Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 02-2018 sorted by title, page: 5

» Balanced Power Amplifier Protection Against Load Mismatch
Abstract:
This letter presents a new approach for balanced power amplifier protection against load mismatch under pulsed-RF operation. The proposed protection mechanism completely eliminates the reflected power under severe mismatch conditions while not affecting nominal operating condition. The concept is based on detection, comparison, and switching technique. The proposed protection circuit offers full protection against open and short at the output. This protection mechanism has been demonstrated on a 10-W -band power amplifier, intended to be used in space borne radar payloads. The reaction time of the proposed protection mechanism is <100 ns.
Autors: Shruti Sinha;Ch. V. N. Rao;Dhaval Pujara;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 28, issue:2, pages: 165 - 167
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Bandwidth Analysis of RF-DC Converters Under Multisine Excitation
Abstract:
The use of multisine signals to improve the efficiency of wireless power transfer (WPT) for low average received power was proposed recently. Several measurement-based studies illustrated the gain that can be achieved for different circuit or waveform instances, focusing on the impact of a time-varying amplitude on the rectifying efficiency. This paper first establishes a model enabling a thorough analysis of the multisine-based WPT system focusing on the bandwidth of the signal and the rectifier. This model enables a codesign of signal and rectifier for optimal WPT. The proposed model provides insight into the output voltage and power, as a function of the input waveform for different circuit models. By including the input matching and the clamper, our model is generic and can include a wide range of rectifiers with different voltage multiplication approaches. The key insight gained from our analysis is that there is a tradeoff between the frequency spacing of the tones of the multisine signal and the cut-off frequency of the low-pass RC filter, as a main property of the rectifier circuit. Our model predicts the measured power conversion efficiency and voltage with an error below 0.1 and 0.2 V, respectively.
Autors: Ning Pan;Daniel Belo;Mohammad Rajabi;Dominique Schreurs;Nuno Borges Carvalho;Sofie Pollin;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 791 - 802
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Bandwidth Enhancement to Continuous-Time Input Pipeline ADCs
Abstract:
This paper presents design analysis and insights for a new continuous-time input pipeline (CTIP) analog-to-digital converter (ADC) architecture that has enhanced bandwidth. An all-pass filter-based analog delay in the signal path allows bandwidth extension to Nyquist signal bandwidths. A resetting integrator gain stage provides a signal path delay helping to increase the bandwidth while reducing the power cost. The noise filtering property of the resetting integrator gain stage preserves the medium resistive input benefit of CTIP ADCs. The resetting integrator allows the architecture to be implemented with a feedforward compensated op-amp using low-voltage CMOS processes. This paper has been verified by simulation results of a CTIP ADC with 1.2-V supply voltage designed in TSMC’s 65-nm CMOS technology.
Autors: Daniel O’Hare;Anthony G. Scanlan;Eric Thompson;Brendan Mullane;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 26, issue:2, pages: 404 - 415
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Barium Zirconate Nickelate as the Gate Dielectric for Low-Leakage Current Organic Transistors
Abstract:
High- barium zirconate nickelate (BZN) gate dielectric layer was prepared through the low-temperature sol–gel method and was used in pentacene-based organic thin-film transistor (OTFT) applications. In comparison with its barium zirconate oxide (BZO) counterpart, experimental results show that the threshold voltage of the BZN-based OTFTs decreases from −2 to −1.1 V, the gate leakage decreases from 10−8 to 10−12 A, the carrier mobility increases from 2.1 to 5.2 cm2/Vs, and the subthreshold swing decreases from 2.4 to 0.4 V/decade. The effect of Ni on device characteristics is discussed in this paper. Ni(II) acetylacetone possesses two pairs of symmetrical bidentate ligands, which can chelate with Zr ion to smoothen surface roughness. The dielectric constant can be increased. The enhancement of mobility is partly attributed to the smoother surface to reduce the scattering effects of the carrier. In addition, the improved film quality may also increase the barrier height and reduce the leakage current, which enhances the ON/ OFF ratio through the chelate effect due to the addition of Ni in BZO. Furthermore, excellent operation stability can be achieved.
Autors: Cheng-Jung Lee;Ke-Jing Lee;Yu-Chi Chang;Li-Wen Wang;Der-Wei Chou;Yeong-Her Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 680 - 686
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Battery-Less Short-Term Smoothing of Photovoltaic Generation Using Sky Camera
Abstract:
There is a growing concern over addressing the adverse effects of variations in the output power of distributed generators such as photovoltaic generation (PVG) systems that continue to be widely introduced into power networks. Nowadays, most network operators are requiring these intermittent energy resources to seek compliance with new regulations pertaining to the restriction of their export power fluctuations. This paper aims to investigate the smoothing of the export power fluctuations primarily attributed to clouds passing over the PVG plant, which are traditionally compensated by integrating a battery storage (BS) system. The idea of incorporating short-term solar prediction information into the conventional smoothing approach is examined to indicate how it affects the engagement of BS in the smoothing process. Afterward, an enhanced solar forecasting scheme based on whole-sky imaging is proposed and its performance is demonstrated through several real-time experiments complemented with simulation studies. The results reveal that the proposed PVG smoothing strategy is capable of successfully filtering rapid export power fluctuations to an acceptable extent and the conventional generation reserves will experience a negligible amount of remaining undesired power variation. This clearly bears out the hypothesis of battery-less PVG regulation.
Autors: Mojtaba Saleh;Lindsay Meek;Mohammad A. S. Masoum;Masoud Abshar;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 14, issue:2, pages: 403 - 414
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Bayesian Particle Tracking of Traffic Flows
Abstract:
We develop a Bayesian particle filter for tracking traffic flows that is capable of capturing non-linearities and discontinuities present in flow dynamics. Our model includes a hidden state variable that captures sudden regime shifts between traffic free flow, breakdown, and recovery. We develop an efficient particle learning algorithm for real time online inference of states and parameters. This requires a two-step approach, first resampling the current particles with a mixture predictive distribution and second propagation of states using the conditional posterior distribution. Particle learning of parameters follows from updating recursions for conditional sufficient statistics. To illustrate our methodology, we analyze the measurements of daily traffic flow from the Illinois Interstate I-55 highway system. We demonstrate how our filter can be used to infer the change of traffic flow regime on a highway road segment based on a measurement from freeway single-loop detectors. Finally, we conclude with directions for future research.
Autors: Nicholas Polson;Vadim Sokolov;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 19, issue:2, pages: 345 - 356
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Bayesian Test for Detecting False Data Injection in Wireless Relay Networks
Abstract:
We develop the Bayesian test for detecting the relay misbehavior (false data injection) at the packet level in lossy one-way wireless relay networks. The proposed approach exploits overheard erroneous packet from the source as a reference in verifying the correctness of relayed packet at the destination. We derive the probability of false alarm and missed detection as a function of the overhearing error rate, the number of bits modified in a packet, and the packet length. We show that the probability of false alarm and missed detection decreases as the packet length increases and converges to zero, regardless of the overhearing error rate, if the packet length is sufficiently long.
Autors: Xudong Liu;Yong Guan;Sang Wu Kim;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 22, issue:2, pages: 380 - 383
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Beam Shaping Freeform Lens Design With Modified Optical Flux Partition
Abstract:
A freeform lens design strategy that performs directivity transformation is proposed. In principle, arbitrary beam pattern can be achieved with this method, which uses a modified flux partition method. Taking a Lambertian light source as the example, this method successfully give different required intensity distributions, such as the isotropic and exponential ones. Also, the isotropic directivity lens is fabricated and the beam pattern is measured to verify the effectiveness. With a real Lambertian top emitting white light LED as the source, the experimental results agree well with the simulation ones, which provides high directivity isotropy (more than 80%). This scheme takes Fresnel loss of the lens into consideration and can also predict the efficiency of the lens; it may find applications in lighting or illumination engineering where directivity transformation are required.
Autors: Pin Han;Hsun-Ching Hsu;Cheng-Mu Tsai;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 1 - 13
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Beam Switching Antenna Based on a Reconfigurable Cascaded Feeding Network
Abstract:
In this paper, a beam switching antenna (BSA) based on a reconfigurable cascaded feeding network (RCFN) is presented. The RCFN is engineered by cascading several varactor-loaded quasi-lumped couplers (QLCs). As the output port of the RCFN, the coupled port of every QLC is connected to an endfire radiator. BSAs based on two types of RCFN, the open-loop RCFN and closed-loop RCFN, are designed, simulated, and measured. The open-loop design features flexible beam switching strategies with the dynamic control of operation modes allocating the input power to the intended radiator(s), and single-/multibeam switching is achieved. In the case of the closed-loop RCFN, a power-recycling circuit is introduced to improve the efficiency of the single-beam switching mode of the BSA. Measured results show that the BSA operating in single-beam mode is able to radiate six switched beams each with a 3 dB beamwidth of 60°, covering 360° in the azimuth plane. The return losses and gain fluctuation of both prototypes are better than 15 dB and less than 1 dB, respectively. The corresponding experiments agree well with both the theoretical analysis and the simulation results.
Autors: Peng-Yuan Wang;Tao Jin;Fan-Yi Meng;Yue-Long Lyu;Daniel Erni;Qun Wu;Lei Zhu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 627 - 635
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Beam-Shaping Technique Based on Generalized Laws of Refraction and Reflection
Abstract:
In this paper, we present a new beam-shaping technique based on the use of a flat lens comprised of phase shift structures (PSSs), designed to reshape the primary beam into a desired one. The beam impinging upon the input port of the lens is regarded as a set of ray tubes, whose refraction characteristics are modified by the PSSs based on the generalized law of refraction to form the desired shaped beam. The proposed method is straightforward to implement and is general purpose in nature. The design procedure of the beam-shaping flat lens is discussed in detail, and two example designs are presented. The simulation and measured results of these case examples confirm that the BSFLs can reshape the primary beams of the feed antennas to the desired flattop or isoflux patterns, for instance. Finally, extensions of the proposed technique to other potential applications are discussed.
Autors: Pengfei Zhang;Shuxi Gong;Raj Mittra;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 771 - 779
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Beampattern Synthesis for Frequency Diverse Array via Reweighted $ell _1$ Iterative Phase Compensation
Abstract:
This paper addresses the issue of beampattern synthesis with flexible magnitude response and low sidelobe in a frequency diverse array radar. It is formulated as an optimization problem in terms of -norm minimization, which encourages the sparsity of array pattern. An iterative phase compensation (IPC) technique is employed to transform the nonconvex constraint to phase compensation form. Then, to further reduce the sidelobe level, a reweighted -IPC algorithm is devised, in which a sparsity-enhanced scheme is utilized to convert the -norm to a new cost function that more closely resembles -norm. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach in different scenarios.
Autors: Qiang Li;Lei Huang;Peichang Zhang;Hing Cheung So;Huifeng Xue;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 467 - 475
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Benchmarking of Constant Power Generation Strategies for Single-Phase Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems
Abstract:
With a still increase of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems, challenges have been imposed on the grid due to the continuous injection of a large amount of fluctuating PV power, like overloading the grid infrastructure (e.g., transformers) during peak power production periods. Hence, advanced active power control methods are required. As a cost-effective solution to avoid overloading, a constant power generation (CPG) control scheme by limiting the feed-in power has been introduced into the currently active grid regulations. In order to achieve a CPG operation, this paper presents three CPG strategies based on a power control method (P-CPG), a current limit method (I-CPG), and the perturb and observe algorithm (P&O-CPG). However, the operational mode changes (e.g., from the maximum power point tracking to a CPG operation) will affect the entire system performance. Thus, a benchmarking of the presented CPG strategies is also conducted on a 3-kW single-phase grid-connected PV system. Comparisons reveal that either the P-CPG or I-CPG strategies can achieve fast dynamics and satisfactory steady-state performance. In contrast, the P&O-CPG algorithm is the most suitable solution in terms of high robustness, but it presents poor dynamic performance.
