaction-based network. Both dynamics uncertainty and experimental error are quantified with respect to the modeling objective, herein, therapeutic intervention. The aim of experimental design is to select among a set of candidate experiments the experiment whose outcome, when applied to the network model, maximally reduces the dynamics uncertainty pertinent to the intervention objective.
Autors: Daniel N. Mohsenizadeh;Roozbeh Dehghannasiri;Edward R. Dougherty;
Appeared in: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 218 - 230
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Optimal Offering of Demand Response Aggregation Company in Price-Based Energy and Reserve Market Participation
Abstract:
This paper investigates the combined price-based scheduling/participation of generation company (GENCO) and demand response aggregation company (DRACO) in energy and reserve markets. The temporally coupled customer behavior can be better represented using the load profile attributes, when compared to the traditional approach with random willingness assignment. The proposed cost models for energy and reserve offerings consider the effect of load type, load pattern consumption, and availability/flexibility patterns of each type of load with time of use constraints. The load curtailment (LC) cost model accounts for criticality and willingness of the responsive loads via utilization factor and availability factors, respectively. The proposed cost models present a realistic picture of LC cost by eliminating the random willingness factor of the existing LC cost models. Thereafter, various cases of market participation with different reserve payment policies are formulated for combined participation of GENCO and DRACO. In addition, the sensitivity of participation decision of various entities to the seasonal load variation is examined for summer and winter loading profiles. The proposed cost models and scheduling framework is simulated using GENCO with ten thermal units and DRACO with various load types, profiles distributed across different load sectors comprising of commercial, residential, industrial, municipal, and agricultural loads. The combined participation resulted in improved market surplus with reduced GENCO surplus. Also, the energy and reserve market surplus dependence on seasonal load patterns is observed across different test cases and payment policies.
Autors: Srikanth Reddy Konda;Lokesh Kumar Panwar;Bijaya Ketan Panigrahi;Rajesh Kumar;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 14, issue:2, pages: 578 - 587
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Optimal Placement of GIC Blocking Devices Considering Equipment Thermal Limits and Power System Operation Constraints
Abstract:
A practical mitigation of the geomagnetic disturbance (GMD) consequences in power systems is not possible without taking into account the equipment thermal limits and operational constraints. This paper presents such limitations, develops the required equations and characteristics, and proposes a general and comprehensive approach to incorporate these limits in any short-term or long-term geomagnetically induced current (GIC) mitigating solution. As an application, this study formulates the limits in the context of an optimal placement of the GIC blocking devices at the neutral point of the power transformers in the IEEE 118-bus benchmark study system. The proposed optimization problem takes into account synchronous generator real/reactive power capability, acceptable bus voltage magnitudes, transformer hot-spot heating, transmission-line thermal limits, capacitor bank harmonic loading, and synchronous generator rotor heating. This paper shows that the existing standards significantly underestimate the generator rotor heating under the GMD conditions and propose more accurate alternatives. The study results show that considering the equipment thermal limits results in a noticeably different solution when compared with the case of ignoring such limits.
Autors: Afshin Rezaei-Zare;Amir H. Etemadi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 200 - 208
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Optimal Scheduling, Coordination, and the Value of RFID Technology in Garment Manufacturing Supply Chains
Abstract:
Motivated by industrial practices, we explore in this paper the optimal supply chain scheduling problem in garment manufacturing with the consideration of coordination and radio frequency identification (RFID) technology. We consider the case in which a garment manufacturer receives orders from multiple retailers, and needs to determine the optimal order set to take and the corresponding optimal production schedule. We model the problem as a flowshop scheduling problem, uncover its structural properties, and prove that the problem is NP-hard in the ordinary sense only. We contribute by first developing a practical and effective pseudopolynomial dynamic programming algorithm to find the globally optimal solution in reasonable time; second, proposing an implementable method to achieve win–win supply chain coordination; and third, showing the good performance of RFID technology deployment. We further determine the critical threshold value of the order number with which the total manufacturing capacity must be increased if companies in the supply chain wish to improve their profits.
Autors: Tsan-Ming Choi;Wing-Kwan Yeung;T. C. Edwin Cheng;Xiaohang Yue;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 72 - 84
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Optimization and Analysis of Probabilistic Caching in $N$ -Tier Heterogeneous Networks
Abstract:
In this paper, we study the probabilistic caching for an -tier wireless heterogeneous network (HetNet) using stochastic geometry. A general and tractable expression of the successful delivery probability (SDP) is first derived. We then optimize the caching probabilities for maximizing the SDP in the high signal-to-noise ratio regime. The problem is proved to be convex and solved efficiently. We next establish an interesting connection between -tier HetNets and single-tier networks. Unlike the single-tier network where the optimal performance only depends on the cache size, the optimal performance of -tier HetNets depends also on the base station (BS) densities. The performance upper bound is, however, determined by an equivalent single-tier network. We further show that with uniform caching probabilities regardless of content popularities, to achieve a target SDP, the BS density of a tier can be reduced by increasing the cache size of the tier when the cache size is larger than a threshold; otherwise, the BS density and BS cache size can be increased simultaneously. It is also found analytically that the BS density of a tier is inverse to the BS cache size of the same tier and is linear to BS cache sizes of other tiers.