Autors: Ariya Sangwongwanich;Yongheng Yang;Frede Blaabjerg;Huai Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 447 - 457
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Bi-level and Bi-objective p-Median Type Problems for Integrative Clustering: Application to Analysis of Cancer Gene-Expression and Drug-Response Data
Abstract:
Recent advances in high-throughput technologies have given rise to collecting large amounts of multidimensional heterogeneous data that provide diverse information on the same biological samples. Integrative analysis of such multisource datasets may reveal new biological insights into complex biological mechanisms and therefore remains an important research field in systems biology. Most of the modern integrative clustering approaches rely on independent analysis of each dataset and consensus clustering, probabilistic or statistical modeling, while flexible distance-based integrative clustering techniques are sparsely covered. We propose two distance-based integrative clustering frameworks based on bi-level and bi-objective extensions of the p-median problem. A hybrid branch-and-cut method is developed to find global optimal solutions to the bi-level p-median model. As to the bi-objective problem, an -constraint algorithm is proposed to generate an approximation to the Pareto optimal set. Every solution found by any of the frameworks corresponds to an integrative clustering. We present an application of our approaches to integrative analysis of NCI-60 human tumor cell lines characterized by gene expression and drug activity profiles. We demonstrate that the proposed mathematical optimization-based approaches outperform some state-of-the-art and traditional distance-based integrative and non-integrative clustering techniques.
Autors: Anton V. Ushakov;Xenia Klimentova;Igor Vasilyev;
Appeared in: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 46 - 59
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Biased Constrained Hybrid Kalman Filter for Range-Based Indoor Localization
Abstract:
The range-based localization method is widely used in wireless sensor localization systems. Many existing localization algorithms are unbiased estimators. However, the estimation performance presents biased features in the real localization systems. On the other hand, many biased location estimators show some essential advantages over unbiased estimators, e.g., robust to the noise, more accurate estimation, and low complexity. In this paper, we deeply investigate the performance of biased estimator, min–max, to achieve a new accuracy limit, and propose a hybrid Kalman filtering algorithm, which recursively locates the target based on biased feature. The first contribution is that we formulate the biased Cramér-Rao lower bound of the min–max algorithm to indicate that the biased localization algorithm can outperform the unbiased algorithms, e.g., maximum likelihood, as if the estimation bias were attained. The second contribution is that we propose a hybrid Kalman filtering algorithm while employing the min–max to construct a constrain region and using the dynamic Gaussian model for calculation in non-Gaussian environments. Our algorithm is robust to complicated environments with high accuracy. And, we implement it in an IoT target tracking platform. Both theoretical analysis and experimental evaluation indicate that the proposed algorithm outperform the unbiased optimal estimation methods. And our algorithm can control the estimation error in only 1 m.
Autors: Yubin Zhao;Xiaofan Li;Yang Wang;Cheng-Zhong Xu;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 18, issue:4, pages: 1647 - 1655
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Big Data Analytics in Industrial IoT Using a Concentric Computing Model
Abstract:
The unprecedented proliferation of miniaturized sensors and intelligent communication, computing, and control technologies have paved the way for the development of the Industrial Internet of Things. The IIoT incorporates machine learning and massively parallel distributed systems such as clouds, clusters, and grids for big data storage, processing, and analytics. In IIoT, end devices continuously generate and transmit data streams, resulting in increased network traffic between device-cloud communication. Moreover, it increases in-network data transmissions. requiring additional efforts for big data processing, management, and analytics. To cope with these engendered issues, this article first introduces a novel concentric computing model (CCM) paradigm composed of sensing systems, outer and inner gateway processors, and central processors (outer and inner) for the deployment of big data analytics applications in IIoT. Second, we investigate, highlight, and report recent research efforts directed at the IIoT paradigm with respect to big data analytics. Third, we identify and discuss indispensable challenges that remain to be addressed for employing CCM in the IIoT paradigm. Lastly, we provide several future research directions (e.g., real-time data analytics, data integration, transmission of meaningful data, edge analytics, real-time fusion of streaming data, and security and privacy).
Autors: Muhammad Habib ur Rehman;Ejaz Ahmed;Ibrar Yaqoob;Ibrahim Abaker Targio Hashem;Muhammad Imran;Shafiq Ahmad;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 56, issue:2, pages: 37 - 43
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Bilateral LSTM: A Two-Dimensional Long Short-Term Memory Model With Multiply Memory Units for Short-Term Cycle Time Forecasting in Re-entrant Manufacturing Systems
Abstract:
Forecasting short-term cycle time (CT) of wafer lots is crucial for production planning and control in the wafer manufacturing. A novel recurrent neural network called “bilateral long short-term memory (bilateral LSTM)” is proposed to model a short-term cycle time forecasting (CTF) of each re-entrant period of a wafer lot. First, a two-dimensional (2-D) architecture is designed to transmit the wafer and layer correlations by using wafer and layer connections. Subsequently, aiming to store various error signals caused by the diverse CT data, a multiply memory structure is presented to extend the capacity of constant error carousel (CEC) in the LSTM model. The experiment results indicate that the proposed model outperforms conventional models in the accuracy and stability for the short-term CTF. Further comparative experiments reveal that the 2-D architecture can enhance the prediction accuracy and the multi-CEC structure can improve the forecasting stability for the short-term CTF of wafer lots.
Autors: Junliang Wang;Jie Zhang;Xiaoxi Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 14, issue:2, pages: 748 - 758
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Bilevel Multiview Latent Space Learning
Abstract:
Different kinds of features describe different aspects of image data, and each feature can be treated as a view when we take it as a particular understanding of images. Leveraging multiple views provides a richer and comprehensive description than using only a single view. However, multiview data are often represented by high-dimensional heterogeneous features, so it is meaningful to find a low-dimensional consensus representation from multiple views. In this paper, we propose an unsupervised multiview dimensionality reduction method for images based on bilevel latent space learning. As different views have different physical meanings and statistical properties, they are not directly comparable. Therefore, we learn the comparable representation for each view in the first level. The shared and the private nature of multiview data are exploited to accurately preserve the information of each view. Then, we fuse different views into a low-dimensional representation by conducting joint matrix factorization in the second level. To guarantee the low-dimensional representation to be compact and discriminative, the intrinsic geometric structure of data is utilized. Besides, our method considers resisting the outliers and noise contained in multiview data, which may influence the learned representation and deteriorate its semantic consistency. We design appropriate optimization objectives to learn the latent spaces in different levels. Compared with the existing methods, our method could provide a more flexible multiview learning strategy that not only accurately captures the information of each view but also is robust to outliers and noise, which can obtain a more discriminative and compact low-dimensional representation. Experiments on two real-world image data sets demonstrate the advantages of our method over the existing multiview dimensionality reduction methods.
Autors: Zhe Xue;Guorong Li;Shuhui Wang;Weigang Zhang;Qingming Huang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 28, issue:2, pages: 327 - 341
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Black Phosphorus: A New Platform for Gaseous Sensing Based on Surface Plasmon Resonance
Abstract:
We numerically demonstrate and propose sensitivity enhancement of surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based conventional gaseous sensor using few layers of black phosphorous (BP), as compared with other 2D material such as graphene and molybdenum disulphide (MoS2). Results of our optimized numerical study show that with implementation of bilayer BP over a conventional gaseous sensor, sensitivity enhances by ~35%, which is further increased up to ~73% by addition of a monolayer MoS2 at an operating wavelength nm. Therefore, the proposed SPR gaseous sensor could potentially open a new platform for high-performance gaseous sensing in the visible region.
Autors: Triranjita Srivastava;Rajan Jha;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 30, issue:4, pages: 319 - 322
Publisher: IEEE
 
» BLDC Motor Drive Based on Bridgeless Landsman PFC Converter With Single Sensor and Reduced Stress on Power Devices
Abstract:
The Landsman converter based on a power factor correction (PFC) in bridgeless (BL) configuration feeding a brushless dc motor (BLDCM) drive is proposed for low-power household appliances. The conduction losses associated with diodes are reduced by BL configuration and switching losses of solid-state switches of voltage source inverter are reduced by the use of low frequency switching signals in electronic commutation for the BLDCM. The front-end BL PFC based Landsman converter operating in the discontinuous inductor current mode is used for controlling the dc link voltage, and PFC is attained naturally with reduced conduction losses and switch stress. A single voltage sensor is used for controlling the dc bus voltage. A prototype is developed to study performance of the system for wide range speed control and power quality improvement. The experimental performance of BLDCM is presented for its functions at varying voltages of ac mains (90–265 V) to adhere to the limits defined by IEC61000-3-2 standard.
Autors: Praveen Kumar Singh;Bhim Singh;Vashist Bist;Kamal Al-Haddad;Ambrish Chandra;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 625 - 635
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Blind Channel Estimation and Symbol Detection for Multi-Cell Massive MIMO Systems by Expectation Propagation
Abstract:
Massive MIMO systems exploit the favorable propagation condition of the radio channel, whereby the vector-valued channels between the base station (BS) and the terminals become mutually orthogonal. This property is used in a recently-proposed channel estimation method for multi-cell massive MIMO systems based on the eigenvalue decomposition (EVD) of the correlation matrix of the received vectors. In this paper, we present a blind channel estimation and symbol detection scheme for multi-cell massive MIMO systems based on expectation propagation (EP). The proposed algorithm is initialized with the channel estimation result from the EVD-based method. It is shown that in our EP formulation, channel estimation and symbol detection are “decoupled” in that EP iterations for channel estimation can be performed without the knowledge of the specific transmitted symbols. Therefore, channel estimation can be performed first followed by symbol detection. In particular, a liner symbol detection scheme such as zero-forcing (ZF) or minimum mean-squared error (MMSE) algorithm may be employed. Simulation results show that after a few iterations, the EP-based algorithm significantly improves the performance of the EVD-based method in both channel estimation and symbol error rate. Comparisons are also made with the results from a recently proposed blind detection scheme and it is shown that the proposed algorithm has better performance.
Autors: Kamran Ghavami;Mort Naraghi-Pour;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 943 - 954
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Blind Demixing and Deconvolution at Near-Optimal Rate
Abstract:
We consider simultaneous blind deconvolution of source signals from their noisy superposition, a problem also referred to blind demixing and deconvolution. This signal processing problem occurs in the context of the Internet of Things where a massive number of sensors sporadically communicate only short messages over unknown channels. We show that robust recovery of message and channel vectors can be achieved via convex optimization when random linear encoding using i.i.d. complex Gaussian matrices is used at the devices and the number of required measurements at the receiver scales with the degrees of freedom of the overall estimation problem. Since the scaling is linear in our result significantly improves over recent works.
Autors: Peter Jung;Felix Krahmer;Dominik Stöger;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 64, issue:2, pages: 704 - 727
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Blind Signal Detection in Massive MIMO: Exploiting the Channel Sparsity
Abstract:
In practical massive MIMO systems, a substantial portion of system resources are consumed to acquire channel state information (CSI), leading to a drastically lower system capacity compared with the ideal case, where perfect CSI is available. In this paper, we show that the overhead for CSI acquisition can be largely compensated by the potential gain due to the sparsity of the massive MIMO channel in a certain transformed domain. To this end, we propose a novel blind detection scheme that simultaneously estimates the channel and data by factorizing the received signal matrix. We show that by exploiting the channel sparsity, our proposed scheme can achieve a degree of freedom (DoF) very close to the ideal case, provided that the channel is sufficiently sparse. Specifically, the achievable DoF has a fractional gap of only from the ideal DoF, where is the channel coherence time. This is a remarkable advance for understanding the performance limit of the massive MIMO system. We further show that the performance advantage of our proposed scheme in the asymptotic SNR regime carries over to the practical SNR regime. Numerical results demonstrate that our proposed scheme significantly outperforms its counterpart schemes in the practical SNR regime under various system configurations.
Autors: Jianwen Zhang;Xiaojun Yuan;Ying-Jun Angela Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Communications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 700 - 712
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Blinding Guidance Against Missiles Sharing Bearings-Only Measurements
Abstract:
A novel “blind and evade” guidance concept for an aerial target, which is exposed to a threat of two homing missiles, is presented. Each missile is assumed to measure solely its own line-of-sight (LOS) angle and share it with the other missile. Such information sharing enables the missiles to form a triangular measuring baseline relative to the target and to improve their estimation accuracy. However, if the separation angle between the two LOS vectors is small enough, the observability of such double-LOS measuring approach becomes weak. Motivated by this observation, the idea of the proposed concept is to bring the missiles on the same LOS with the target, i.e., blinding them, and then perform an appropriately timed target evasive maneuver. The target's guidance law is derived under the assumption of perfect information and formulated as an optimal control problem. Simulation results demonstrate the potential of the proposed defense concept.
Autors: Robert Fonod;Tal Shima;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 205 - 216
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Block-Stream as a Service: A More Secure, Nimble, and Dynamically Balanced Cloud Service Model for Ambient Computing
Abstract:
Cloud computing has become mainstream in the last few years. Diverse services based on IaaS, PaaS, SaaS, and app store models have been widely available to millions of users worldwide. At the same time, transparent computing (TC) has also gained strong interest in China. With the rapid development of IoT, increasing IoT devices will be deployed to provide information services for end users. As we are heading into the era of ambient computing, where end users are immersed in seamless computing devices and services, the boundary between cloud and devices is getting blurry, and more devices and services need to be securely managed. The existing service models that are defined for user-cloud interaction should be extended to serve more diverse and lightweight devices with nimble and fluid services. With this evolution trend, it is paramount for both cloud service providers and IoT service operators to manage the security and integrity of these services. In this article, we propose a new cloud service model, named block-stream as a service (BaaS), based on our previous study on TC. BaaS is nimbler than SaaS and has better security management than an app store. It is expected that this new cloud service model has great potential to support the vision of ambient computing and securely manage diverse applications on lightweight IoT devices.
Autors: Jackson He;Yaoxue Zhang;Ju Lu;Ming Wu;Fujin Huang;
Appeared in: IEEE Network
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 32, issue:1, pages: 126 - 132
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Book Reviews [7 Reviews]
Abstract:
The following books are reviewed: Extreme-Temperature and Harsh-Environment Electronics by V. K. Khanna; Advances in Magnetic Materials—Processing, Properties, and Performance by S. Zhang and D. Zhao; Self-Healing Materials by G. Wypych; Renewable Energy Integration, 2nd Edition by L. E. Jones; High-Power Converters and AC Drives, 2nd Edition by B. Wu and M. Narimani; Power System SCADA and Smart Grids by M. S. Thomas and J. D. McDonald; Energy Storage by G. M. Crawley.
Autors: John J. Shea;
Appeared in: IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 34, issue:1, pages: 64 - 67
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Boolean Gossip Networks
Abstract:
This paper proposes and investigates a Boolean gossip model as a simplified but non-trivial probabilistic Boolean network. With positive node interactions, in view of standard theories from Markov chains, we prove that the node states asymptotically converge to an agreement at a binary random variable, whose distribution is characterized for large-scale networks by mean-field approximation. Using combinatorial analysis, we also successfully count the number of communication classes of the positive Boolean network explicitly in terms of the topology of the underlying interaction graph, where remarkably minor variation in local structures can drastically change the number of network communication classes. With general Boolean interaction rules, emergence of absorbing network Boolean dynamics is shown to be determined by the network structure with necessary and sufficient conditions established regarding when the Boolean gossip process defines absorbing Markov chains. Particularly, it is shown that for the majority of the Boolean interaction rules, except for nine out of the total possible nonempty sets of binary Boolean functions, whether the induced chain is absorbing has nothing to do with the topology of the underlying interaction graph, as long as connectivity is assumed. These results illustrate the possibilities of relating dynamical properties of Boolean networks to graphical properties of the underlying interactions.
Autors: Bo Li;Junfeng Wu;Hongsheng Qi;Alexandre Proutiere;Guodong Shi;
Appeared in: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 118 - 130
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Boost-Phase Trajectory Inference From Space-Borne LOS Measurements With a Sieve Method
Abstract:
Boost-phase trajectory inference is one of the major objectives of the space-borne missile early-warning system. Traditional methods can be classified as either profile-based or profile-free methods. The profile-based methods are accurate but inadaptable to the types of missiles, whereas the profile-free methods are adaptable but inaccurate. To integrate the strengths of the profile-based and profile-free methods, a multimodel trajectory inference approach is proposed. First, a general net acceleration model (GNAM) containing only type-free prior information is constructed by the method of sieves. Then, a new kind of net acceleration profile is proposed by incorporating type-dependent prior information into the GNAM. After that, the multimodel approach is proposed following the Bayesian framework. Simulations indicate that the approach is accurate in estimation and capable for type identification.
Autors: Taihe Yi;Bing Liu;Zhengming Wang;Zhen Shen;Dongyun Yi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 339 - 352
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Boosted Random Ferns for Object Detection
Abstract:
In this paper we introduce the Boosted Random Ferns (BRFs) to rapidly build discriminative classifiers for learning and detecting object categories. At the core of our approach we use standard random ferns, but we introduce four main innovations that let us bring ferns from an instance to a category level, and still retain efficiency. First, we define binary features on the histogram of oriented gradients-domain (as opposed to intensity-), allowing for a better representation of intra-class variability. Second, both the positions where ferns are evaluated within the sliding window, and the location of the binary features for each fern are not chosen completely at random, but instead we use a boosting strategy to pick the most discriminative combination of them. This is further enhanced by our third contribution, that is to adapt the boosting strategy to enable sharing of binary features among different ferns, yielding high recognition rates at a low computational cost. And finally, we show that training can be performed online, for sequentially arriving images. Overall, the resulting classifier can be very efficiently trained, densely evaluated for all image locations in about 0.1 seconds, and provides detection rates similar to competing approaches that require expensive and significantly slower processing times. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach by thorough experimentation in publicly available datasets in which we compare against state-of-the-art, and for tasks of both 2D detection and 3D multi-view estimation.
Autors: Michael Villamizar;Juan Andrade-Cetto;Alberto Sanfeliu;Francesc Moreno-Noguer;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 40, issue:2, pages: 272 - 288
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Bootstrapping and Resetting CMOS Starter for Thermoelectric and Photovoltaic Chargers
Abstract:
Sustaining microsensors for years is challenging because tiny batteries exhaust quickly, and recharging or replacing thousands of networked nodes is impracticable. Harnessing heat or light energy helps, but only when available. And even then, tiny generators output less than 300 mV, which is not enough to operate microelectronics well. This brief presents a 0.18-m CMOS starter that charges a temporary 1.8-V supply quickly and reliably from slow- or fast-rising photovoltaic and thermoelectric sources. For this, a jump starter helps an LC tank oscillate to a level that allows a discharge path to output power. A resetter then continually resets the circuit until the system senses the temporary supply is ready. This way, with 1.8 V, a charging system can then charge a battery quickly before the onset of another harvesting drought. The starter does not require off-chip components because it borrows the switched inductor that the charging system already uses to charge the battery. A prototype of the starter proposed charges 120 pF to 1.8 V in 15–59 s with 1.5%–7% efficiency from a 180 , 220–250-mV source.
Autors: Andrés A. Blanco;Gabriel A. Rincón-Mora;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 156 - 160
Publisher: IEEE
 
» BOTDA Sensing Employing a Modified Brillouin Fiber Laser Probe Source
Abstract:
A theoretical and experimental study has been carried out on a tunable dual pump-probe optical source for distributed Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDA). The developed source exploits a modified Brillouin ring laser technology and is capable of a tuning range of ∼200 MHz without using phase-locked loop or optical sideband generation techniques, and exhibits a linewidth smaller than 2.5 MHz and ∼0.5 mW power. In BOTDA experiments, the proposed source has demonstrated to be an efficient solution enabling distributed sensing over 10 km single mode fiber with a spatial resolution of ∼4 m, and a strain and temperature resolutions of ∼10 μϵ and ∼0.5 °C respectively.
Autors: Diego Marini;Marco Iuliano;Filippo Bastianini;Gabriele Bolognini;
Appeared in: Journal of Lightwave Technology
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 36, issue:4, pages: 1131 - 1137
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Boundary Estimation of Imaged Object in Microwave Medical Imaging Using Antenna Resonant Frequency Shift
Abstract:
The performance of microwave imaging systems can be significantly improved by incorporating boundaries of the imaged object as a priori information. While it might be possible to manually measure that boundary in a controlled laboratory environment, this cannot be achieved in the clinical environment due to the impracticality of such a measurement in addition to the effect of the natural subject’s movement. In this paper, a method for boundary identification at the same time of imaging and using the same data captured for imaging is presented. The method is based on the relation between the imaging antennas’ resonant frequency and the location of the imaged object. The imaging antennas’ resonant frequency shifts when that antenna faces an imaging object, which is effectively a lossy dielectric in biomedical application, and that shift depends on the distance between the antenna and the object. The proposed technique is quite fast in scanning, computation, and image creation as it does not need additional devices for accurate boundary estimation. The method is tested via simulations and human trials using a torso imaging system. The collected data across the band 0.75–1.75 GHz using a 12-element antenna array, which is extended to 24 virtual elements, enclosing the human torso are processed to successfully estimate the torso boundary in a more accurate way than other methods. The included results in imaging a lung cancer case indicate that the accurate detection of the torso boundary improves microwave images.
Autors: Ali Zamani;S. Ahdi Rezaeieh;Konstanty S. Bialkowski;Amin M. Abbosh;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 927 - 936
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Bounds and Constructions for Optimal $(n, {3, 4, 5}, Lambda _a, 1, Q)$ -OOCs
Abstract:
Let be a set of positive integers, a positive integer, an -tuple of positive integers, and an -tuple of positive rational numbers whose sum is 1. In 1996, Yang introduced variable-weight optical orthogonal code, -OOC, for multimedia optical CDMA systems with multiple quality of service (QoS) requirements. Some work had been done on the constructions of optimal -OOCs with unequal auto-correlation constraints for and {3, 5}, while little is known on optimal -OOCs for . In this paper, we focus our main attentions on -OOCs with . Tight upper bounds on the maximum code size of -OOCs are obtained, and infinite classes of optimal -OOCs are constructed.
Autors: Huangsheng Yu;Shujuan Dang;Dianhua Wu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 64, issue:2, pages: 1361 - 1367
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Brain MR Image Restoration Using an Automatic Trilateral Filter With GPU-Based Acceleration
Abstract:
Objective: Noise reduction in brain magnetic resonance (MR) images has been a challenging and demanding task. This study develops a new trilateral filter that aims to achieve robust and efficient image restoration. Methods: Extended from the bilateral filter, the proposed algorithm contains one additional intensity similarity funct-ion, which compensates for the unique characteristics of noise in brain MR images. An entropy function adaptive to intensity variations is introduced to regulate the contributions of the weighting components. To hasten the computation, parallel computing based on the graphics processing unit (GPU) strategy is explored with emphasis on memory allocations and thread distributions. To automate the filtration, image texture feature analysis associated with machine learning is investigated. Among the 98 candidate features, the sequential forward floating selection scheme is employed to acquire the optimal texture features for regularization. Subsequently, a two-stage classifier that consists of support vector machines and artificial neural networks is established to predict the filter parameters for automation. Results: A speedup gain of 757 was reached to process an entire MR image volume of 256 × 256 × 256 pixels, which completed within 0.5 s. Automatic restoration results revealed high accuracy with an ensemble average relative error of 0.53 ± 0.85% in terms of the peak signal-to-noise ratio. Conclusion: This self-regulating trilateral filter outperformed many state-of-the-art noise reduction methods both qualitatively and quantitatively. Significance: We believe that this new image restoration algorithm is of potential in many brain MR image processing applications that require expedition and automation.