Autors: Kuikui Li;Chenchen Yang;Zhiyong Chen;Meixia Tao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 1283 - 1297
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Optimization of Au-Free Ohmic Contact Based on the Gate-First Double-Metal AlGaN/GaN MIS-HEMTs and SBDs Process
Abstract:
The compatibility of Au-free (Ti/Al/Ti/TiN) ohmic contacts in the gate-first double-metal (GFDM) process for AlGaN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor high-electron-mobility transistors (MIS-HEMTs) and Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) on the same 150-mm wafer was investigated and discussed for the first time, including contact pretreatments, Al diffusion in dielectric layers, and vias (contact windows between two metal layers) etching conditions. All of these steps are crucial to ohmic contacts as well as overall AlGaN/GaN device fabrication process. With the optimized ohmic contacts steps, not only an extremely low ohmic contact resistance () value of but also an excellent uniformity on the 150-mm wafer was obtained. The performance and uniformity of the MIS-HEMTs and SBDs based on the optimized GFDM process were also discussed.
Autors: Hui Sun;Meihua Liu;Peng Liu;Xinnan Lin;Jianguo Chen;Maojun Wang;Dongmin Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 622 - 628
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Optimization of Fingerprints Reporting Strategy for WLAN Indoor Localization
Abstract:
This paper investigates how to optimize the fingerprints reporting strategy to improve localization accuracy, and how the optimal strategy theory can be utilized to streamline the design of WLAN fingerprinting localization systems. In particular, we first reveal that the fingerprints reporting problem is essentially an NP-Hard size-constrained supermodular maximization problem, and then show the inapplicability of the state-of-the-art approximation algorithms to the problem. We then propose a new algorithm and show that if the number of fingerprints measurements is large enough, then the localization accuracy is at most times worse than the optimal value, with any given constant close to 0. Moreover, we demonstrate how the optimal strategy theory can be utilized to improve accuracy of location estimation by resolving the issue of similar fingerprints for both faraway and close-by locations, with an iterative algorithm developed to cross check fingerprints sampled in different locations, in order to derive the best possible result of localization. Further, we reveal the relationship between accuracy of location estimation and coverage of Wi-Fi signals in indoor spaces when planning deployment of APs. Experiment results are presented to validate our theoretical analysis.
Autors: Xiaohua Tian;Wenxin Li;Yucheng Yang;Zhehui Zhang;Xinbing Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 390 - 403
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Optimization of MV Distribution System Designs
Abstract:
This paper will present a new approach that is advantageous to medium-voltage (MV) distribution design configurations for large industrial and power distribution system configurations [specifically main-tie-main (MTM)] for large industrial and power station installations. Sixty years of traditional low-cost design approaches (typical MTM and operated with open tiebreaker) are re-evaluated to demonstrate that traditional low capital cost design may miss improvement opportunities. Those opportunities can be major capital expenditure reduction, power quality improvement, MV motor soft starter deletion, and improved system stability to name a few. Many designers may not have considered the component interrelationships and/or their tradeoffs when in an integrated system. The designer and/or user should consider the advantages of higher short-circuit capacity (SCC) systems by integrating fault current limiters and MV switchgear. Utilizing higher SCC systems permits power system designer optimization opportunities not possible before using conventional design methods. This paper will provide documentation of substantial savings of capital investment and energy under higher SCC conditions. The savings in one system component will offset another's increased cost. An obvious benefit of stiffer systems is ease of direct-on-line starting of large motor-driven compressor trains. The future need for motor soft starters minimizing system impact will be challenged. This paper may change fundamental system design methodology for system designers by removing several performance tradeoffs. This paper, in its original version, was previously presented at the 2010 IEEE/IAS/Petroleum Chemical Industry Conference. It was expanded with new sections for the 2017 IEEE/Industry Applications Society (IAS)/Pulp, Paper Forestry Industries Conference to include pre-emptive prefault adjustable power quality and multisourced networked power systems.
Autors: Raymond Catlett;Samy Faried;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 923 - 933
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Optimization of SiC UMOSFET Structure for Improvement of Breakdown Voltage and ON-Resistance
Abstract:
This paper proposes an optimized structure of 4H-SiC U-shaped accumulation-mode MOSFET (U-ACCUFET), which exhibits lower on-resistance and higher breakdown voltage. In this structure, an n-doped region is added underneath the gate trench, which covers the p+ shielding region. The new appended section spreads out the electrons to the bottom of the p+ shielding region and conducts the electrons in the downward direction. Output on-state characteristic curves (–), on-resistance, transfer characteristic curves (–), threshold voltage (), subthreshold slope, and off-state characteristics of the optimized structure are observed. The proposed device shows on-resistance of 1.55 cm2 at V and V and breakdown voltage of 2624 V at V. The simulation results indicate a superior performance of the optimized U-ACCUFET structure as the on-resistance reduces by 6% and breakdown voltage increases by 7.2% as compared with that of the conventional one. Also, the figure of merit ${V}_{textsf {BR}}^{textsf {2}}/{R}_{ mathrm{scriptscriptstyle ON}}$ is improved by 21.6%.
Autors: Deepshikha Bharti;Aminul Islam;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 615 - 621
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Optimization of Sparse Frequency Diverse Array With Time-Invariant Spatial-Focusing Beampattern
Abstract:
The optimization of the sparse time-modulated optimized frequency offset frequency diverse array (S-TMOFO-FDA) with time-invariant spatial-focusing beampattern is presented. The minimum array with smallest number of elements is obtained through iterative optimization. From numerical results, the S-TMOFO-FDA can provide above 70% reduction in the element amount while displaying superior sidelobe performance than the same aperture-sized full uniform time-modulated logarithmically increasing frequency offset frequency diverse arrays. Furthermore, the scanning performance of the optimized array is also investigated. The S-TMOFO-FDAs of different array length are optimized.
Autors: Yu-Qian Yang;Hao Wang;Hai-Qing Wang;Si-Qi Gu;Da-Long Xu;Shuang-Long Quan;
Appeared in: IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 351 - 354
Publisher: IEEE
 

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