Autors: Herng-Hua Chang;Cheng-Yuan Li;Audrey Haihong Gallogly;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 400 - 413
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Bridged-T Coil for Miniature Dual-Band Branch-Line Coupler and Power Divider Designs
Abstract:
In this paper, a new design method for bridged-T coil (BTC) is proposed such that it can be made equivalent to two different transmission line sections at two different frequencies. In this way, on-chip dual-band branch-line coupler and dual-band power divider designs with very compact circuit sizes can be made possible through the use of BTCs. Specifically, the proposed 2.45/5.8-GHz dual-band branch-line coupler realized using the integrated passive device (IPD) process features a compact circuit size of only mm while the proposed 2.4/5.5-GHz dual-band power divider in IPD exhibits a very small circuit size of only mm. To the best of our knowledge, the proposed dual-band branch-line coupler is the smallest one ever reported while the circuit size of the proposed dual-band power divider is comparable to the smallest in the literature.
Autors: Wei-Ting Fang;En-Wei Chang;Yo-Shen Lin;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 889 - 901
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Bridging the Gap: Dialogue Between Engineers & Social Scientists [From the Editor]
Abstract:
This unique issue seeks to bridge the gap between engineers & social scientists and encourage dialogue between electric power professionals and social scientists who provide key insights into our customer base. Our guest editors compiled five well-written articles that challenge the usual way most electrical power system professionals think about our industry. As summarized in the "Guest Editorial," the issue identifies key behavioral factors that must be considered by engineers and ways that we should respond to customer concerns. Papers from the issue are briefly summarized.
Autors: Michael Henderson;
Appeared in: IEEE Power and Energy Magazine
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 16, issue:1, pages: 4 - 6
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Broadband Cloaking Obtained Using HOBBIES Optimization [EM Progammer's Notebook]
Abstract:
In this article, we describe the notion of a cloak achieved by employing the usual composite dielectrics surrounding a metal cube, a concept that was first presented by Hwang and Chin [1]. Here, we use an optimization procedure to improve on their results and obtain a three-dimensional composite dielectric structure that can achieve a better broadband match than that of [1]. The two structures of interest are an empty metallic waveguide and a metal cube placed inside the same waveguide but surrounded by different-sized dielectric slabs so that the effect of the metal cube in the transmitted fields inside the waveguide will not be much different from the fields that would exist in an empty waveguide. The dimensions and properties of the simple dielectrics making up the different slabs inside the waveguide are optimized using an electromagnetic simulator called Higher Order Basis Based Integral Equation Solver (HOBBIES) [2] so that the waveguide will appear empty by looking at the nature of the transmitted fields from the waveguide loaded with a metallic cube but surrounded by some dielectrics.
Autors: Hongsik Moon;Tapan K. Sarkar;Magdalena Salazar Palma;
Appeared in: IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 60, issue:1, pages: 112 - 117
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Broadband Continuous-Mode Doherty Power Amplifiers With Noninfinity Peaking Impedance
Abstract:
In this paper, a broadband continuous-mode Doherty power amplifier (CM-DPA) is realized taking advantage of the noninfinity output impedances of peaking stage. Specifically, the carrier PA of the designed DPA operates in a continuous class-J mode when the peaking PA is in the OFF-state, where the output impedance of the peaking PA has some influences on the carrier PA. When the peaking transistor is in the OFF-state, the load impedance variation of the carrier transistor versus noninfinity peaking impedance is presented in this contribution. The proposed method surmounts the back-off drain efficiency deterioration of DPAs at two side working bands through elaborately processing the noninfinity peaking impedance. This paper also presents a method to derive the required OFF-state output impedance of the peaking stage by the carrier PA in a symmetrical broadband DPA. A broadband CM-DPA working over 1.6–2.7 GHz (bandwidth of 51%) is designed and fabricated for interpreting our theories. The simulated load trajectory of the carrier transistor is in line with the design space of continuous class-J mode. Under continuous wave excitation, experimental results show the drain efficiencies of 46.5%–63.5% at 6-dB output back-off power levels and 56%–75.3% at peaking power levels. The maximum output power of this DPA is 43.8–45.2 dBm with a gain of 9.4–11.5 dB across the whole working band. Furthermore, a 20-MHz LTE modulated signal with a peak-to-average power ratio of 7.4 dB is also applied to the fabricated CM-DPA at 2.2 GHz. At an average output power of 37.5 dBm, measurement results show the adjacent channel power ratios of −30.2 and −50.1 dBc before and after digital predistortion, respectively.
Autors: Weimin Shi;Songbai He;Xiaoyu Zhu;Bin Song;Zhitao Zhu;Gideon Naah;Min Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 1034 - 1046
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Broadband High-Energy All-Fiber Laser at 1.6 $mu$ m
Abstract:
A broadband high-energy all-fiber laser at 1.6- window with erbium-doped fiber mode locked by nonlinear polarization rotation technology is demonstrated. The direct output optical spectrum centered at 1.6 has a bandwidth of 52.4 nm. The fiber laser delivers a pulse energy of 3.9 nJ with 9.3-MHz repetition rate at 220-mW 976-nm pump power. Based on it, a wavelength-tunable optical source with a wavelength tuning range from 1.6 to 1.8 is demonstrated through soliton self-frequency shift. To satisfy much longer wavelength demands in some special application scenario, e.g., deep brain imaging with multi-photon microscopy, a chirped pulse amplifier was constructed to boost the pulse energy to 14 nJ, and the wavelength can be tuned from 1.6 to 1.94 with those amplified pulses. These fiber sources at the -band and a longer wavelength can explore a wider scope in deep biotissue imaging area for lower water absorption.
Autors: Jiqiang Kang;Cihang Kong;Pingping Feng;Xiaoming Wei;Zhi-Chao Luo;Edmund Y. Lam;Kenneth K. Y. Wong;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 30, issue:4, pages: 311 - 314
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Broadband IF-Over-Fiber Transmission With Parallel IM/PM Transmitter Overcoming Dispersion-Induced RF Power Fading for High-Capacity Mobile Fronthaul Links
Abstract:
We demonstrate a broadband and long-distance intermediate frequency-over-fiber (IFoF) transmission scheme employing a transmitter composed of parallel intensity/phase (IM/PM) modulators with appropriate bandwidth allocations to IM and PM. Due to the proposed scheme, we can eliminate all the null frequencies caused by dispersion-induced RF power fading, which, in turn, enables us to significantly increase the available bandwidth. In addition, our system does not require any synchronization between IM and PM, which reduces complexity compared to conventional parallel transmitter architecture. We successfully transmitted 20 360 MHz filtered orthogonal-frequency-division-multiplexed signals corresponding to a common public radio interface equivalent data rate of 524.28 Gbps over a 30- and 40-km single-mode fiber satisfying the 8% threshold for the error-vector magnitude values for all the subcarriers. These results show that our proposed IFoF transmission scheme is scalable to long-distance mobile fronthaul links for 5G and beyond.
Autors: Shota Ishimura;Byung Gon Kim;Kazuki Tanaka;Kosuke Nishimura;Hoon Kim;Yun C. Chung;Masatoshi Suzuki;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 1 - 9
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Broadband Photonic Microwave Signal Processor With Frequency Up/Down Conversion and Phase Shifting Capability
Abstract:
A new dual-function photonic microwave signal processing structure that has the ability to realize both frequency up/down conversion and RF/IF phase shifting, is presented. In the proposed signal processor, a dual-polarization dual-parallel Mach Zehnder modulator (DP-DPMZM) is used to generate an orthogonally polarized single RF/IF signal and local oscillator (LO) modulation sideband without an optical carrier. The optical phase difference between the two sidebands can be controlled by controlling a DC voltage applied to a LiNbO3 electro-optic phase modulator that is connected after the DP-DPMZM. Beating between the two sidebands at a photodetector generates an RF/IF signal with a phase equal to the optical phase difference between the IF/RF signal and LO sidebands. The dual-function photonic microwave signal processor has a wide bandwidth and does not require a precise control of the laser wavelength. Experimental results demonstrate that a flat >-3 dB down/up conversion efficiency is achieved for an RF signal from 3.5 to 26.5 GHz and for an IF signal from 0.5 to 3 GHz, and a full 360° continuous phase shift of the output IF/RF signal.
Autors: Tao Li;Erwin Hoi Wing Chan;Xudong Wang;Xinhuan Feng;Bai-Ou Guan;Jianping Yao;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 1 - 12
Publisher: IEEE
 
» BTI Analysis Tool—Modeling of NBTI DC, AC Stress and Recovery Time Kinetics, Nitrogen Impact, and EOL Estimation
Abstract:
A comprehensive modeling framework is presented to predict the time kinetics of negative bias temperature instability stress and recovery during and after dc and ac stresses and also during mixed dc–ac stress. The model uses uncorrelated contributions from the generation of interface and bulk traps and hole trapping in preexisting bulk traps. Ultrafast measured data at different stresses and recovery biases, temperature, duty cycle and frequency, as well as arbitrary time segments with dynamically varying voltage, frequency, and activity are predicted. The role of nitrogen in the gate insulator is explained. End-of-life degradation is determined under dc and ac use conditions.
Autors: Narendra Parihar;Nilesh Goel;Subhadeep Mukhopadhyay;Souvik Mahapatra;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 392 - 403
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Build a nixie-S style clock without the fuss
Abstract:
STANLEY KUBRICK'S 1968 SCIENCE FICTION FILM 2001: A Space Odyssey still stands up pretty well. But there's a telling anachronism in the scene where scientists visit a monolith that's been uncovered on the moon. On their lunar shuttle's control panel, there are numerical indicator lights clearly made with cold-cathode displays, also known as Nixie tubes. This technology was in vogue during the mid-1950s but fell out of favor in the 1970s. Nixie tubes still enjoy a following among enthusiasts of retro technology. I've sometimes been tempted to build a Nixie-tube clock, but the difficulties and expense always put me off. It's hard even to purchase Nixie tubes at this point—especially larger ones-and they require high-voltage driver circuits, which are inherently dangerous. So I was delighted when I stumbled on something designed to mimic the appearance of Nixie tubes without the complications-something its designer calls a "Lixie display."
Autors: David Schneider;
Appeared in: IEEE Spectrum
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 55, issue:2, pages: 19 - 20
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Build to tenants' requirements: On-demand application-driven vSD-EON slicing
Abstract:
Application-driven networks (ADNs) aim to build logically separate virtual networks (VNs) to meet the distinct demands of different applications. In this paper, we study how to realize the on-demand slicing of application-driven virtual software-defined elastic optical networks (vSD-EONs) based on the concept of ADN. We design the network system for on-demand application-driven vSD-EON slicing and demonstrate the building and operating of application-driven vSD-EONs with it experimentally. Specifically, our experimental demonstrations consider three scenarios: (1) the tenant's application requires high availability for the data plane, (2) the tenant's application is interactive and thus requires short end-to-end latency, and (3) the tenant's application needs an enhanced physical-layer security guarantee. With an experimental testbed that consists of commercial optical transmission facilities, bandwidth-variable wavelength-selective switches, erbium-doped fiber amplifiers, and high-performance servers with both optical and electrical ports, we verify that the proposed vSD-EON slicing system can build vSD-EONs on-demand according to tenants' application demands and operate them correctly.
Autors: Zuqing Zhu;Bingxin Kong;Jie Yin;Sicheng Zhao;Shengru Li;
Appeared in: IEEE/OSA Journal of Optical Communications and Networking
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 10, issue:2, pages: A206 - A215
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Building a Flood-Warning Framework for Ungauged Locations Using Low Resolution, Open-Access Remotely Sensed Surface Soil Moisture, Precipitation, Soil, and Topographic Information
Abstract:
Soil moisture (SM) plays an important role in determining the antecedent condition of a watershed, while topographic attributes define how and where SM and rainfall interact to create floods. Based on this principle, we present a method to identify flood risk at a location in a watershed by using remotely sensed SM and open-access information on rainfall, soil properties, and topography. The method consists of three hydrologic modules that represent the generation, transfer, and accumulation of direct runoff. To simplify the modeling and provide timely warnings, the flood risk is ascertained based on frequency of exceedance, with warnings issued if above a specified threshold. The simplicity of the method is highlighted by the use of only three parameters for each watershed of interest, with effective regionalization allowing use in ungauged watersheds. For this proof-of-concept study, the proposed model was calibrated and tested for 65 hydrologic reference stations in the Murray–Darling Basin in Australia over a 35-year study period by using satellite-derived surface SM. The three model parameters were first estimated using the first ten-year data and then the model performance was evaluated through flood threshold exceedance analyses over the remaining 25-year study period. The results for estimated parameters and skill scores showed promise. The three model parameters can be regionalized as a function of watershed characteristics, and/or representative values estimated from neighboring watersheds, allowing use in ungauged basins everywhere.
Autors: Seokhyeon Kim;Kyungrock Paik;Fiona M. Johnson;Ashish Sharma;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 11, issue:2, pages: 375 - 387
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Burst mode optical receiver with 10 ns lock time based on concurrent DC offset and timing recovery technique
Abstract:
This paper describes a low-power, low-latency, 7–10 Gb/s burst-mode DC-coupled receiver for photonic switch networks. The receiver includes a transimpedance amplifier (TIA) followed by a three-stage differential amplifier. For burst-mode operation, DC and timing recovery loops work concurrently in the proposed architecture to achieve 5.8 ns lock time. The DC recovery loop employs a successive approximation algorithm to recover signal-dependent offset that takes only six cycles of C8 (1/8th of data rate) clock. The timing recovery uses a quarter-rate injection scheme that is immune to duty cycle distortion. The recovered clock jitter is 10 ps p-p for 10 Gb/s operation. The receiver consumes only 33 mW while operating at 10 Gb/s, and less than 2 mW (leakage power and bias circuit) during idle time. The completely inductor-less receiver occupies a 465 pm × 265 pm area in 0.13 pm technology.
Autors: A. K. M. Delwar Hossain; Aurangozeb;Masum Hossain;
Appeared in: IEEE/OSA Journal of Optical Communications and Networking
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 10, issue:2, pages: 65 - 78
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Cache Policies for Linear Utility Maximization
Abstract:
Cache policies to minimize the content retrieval cost have been studied through competitive analysis when the miss costs are additive and the sequence of content requests is arbitrary. More recently, a cache utility maximization problem has been introduced, where contents have stationary popularities and utilities are strictly concave in the hit rates. This paper bridges the two formulations, considering linear costs and content popularities. We show that minimizing the retrieval cost corresponds to solving an online knapsack problem, and we propose new dynamic policies inspired by simulated annealing, including DynqLRU, a variant of qLRU. We prove that DynqLRU asymptotically asymptotic converges to the optimum under the characteristic time approximation. In a real scenario, popularities vary over time and their estimation is very difficult. DynqLRU does not require popularity estimation, and our realistic, trace-driven evaluation shows that it significantly outperforms state-of-the-art policies, with up to 45% cost reduction.
Autors: Giovanni Neglia;Damiano Carra;Pietro Michiardi;
Appeared in: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 302 - 313
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Cache-Enabled Physical Layer Security for Video Streaming in Backhaul-Limited Cellular Networks
Abstract:
In this paper, we propose a novel wireless caching scheme to enhance the physical layer security of video streaming in cellular networks with limited backhaul capacity. By proactively sharing video data across a subset of base stations (BSs) through both caching and backhaul loading, secure cooperative joint transmission of several BSs can be dynamically enabled in accordance with the cache status, the channel conditions, and the backhaul capacity. Assuming imperfect channel state information (CSI) at the transmitters, we formulate a two-stage non-convex mixed-integer robust optimization problem for minimizing the total transmit power while providing the quality of service and guaranteeing communication secrecy during video delivery, where the caching and the cooperative transmission policy are optimized in an offline video caching stage and an online video delivery stage, respectively. Although the formulated optimization problem turns out to be NP-hard, low-complexity polynomial-time algorithms, whose solutions are globally optimal under certain conditions, are proposed for cache training and video delivery control. Caching is shown to be beneficial as it reduces the data sharing overhead imposed on the capacity-constrained backhaul links, introduces additional secure degrees of freedom, and enables a power-efficient communication system design. Simulation results confirm that the proposed caching scheme achieves simultaneously a low secrecy outage probability and a high power efficiency. Furthermore, due to the proposed robust optimization, the performance loss caused by imperfect CSI knowledge can be significantly reduced when the cache capacity becomes large.
Autors: Lin Xiang;Derrick Wing Kwan Ng;Robert Schober;Vincent W. S. Wong;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 736 - 751
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Caching Encrypted Content Via Stochastic Cache Partitioning
Abstract:
In-network caching is an appealing solution to cope with the increasing bandwidth demand of video, audio, and data transfer over the Internet. Nonetheless, in order to protect consumer privacy and their own business, content providers (CPs) increasingly deliver encrypted content, thereby preventing Internet service providers (ISPs) from employing traditional caching strategies, which require the knowledge of the objects being transmitted. To overcome this emerging tussle between security and efficiency, in this paper we propose an architecture in which the ISP partitions the cache space into slices, assigns each slice to a different CP, and lets the CPs remotely manage their slices. This architecture enables transparent caching of encrypted content and can be deployed in the very edge of the ISP’s network (i.e., base stations and femtocells), while allowing CPs to maintain exclusive control over their content. We propose an algorithm, called SDCP, for partitioning the cache storage into slices so as to maximize the bandwidth savings provided by the cache. A distinctive feature of our algorithm is that ISPs only need to measure the aggregated miss rates of each CP, but they need not know the individual objects that are requested. We prove that the SDCP algorithm converges to a partitioning that is close to the optimal, and we bound its optimality gap. We use simulations to evaluate SDCP’s convergence rate under stationary and nonstationary content popularity. Finally, we show that SDCP significantly outperforms traditional reactive caching techniques, considering both CPs with perfect and with imperfect knowledge of their content popularity.
Autors: Andrea Araldo;György Dán;Dario Rossi;
Appeared in: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 548 - 561
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Caching Meets Millimeter Wave Communications for Enhanced Mobility Management in 5G Networks
Abstract:
One of the most promising approaches to overcoming the uncertainty of millimeter wave (mm-wave) communications is to deploy dual-mode small base stations (SBSs) that integrate both mm-wave and microwave () frequencies. In this paper, a novel approach to analyzing and managing mobility in joint mmwave– networks is proposed. The proposed approach leverages device-level caching along with the capabilities of dual-mode SBSs to minimize handover failures and reduce inter-frequency measurement energy consumption. First, fundamental results on the caching capabilities are derived for the proposed dual-mode network scenario. Second, the impact of caching on the number of handovers (HOs), energy consumption, and the average handover failure (HOF) is analyzed. Then, the proposed cache-enabled mobility management problem is formulated as a dynamic matching game between mobile user equipments (MUEs) and SBSs. The goal of this game is to find a distributed HO mechanism that, under network constraints on HOFs and limited cache sizes, allows each MUE to choose between: 1) executing an HO to a target SBS; 2) being connected to the macrocell base station; or 3) perform a transparent HO by using the cached content. To solve this dynamic matching problem, a novel algorithm is proposed and its convergence to a two-sided dynamically stable HO policy for MUEs and target SBSs is proved. Numerical results corroborate the analytical derivations and show that the proposed solution will significantly reduce both the HOF and energy consumption of MUEs, resulting in an enhanced mobility management for heterogeneous wireless networks with mm-wave capabilities.
Autors: Omid Semiari;Walid Saad;Mehdi Bennis;Behrouz Maham;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 779 - 793
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Calculating the Expected Time to Eradicate HIV-1 Using a Markov Chain
Abstract:
In this study, the expected time required to eradicate HIV-1 completely was found as the conditional absorbing time in a finite state space continuous-time Markov chain model. The Markov chain has two absorbing states: one corresponds to HIV eradication and another representing the possible disaster. This method allowed us to calculate the expected eradication time by solving systems of linear equations. To overcome the challenge of huge dimension of the problem, we applied a novel stop and resume technique. This technique also helped to stop the numerical computation whenever we wanted and continue later from that point until the final result was obtained. Our numerical study showed the dependence of the expected eradication time of HIV on the half-life of the latently infected cells and there agreed with the previous studies. The study predicted that when the half-life of the latent cells varied from 4.6 to 60 months, it took a mean 4.97 to 31.04 years with a corresponding standard deviation of 0.64 to 3.99 years to eradicate the latent cell reservoir. It also revealed the crucial dependence of eradication time on the initial number of latently infected cells.
Autors: Narayanan C. Viswanath;
Appeared in: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 60 - 67
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Calibration Algorithm for Cross-Track Infrared Sounder Full Spectral Resolution Measurements
Abstract:
The cross-track infrared sounder has been operated in the full spectral resolution (FSR) mode since December 4, 2014. To provide the FSR radiance spectra with a spectral resolution of 0.625 cm−1 for all the three bands, a new calibration algorithm has been developed and implemented for operational uses. The algorithm is an improvement over the previous algorithm that had been operationally used until March 2017. Major changes include the calibration equation, self-apodization correction and resampling matrices, and calibration filter. Compared to the previous algorithm, the improvement reduces the calibration inconsistencies among the nine fields of view and between the forward and reverse interferometer sweep directions by up to 0.5 K, and the differences between observed and simulated spectra by up to 0.4 K.
Autors: Yong Han;Yong Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 56, issue:2, pages: 1008 - 1016
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Calling Inspector Gadget [Microwave Surfing]
Abstract:
Unless you were away earlier this year on an intergalactic mission, you probably picked up the heavy media buzz around the claim [1] made by an “important government source”: There was an article this week that talked about how you can surveil someone through their phones, through their . . . certainly through their television sets, any number of different ways. And microwaves that turn into cameras, et cetera. So we know that that is just a fact of modern life. So: is it really a fact of modern life that microwaves can spy on you? It depends on the meaning of microwaves. According to the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary [2], the word means either “a comparatively short electromagnetic wave; especially: one between about one millimeter and one meter in wavelength” or a “microwave oven.”
Autors: Rajeev Bansal;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 19, issue:1, pages: 12 - 130
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Capacity of Cooperative Vehicular Networks With Infrastructure Support: Multiuser Case
Abstract:
Capacity of vehicular networks with infrastructure support is both an interesting and challenging problem as the capacity is determined by the interplay of multiple factors including vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communications, vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communications, density and mobility of vehicles, and cooperation among vehicles and infrastructure. In this paper, we consider a typical delay-tolerant application scenario with a subset of vehicles, termed Vehicles of Interest (VoIs), having download requests. Each VoI downloads a distinct large-size file from the Internet and other vehicles without download requests assist the delivery of the files to the VoIs. A cooperative communication strategy is proposed that explores the combined use of V2I communications, V2V communications, mobility of vehicles and cooperation among vehicles and infrastructure to improve the capacity of vehicular networks. An analytical framework is developed to model the data dissemination process using this strategy, and a closed-form expression of the achievable capacity is obtained, which reveals the relationship between the capacity and its major performance-impacting parameters such as inter-infrastructure distance, radio ranges of infrastructure and vehicles, sensing range of vehicles, transmission rates of V2I and V2V communications, vehicular density, and proportion of VoIs. Numerical result shows that the proposed cooperative communication strategy significantly boosts the capacity of vehicular networks, especially when the proportion of VoIs is low. Our results provide guidance on the optimum deployment of a vehicular network infrastructure and the design of a cooperative communication strategy to improve the capacity.
Autors: Jieqiong Chen;Guoqiang Mao;Changle Li;Weifa Liang;De-gan Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 67, issue:2, pages: 1546 - 1560
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Capacity of Energy Harvesting Binary Symmetric Channels With a $(sigma ,rho )$ -Power Constraint
Abstract:
Capacity of energy harvesting communications with deterministic energy arrival and finite battery size is investigated. An abstraction of the physical layer is considered, where binary sequences are transmitted through a binary symmetric channel, and a cost function is associated with the transmission of each symbol. Upper and lower bounds on the channel capacity are derived for the general case by studying the normalized exponent of the cardinality of the set of feasible input sequences. Several upper bounds on the exponent are proposed by studying supersets of the feasible set. Lower bounds are derived by applying the binary entropy-power inequality and by using specific signaling schemes based on a save-and-transmit strategy. Numerical results are presented for several values of the energy arrival rate and battery size, validating the usefulness of the capacity bounds established for the energy harvesting channels.
Autors: Zhengchuan Chen;Guido Carlo Ferrante;Howard H. Yang;Tony Q. S. Quek;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Communications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 601 - 614
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Capacity Optimization for Resource Pooling in Virtualized Data Centers with Composable Systems
Abstract:
Recent research trends exhibit a growing imbalance between the demands of tenants’ software applications and the provisioning of hardware resources. Misalignment of demand and supply gradually hinders workloads from being efficiently mapped to fixed-sized server nodes in traditional data centers. The incurred resource holes not only lower infrastructure utilization but also cripple the capability of a data center for hosting large-sized workloads. This deficiency motivates the development of a new rack-wide architecture referred to as the composable system . The composable system transforms traditional server racks of static capacity into a dynamic compute platform. Specifically, this novel architecture aims to link up all compute components that are traditionally distributed on traditional server boards, such as central processing unit (CPU), random access memory (RAM), storage devices, and other application-specific processors. By doing so, a logically giant compute platform is created and this platform is more resistant against the variety of workload demands by breaking the resource boundaries among traditional server boards. In this paper, we introduce the concepts of this reconfigurable architecture and design a framework of the composable system for cloud data centers. We then develop mathematical models to describe the resource usage patterns on this platform and enumerate some types of workloads that commonly appear in data centers. From the simulations, we show that the composable system sustains nearly up to 1.6 times stronger workload intensity than that of traditional systems and it is insensitive to the distribution of workload demands. This demonstrates that this composable system is indeed an effective solution to support cloud data center services.
Autors: An-Dee Lin;Chung-Sheng Li;Wanjiun Liao;Hubertus Franke;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 29, issue:2, pages: 324 - 337
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Car Detection in Aerial Images of Dense Urban Areas
Abstract:
With the ever-increasing demand in the analysis and understanding of aerial images in order to remotely recognize targets, this paper introduces a robust system for the detection and localization of cars in images captured by air vehicles and satellites. The system adopts a sliding-window approach. It compromises a window-evaluation and a window-classification subsystems. The performance of the proposed framework was evaluated on the Vaihingen dataset. Results demonstrate its superiority to the state of the art.
Autors: Mohamed ElMikaty;Tania Stathaki;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 51 - 63
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Carbon Cantilever Beam Health Inspection Using a Polymer Fiber Bragg Grating Array
Abstract:
We demonstrate a quasi-distributed sensor for cantilever health inspection measurements using a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) array inscribed in a polymer optical fiber. The FBGs were characterized and calibrated for axial strain, temperature, and relative humidity prior to their mounting on a carbon cantilever beam, the tail rotor of a helicopter. By using the zero-crossing demodulation algorithm, we recovered the time-dependent, wavelength response from each Bragg grating sensor and the vibration response of the beam was extracted. We used the response of the beam to study how the addition of masses at different positions on the beam influences the vibrational behavior and mimics the location of “damage” through the time-dependent results. We show that health inspection measurements are feasible with polymer-based fiber Bragg gratings, offering accurate and rapid detection of damage points on a structural beam.
Autors: Antreas Theodosiou;Michael Komodromos;Kyriacos Kalli;
Appeared in: Journal of Lightwave Technology
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 36, issue:4, pages: 986 - 992
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Carrier Mobility Enhancement by Applying Back-Gate Bias in Ge-on-Insulator MOSFETs
Abstract:
In this letter, we comprehensively study the carriers’ mobility and the effect of back-gate bias () in Ge-on-insulator (GeOI) MOSFETs with various working modes, including accumulation mode (AM) nMOSFET, inversion mode (IM) nMOSFET, AM pMOSFET, and IM pMOSFET. The results show that the AM nMOSFETs and pMOSFETs have higher drain currents and carriers’ mobility. The electron mobility increases under positive and decreases under negative . While the hole mobility has the opposite dependence. The carriers’ mobility of AM MOSFETs is proved to benefit more from due to the increase of carriers’ densities. The peak mobility enhancements of more than 100% for holes and 35% for electrons are achieved in GeOI MOSFETs by applying .
Autors: Wangran Wu;Heng Wu;Jingyun Zhang;Mengwei Si;Yi Zhao;Peide D. Ye;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 39, issue:2, pages: 176 - 179
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Carrying Data on the Orbital Angular Momentum of Light
Abstract:
The use of fiber optic cable in support of bandwidth expansion has become de rigeur. Not only does optical fiber offer tremendous bandwidth, it is also low in attenuation, small in cross section, inexpensive, and impervious to electromagnetic interference, and there are significant economies of scale on components developed for the myriad of optical communications markets (long haul, fiber to the home, metro networks, etc.). Shorthaul requirements continue to grow and are expected to exceed the capacity of simple single mode fiber transmission. Spatial multiplexing is a new technique in fiber communications allowing fiber capacity to grow in another dimension by carrying signals on orthogonal modes of light. The short length and high capacity requirements for data center and fronthaul links make them well suited for exploitation of orbital angular momentum (OAM) of light in spatial multiplexing. We report experiments using commercial transceivers for OOK at 10 Gb/s on three channels (30 Gb/s total on fundamental and two OAM modes), and 10 Gb/s OOK on fundamental and DP-QPSK at 100 Gb/s on two OAM modes. OOK transmission was error free (< 10-12), while DP-QPSK had error below 10-7.
Autors: Leslie A. Rusch;Mohammad Rad;Karen Allahverdyan;Irfan Fazal;Eric Bernier;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 56, issue:2, pages: 219 - 224
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Causality Countermeasures for Anomaly Detection in Cyber-Physical Systems
Abstract:
The problem of attack detection in cyber-physical systems is considered in this paper. Transfer-entropy-based causality countermeasures are introduced for both sensor measurements and innovation sequences, which can be evaluated in a data-driven fashion without relying on a model of the underlying dynamic system. The relationships between the countermeasures and the system parameters as well as the noise statistics are investigated, based on which conditions that guarantee the time convergence of the countermeasures are obtained. The effectiveness of the transfer entropy countermeasures in attack detection is evaluated via theoretical analysis, numerical demonstrations, as well as comparative simulations with classical detectors. Four types of attacks are considered: denial-of-service, replay, innovation-based deception, and data injection attacks. Abnormal behavior of the transfer entropy can be observed after the occurrence of each of these attacks.
Autors: Dawei Shi;Ziyang Guo;Karl Henrik Johansson;Ling Shi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 63, issue:2, pages: 386 - 401
Publisher: IEEE
 
» CCL: Cross-modal Correlation Learning With Multigrained Fusion by Hierarchical Network
Abstract:
Cross-modal retrieval has become a highlighted research topic for retrieval across multimedia data such as image and text. A two-stage learning framework is widely adopted by most existing methods based on deep neural network (DNN): The first learning stage is to generate separate representation for each modality and the second learning stage is to get the cross-modal common representation. However the existing methods have three limitations: 1) In the first learning stage they only model intramodality correlation but ignore intermodality correlation with rich complementary context. 2) In the second learning stage they only adopt shallow networks with single-loss regularization but ignore the intrinsic relevance of intramodality and intermodality correlation. 3) Only original instances are considered while the complementary fine-grained clues provided by their patches are ignored. For addressing the above problems this paper proposes a cross-modal correlation learning (CCL) approach with multigrained fusion by hierarchical network and the contributions are as follows: 1) In the first learning stage CCL exploits multilevel association with joint optimization to preserve the complementary context from intramodality and intermodality correlation simultaneously. 2) In the second learning stage a multitask learning strategy is designed to adaptively balance the intramodality semantic category constraints and intermodality pairwise similarity constraints. 3) CCL adopts multigrained modeling which fuses the coarse-grained instances and fine-grained patches to make cross-modal correlation more precise. Comparing with 13 state-of-the-art methods on 6 widely-used cross-modal datasets the experimental results show our CCL approach achieves the best performance.
Autors: Yuxin Peng;Jinwei Qi;Xin Huang;Yuxin Yuan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Multimedia
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 20, issue:2, pages: 405 - 420
Publisher: IEEE
 
» CDMA-based dynamic power and bandwidth allocation (DPBA) scheme for multiclass EPON: A weighted fair queuing approach
Abstract:
Multiclass systems with different quality of service (QoS) requirements are essential in today's Ethernet passive optical networks (EPONs). In this paper, we propose a code division multiple-access-enabled dynamic power and bandwidth allocation (DPBA) algorithm for a multiclass system. The novelty of the proposed algorithm is the resource allocation components: power control and bandwidth allocation. Both resources are related and optimized through the weights of the weighted round-robin scheduler in a way to meet the physical layer signal to interference ratio and the network layer packet delay requirements for every class of users. Our objective is to offer a differentiated class of services for all optical network units while optimizing network performance and guaranteeing fairness between different classes. A closed-form solution for the optimal power and bandwidth allocation using the DPBA algorithm is analytically derived. It is shown that the proposed algorithm can radically enhance the network performance in terms of packet delay, throughput, queue size management, transmission cycle time, and class of service fairness while guaranteeing the QoS requirements for all classes.
Autors: Elie Inaty;Robert Raad;
Appeared in: IEEE/OSA Journal of Optical Communications and Networking
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 10, issue:2, pages: 52 - 64
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Ceramics for the Future: Advanced Millimeter-Wave Multilayer Multichip Module Integration and Packaging
Abstract:
The advantages of higher-frequency operation, such as wider bandwidth and finer spatial and temporal resolution, have led to increased interest in the use of millimeter-waves (mmWs) in both commercial and military applications-covering, in particular, areas ranging from high-speed wireless communication (including wireless local area networking, wireless gigabit communication, sensor networks, and fifth-generation systems) to space science to security [1]-[5]. For biological and health applications, mmW imaging offers a superior, safer, and lower-cost alternative to conventional techniques [6], [7].
Autors: Kamal K. Samanta;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 19, issue:1, pages: 22 - 35
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Certificateless Searchable Public Key Encryption Scheme for Industrial Internet of Things
Abstract:
With the widespread adoption of Internet of Things and cloud computing in different industry sectors, an increasing number of individuals or organizations are outsourcing their Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) data in the cloud server to achieve cost saving and collaboration (e.g., data sharing). However, in this environment, preserving the privacy of data remains a key challenge and inhibiting factor to an even wider adoption of IIoT in the cloud environment. To mitigate these issues, in this paper, we design a new secure channel-free certificateless searchable public key encryption with multiple keywords scheme for IIoT deployment. We then demonstrate the security of the scheme in the random oracle model against two types of adversaries, where one adversary is given the power to choose a random public key instead of any user's public key and another adversary is allowed to learn the system master key. In the presence of these types of adversaries, we evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme and demonstrate that it achieves (computational) efficiency with low communication cost.
Autors: Mimi Ma;Debiao He;Neeraj Kumar;Kim-Kwang Raymond Choo;Jianhua Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 14, issue:2, pages: 759 - 767
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Changes Impacting Our Publications [From the Editor's Desk]
Abstract:
Discusses the IEEE PSPB rules regarding the republication of papers in IEEE Xplore and assesses its impact on IAS publications.
Autors: Lanny Floyd;
Appeared in: IEEE Industry Applications Magazine
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 24, issue:1, pages: 3 - 5
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Changing Household Energy Usage: The Downsides of Incentives and How to Overcome Them
Abstract:
To combat climate change, the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) calculated that greenhouse gas emissions in the energy domain should be reduced by 90%, compared to 2010 emissions, between the years 2040 and 2070. In Europe, residential households consume about a quarter of total energy used (excluding the energy that is embodied in products). To contribute to the carbon emission reduction targets set by the IPCC , households need to reduce their fossilenergy use.
Autors: Ellen van der Werff;John Thogersen;Wandi Bruine de Bruin;
Appeared in: IEEE Power and Energy Magazine
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 16, issue:1, pages: 42 - 48
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Changing the Electrical Safety Culture
Abstract:
This paper examines what it takes to improve the electrical safety culture in an organization. First, the components of a culture are examined and how any culture comes to be the norm is reviewed. Second, examples are given on how culture has already changed significantly by contrasting past and present work practices in electrical safety. Third, suggestions for concrete ways to make future improvements in electrical safety cultures are provided. A fundamental argument in this paper is that culture represents the sum total of what is commonly acceptable without examination. The culture is also driven by everyday observation and experience. In order to change the culture, there must be a redefinition of what is acceptable, followed by visible changes that everyone can experience and observe. Management owns the resulting culture, whether good or bad, because it sets standards for what behaviors are tolerable and acceptable. Therefore, the future of electrical safety will depend on how well management understands the risk and consequences of electrical work, and their responsibility in shaping and owning electrical safety policies and practices. Key elements addressed in this paper include management ownership of the electrical safety culture, busting the myth of “overcompliance,” integrating cultural drivers into an overall electrical safety program, and addressing the more difficult aspects of human performance in a fair manner.
Autors: Daryld Ray Crow;Danny P. Liggett;Mark A. Scott;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 808 - 814
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Channel Capacity of Wavelength Division Multiplexing-Based Brillouin Optical Time Domain Sensors
Abstract:
We propose and demonstrate a novel WDM-based Brillouin optical time domain analysis (BOTDA) sensor using Brillouin loss configuration, and theoretically analyze channel capacity of WDM-based brillouin optical time domain reflectometry (BOTDR) and BOTDA sensors by considering the fiber dispersion and nonlinear effects in sensing fibers. A three-wavelength WDM-based BOTDA senor is experimentally validated in the distributed temperature measurement of a 23-km-long standard telecom fiber (SMF-28), demonstrating an electrical signal-to-noise ratio enhancement of 9.2 dB. The numerical calculation results of the channel capacity of WDM-based Brillouin optical time domain sensors show that, when compared with the conventional single-wavelength BOTDR and BOTDA sensors, 11-wavelength BOTDR and BOTDA sensor using large effective area fiber can respectively achieve 8.4 and 20.8 dB signal-noise-ratio improvement (SNRI), and 7-wavelength BOTDR and BOTDA sensor using SMF-28 can respectively achieve 7.2 B and 16.9 dB SNRI without evident spatial resolution degradation and nonlinear impairment.
Autors: Zelin Zhang;Yuangang Lu;Yunqin Zhao;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 1 - 15
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Channel Estimation for mmWave MIMO With Transmitter Hardware Impairments
Abstract:
This letter considers the problem of channel estimation for millimeter wave (mmWave) multiple-input multiple-output systems under a transmitter impairments model. Specifically, taking the transmitter hardware impairments into account, the performance of conventional pilots-based channel estimation scheme will be degraded due to the destroyed training pilots. By exploiting the sparsity of mmWave channel in the angular domain, a new channel estimation algorithm based on the Bayesian compressive sensing (BCS) and least square estimation (LSE) is proposed. First, the expectation maximization algorithm is presented to solve the BCS problem, and the refined measurement matrix and the support of the channel vector are obtained. Next, the channel gain coefficients are estimated by using the LSE. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can achieve better performance compared with the conventional BCS and orthogonal matching pursuit algorithm.
Autors: Yue Wu;Yuantao Gu;Zhaocheng Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 22, issue:2, pages: 320 - 323
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Channel Matrix Sparsity With Imperfect Channel State Information in Cloud Radio Access Networks
Abstract:
Channel matrix sparsification is considered as a promising approach to reduce the progressing complexity in large-scale cloud radio access networks based on ideal channel condition assumption. In this paper, the research of channel sparsification is extend to practical scenarios in which the perfect channel state information (CSI) is not available. First, a tractable lower bound of signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) fidelity, which is defined as a ratio of SINRs with and without channel sparsification, is derived to evaluate the impact of channel estimation error. Based on the theoretical results, a Dinkelbach-based algorithm is proposed to achieve the global optimal performance of channel matrix sparsification based on the criterion of distance. Finally, all these results are extended to a more challenging scenario with pilot contamination. Finally, simulation results are shown to evaluate the performance of channel matrix sparsification with imperfect CSIs and verify our analytical results.
Autors: Di Chen;Zhongyuan Zhao;Zhendong Mao;Mugen Peng;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 67, issue:2, pages: 1363 - 1374
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Chaotic Constellation Mapping for Physical-Layer Data Encryption in OFDM-PON
Abstract:
A physical-layer encryption scheme is proposed and experimentally demonstrated in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing passive optical network (OFDM-PON). In the proposed multifold encryption scheme, quadratic-amplitude modulation (QAM) symbols are scrambled and distributed onto the complex plane independently. The dynamic parameters of constellation shifting are generated by a 3-D hyper digital chaos, in which a key space of ~10162 is created to enhance the security level of OFDM data encryption during transmission. An encrypted data transmission of 9.4-Gb/s, 16-QAM optical OFDM signals is successfully demonstrated over 20-km standard single-mode fiber.
Autors: Amber Sultan;Xuelin Yang;Adnan A. E. Hajomer;Weisheng Hu;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 30, issue:4, pages: 339 - 342
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Characteristic Impedance Control for Branch-Line Coupler Design
Abstract:
This letter presents a new approach to control impedance for branch-line coupler (BLC) design. With the proposed method, the highest impedance of the two-section BLC can be set to a realistic value (below ), so that it can be implemented with ordinary planar technology. The measured results are compared with the simulated results to validate the proposed theory and design approach.
Autors: Qiuyi Wu;Yimin Yang;Ying Wang;Xiaowei Shi;Ming Yu;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 28, issue:2, pages: 123 - 125
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Characteristic Mode Assisted Placement of Antennas for the Isolation Enhancement
Abstract:
In this letter, the isolation between onboard antennas is investigated using characteristic mode analysis, which provides an intuitive insight for the antenna placement on large platforms. An analytical expression of the relationship between the platform modal excitation coefficient and the platform modal charge is derived under the condition of a coaxial feeding mechanism. It is revealed that the deployment position that leads to a maximum isolation is indicated by the platform modal charge. Based on this finding, a simple and efficient method for antenna placement on aircraft-like platforms is developed to enhance the isolation. Two examples with vertically polarized blade antennas are presented, in which two or three blade antennas can be deployed on the platforms. Both the numerical and experimental results show that the isolation is increased remarkably by the proposed method.
Autors: Donglin Su;Zhao Yang;Qi Wu;
Appeared in: IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 251 - 254
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Characteristics and Performances of a 100-W Hall Thruster for Microspacecraft
Abstract:
In this paper, we examine the characteristics of the ISCT100 thruster, a miniature xenon-fueled 100-W permanent magnet Hall thruster (HT) suited for microspacecraft propulsion. The impact of the thruster design upon discharge behavior, ion beam properties, and performances is examined as for two discharge channel geometries as well as two values of the magnetic field strength. Thrust, specific impulse, and efficiency obtained between 50 and 200 W are compared with the ones of other low-power HTs.
Autors: Stéphane Mazouffre;Lou Grimaud;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 46, issue:2, pages: 330 - 337
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Characteristics of Large Antennas with Radomes [Antenna Applications Corner]
Abstract:
Radomes for large ground antennas used in satellite communications have been analyzed extensively in the past, but little work related to the practical evaluation of radio-frequency (RF) performance has been reported. This article summarizes the results of observations conducted on three different kinds of antennas with radomes operating at the X and Ka frequencies.
Autors: Roland William Schwerdtfeger;
Appeared in: IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 60, issue:1, pages: 94 - 103
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Characteristics of Recessed-Gate TFETs With Line Tunneling
Abstract:
In this paper, we propose a recessed-gate tunneling field-effect transistor (TFET) to improve the on current of TFETs by increasing the tunnel area with line tunneling. We investigate the effects of the recessed-body thickness and the doping level on the device performance. For optimal device structures, our proposed n-TFET reaches A/ of on current and ON/ OFF current ratio. A minimum subthreshold swing SS mV/dec and an average swing SS mV/dec over seven orders of drain current are achieved. In addition, complementary TFET inverters show good noise margins of mV (38.5 % ) and NM mV (32.5 % ) and also a high voltage gain even at V.
Autors: Jyi-Tsong Lin;Tzu-Chi Wang;Wei-Han Lee;Chih-Ting Yeh;Stefan Glass;Qing-Tai Zhao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 769 - 775
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Characterization and Modeling of Tissue Thermal Conductivity During an Electrosurgical Joining Process
Abstract:
Electrosurgical vessel joining is commonly performed in surgical procedures to maintain hemostasis. This process requires elevated temperature to denature the tissue and while compression is applied, the tissue can be joined together. The elevated temperature can cause thermal damages to the surrounding tissues. In order to minimize these damages, it is critical to understand how the tissue properties change and how that affects the thermal spread. The purpose of this study is to investigate the changes of tissue thermal conductivity and how the changes correlate to thermal dose during the joining process. We propose a hybrid method combining experimental measurement with inverse heat transfer analysis to determine thermal conductivity of thin tissue sample. Porcine aorta arterial tissues were used to investigate tissue thermal conductivity with variable thermal dose. Different joining times were used to create different amounts of thermal dose. A 36% decrease in tissue thermal conductivity was found when the thermal dose reaches the threshold for second-degree burn. When thermal dose is beyond the threshold of third-degree burn, the tissue thermal conductivity does not decrease significantly. A regression model was also developed and can be used to predict tissue thermal conductivity based on the thermal dose.
Autors: Che-Hao Yang;Wei Li;Roland K. Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 365 - 370
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Characterization of a Terbium-Activated Gadolinium Oxysulfide Plastic Optical Fiber Sensor in Photons and Protons
Abstract:
A characterization study was carried out to determine if a novel, millimeter sized Terbium-activated Gadolinium Oxysulfide optical fibre detector has potential for future use in proton dosimetry. Preliminary studies employed a Theratronics Theratron 780C Cobalt-60 unit and were used to determine nominal dose response, field size response and Čerenkov contributions in 1.25-MeV gamma radiation. More extensive testing was done using 74 MeV-protons produced in the TRIUMF 500-MeV cyclotron facility examining raw Bragg peak, spread out Bragg peak, dose response, and Čerenkov signal. The detector was low-cost and easily assembled; it showed excellent sensitivity, signal to noise ratio, and reproducibility. Quenching at high linear energy transfer was severe. Additional investigations are needed to further explore Čerenkov-only depth-dose curves, signal detection at the extreme distal end of the Bragg peak, and possible sensitivity to neutrons.
Autors: Crystal Penner;Cornelia Hoehr;Sinead O’Keeffe;Peter Woulfe;Cheryl Duzenli;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 18, issue:4, pages: 1513 - 1519
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Characterization of Intermodulation Distortion in Reconfigurable Liquid Metal Antennas
Abstract:
The intermodulation distortion produced by passive and tunable liquid metal (LM) antennas is investigated. Four kinds of monopoles, including a passive copper monopole, a varactor-tuned copper monopole, a passive LM monopole, and a tunable LM monopole using electrochemically controlled capillarity (ECC), are compared for their linearity and power-handling capabilities. Linearity is assessed using a two-tone distortion test, in which two fundamental tones close in frequency result in third-order intermodulation tones at frequencies above and below the original tones separated by the frequency difference. The passive LM monopole has comparable linearity to the passive copper monopole, while the linearity of the ECC-tuned LM monopole is at least 40 dB better than that of the active varactor monopole. The reconfigurable LM antenna also handles higher power (31 dBm) before failure than does the active varactor-tuned antenna (24 dBm).
Autors: Meng Wang;Ian M. Kilgore;Michael B. Steer;Jacob J. Adams;
Appeared in: IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 279 - 282
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Characterizations of Enhancement-Mode Double Heterostructure GaN HEMTs With Gate Field Plates
Abstract:
With the purpose to increase the threshold voltage of the enhancement mode GaN high-electron mobility transistors, we fabricated devices with gate field plates on the p-GaN/AlGaN/GaN/AlGaN double heterostructures. We observed an existence of a subthreshold region from the current–voltage transfer curves. The threshold voltage of the device extracted based on linear extrapolation method is much higher than that of a typical device without a gate field plate. We investigated electrical properties based on carrier distributions with the influence of gate electric field at different channel regions.
Autors: Chun-Hsun Lee;Wei-Ren Lin;Yu-Hsuan Lee;Jian-jang Huang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 488 - 492
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Characterizing Antennas in the Time and Frequency Domains [Education Corner]
Abstract:
The antenna definitions standard [1] currently has no terms that describe antenna performance in the time domain, possibly due to the complexity of the equations. However, if the antenna equations are expressed using quantities related to the square root of power, then simple expressions are obtained that are valid in both the frequency and time domains. This leads to a number of new terms that should be considered for inclusion in the next revision of the standard. Doing so would provide a common language for discussing antenna performance in the time domain. It would also add phase information to common frequency-domain terms, such as antenna gain and radar cross section.
Autors: Everett G. Farr;
Appeared in: IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 60, issue:1, pages: 106 - 110
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Characterizing Engineering Learners’ Preferences for Active and Passive Learning Methods
Abstract:
This paper studies electrical engineering learners’ preferences for learning methods with various degrees of activity. Less active learning methods such as homework and peer reviews are investigated, as well as a newly introduced very active (constructive) learning method called “slectures,” and some others. The results suggest that graduate students’ perception of the usefulness of the activity increases with its level of activity. For undergraduate students, an increased perception of the usefulness of the activity was observed for lightly active but structured learning methods. Group-based analysis focusing on two types of learners, defined as “instructor-dependent” and “instructor-independent” according to their perception of the usefulness of the classroom lectures, was also performed. The results suggest that instructor-independent learners may benefit more from active learning methods than instructor-dependent learners. For example, instructor-independent undergraduate learners were found to perceive the homework assignment as being more useful than the lectures. Such a preference was not seen in the average group data. In fact, no learning method was found to be perceived as more useful than the lectures, on average. Thus this paper illustrates the pertinence of group-based data analysis.
Autors: Alejandra J. Magana;Camilo Vieira;Mireille Boutin;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Education
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 61, issue:1, pages: 46 - 54
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Characterizing Privacy Risks of Mobile Apps with Sensitivity Analysis
Abstract:
Given the emerging concerns over app privacy-related risks, major app distribution providers (e.g., Microsoft) have been exploring approaches to help end users to make informed decision before installation. This is different from existing approaches of simply trusting users to make the right decision. We build on the direction of risk rating as the way to communicate app-specific privacy risks to end users. To this end, we propose to use sensitivity analysis to infer whether an app requests sensitive on-device resources/data that are not required for its expected functionality. Our system, Privet, addresses challenges in efficiently achieving test coverage and automated privacy risk assessment. Finally, we evaluate Privet with 1,000 Android apps released in the wild.
Autors: Li Lyna Zhang;Chieh-Jan Mike Liang;Zhao Lucis Li;Yunxin Liu;Feng Zhao;Enhong Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 279 - 292
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Charging Behavior of Users Utilizing Battery Electric Vehicles and Extended Range Electric Vehicles Within the Scope of a Field Test
Abstract:
Electric vehicles (EVs) and their application raise new questions and demands. Accordingly, the charging process of EVs is a novelty in everyday life when using such vehicles. This paper presents results of user charging behavior within a field test. In the field test, 500 people with above average yearly mileage took part in integrating the vehicles into their everyday lives. For the results of this paper, the charging behavior of 200 test people is taken into account. The differences in user behavior between battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and extended range electric vehicles (EREVs) are discussed. The results indicate that there are various opportunities for grid services based on EVs, as the vehicles are connected or parked close to a charging station the majority of the time. Moreover, the results also show deviating user behavior for the BEVs and EREVs.
Autors: Philip Karl-Heinz Dost;Philipp Spichartz;Constantinos Sourkounis;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 580 - 590
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Chessboard AMC Surface Based on Quasi-Fractal Structure for Wideband RCS Reduction
Abstract:
A chessboard artificial magnetic conductor surface based on the quasi-fractal structure is proposed for wideband radar cross-section (RCS) reduction. The chessboard configuration is formed by two different cells with 180° ± 37° phase difference over more than 90% frequency bandwidth. The quasi-fractal structure is utilized to achieve the wideband and compact characteristics. Monostatic and bistatic RCS of the proposed chessboard surface are analyzed, and the results are compared with those of equal-sized perfect electric conductor ground plane. Because the scattered fields of the chessboard surface are redirected toward four quadrants, a remarkable RCS reduction of 10 dB can be realized from 5.4 to 14.2 GHz. Measured results of the fabricated prototype satisfactorily agree with the simulated ones.
Autors: Jingjing Xue;Wen Jiang;Shuxi Gong;
Appeared in: IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 201 - 204
Publisher: IEEE
 
» CHIMERA: A Field-Programmable Mixed-Signal IC With Time-Domain Configurable Analog Blocks
Abstract:
This paper presents a field-programmable mixed-signal IC named CHIMERA, for low-cost and rapid prototyping of mixed-signal systems. The proposed IC implements field-programmable analog functions with time-domain configurable analog blocks (TCABs). A single TCAB can be programmed to various analog circuits, including a time-to-digital converter, digitally-controlled oscillator, digitally-controlled delay cell, digital pulse-width modulator, and phase interpolator. The TCABs convey and process analog information using the frequency, pulse width, delay, or phase of digital pulses or pulse sequences, rather than using analog voltage or current signals for reduced susceptibility to attenuation and noise. The overall CHIMERA chip also includes arrays of configurable logic blocks (CLBs) and programmable arithmetic logic units (ALUs) for programmable digital functions. By programming the functionality of the TCAB, CLB, and ALU arrays and configuring the interconnects, the chip can implement various mixed-signal systems. A prototype IC fabricated with 65-nm CMOS technology demonstrates the versatile programmability of CHIMERA by being successfully operated as a 1-GHz phase-locked loop with a 12.3-psrms integrated jitter, as a 50-MS/s analog-to-digital converter with a 32.5-dB SNDR, and as a 1.2-to-0.7 V DC–DC converter with 95.5% efficiency.
Autors: Yunju Choi;Yoontaek Lee;Seung-Heon Baek;Sung-Joon Lee;Jaeha Kim;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 431 - 444
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Chromatic Dispersion, Nonlinear Parameter, and Modulation Format Monitoring Based on Godard's Error for Coherent Optical Transmission Systems
Abstract:
This paper considers Godard's error as signal quality metric to monitor chromatic dispersion (CD), nonlinear parameter, and modulation format in the DSP module of the coherent receivers. We first review a CD monitoring based on Godard's error that can be able to accurately monitor arbitrarily large dispersion values in uncompensated transmission links in combination with frequency domain equalizer, then extend the previous nonlinear parameter monitoring method based on Godard's error by blindly obtaining the optimized value γξp to significantly improve the adaptive capability, and present a simple and effective modulation format monitoring based on Godard's error. Meanwhile, the effectiveness has been experimentally verified in 128-Gb/s PDM-QPSK, 192-Gb/s PDM-8QAM, and 256-Gb/s PDM-16QAM systems.
Autors: Lin Jiang;Lianshan Yan;Anlin Yi;Yan Pan;Ming Hao;Wei Pan;Bin Luo;Yves Jaouën;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 1 - 12
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Circuit Model Extraction of Parallel-Connected Dual-Passband Coupled-Resonator Filters
Abstract:
In this paper, an analytical coupling matrix extraction scheme is proposed for parallel-connected dual-passband coupled-resonator filters for the first time. Model-based vector fitting technique is adopted to fit the measured responses of the dual-passband filter (DPBF) with a set of rational functions, from which a transversal coupling matrix can be constructed. A novel coupling matrix transformation strategy is developed to transform the transversal coupling matrix to the one corresponding to the topology of a parallel-connected DPBF. A practical filter is used as a test example to demonstrate the extraction procedure. In diagnosing the coupling matrix of the test filter, two kinds of ambiguity problems are discussed in detail and are solved by a perturbation technique. This paper provides a general theoretic framework for computer-aided tuning of a parallel-connected dual-passband or multiple-passband filter.
Autors: Ping Zhao;Ke-Li Wu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 822 - 830
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Circular Buffer Rate-Matched Polar Codes
Abstract:
A practical rate-matching system for constructing rate-compatible polar codes is proposed. The proposed polar code circular buffer rate-matching is suitable for transmissions on communication channels that support hybrid automatic repeat request communications, as well as for flexible resource-element rate-matching on single transmission channels. Our proposed circular buffer rate matching scheme also incorporates a bit-mapping scheme for transmission on bit-interleaved coded modulation (BICM) channels using higher order modulations. An interleaver is derived from a puncturing order obtained with a low complexity progressive puncturing search algorithm on a base code of short length, and has the flexibility to achieve any desired rate at the desired code length, through puncturing or repetition. The rate-matching scheme is implied by a two-stage polarization, for transmission at any desired code length, code rate, and modulation order, and is shown to achieve the symmetric capacity of BICM channels. Numerical results on AWGN and fast fading channels show that the rate-matched polar codes have a competitive performance when compared with the spatially-coupled quasi-cyclic LDPC codes or LTE turbo codes, while having similar rate-dematching storage and computational complexities.
Autors: Mostafa El-Khamy;Hsien-Ping Lin;Jungwon Lee;Inyup Kang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Communications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 493 - 506
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Circularly Polarized Antenna With Reconfigurable Broadside and Conical Beams Facilitated by a Mode Switchable Feed Network
Abstract:
A pattern-reconfigurable slot-augmented patch antenna is reported that radiates circularly polarized (CP) fields and is switchable between a broadside and a conical radiating mode. Two novel design strategies were adopted to realize these advantageous performance characteristics. First, a mode switchable feed network which includes a set of eight L-probes was developed that facilitates the proper excitation of either the patch’s TM11 or TM21 mode and yields symmetric radiation patterns. Second, their operating bands were made to overlap by augmenting this patch with an annular slot. Consequently, the radiation pattern is easily switched between the broadside and the conical modes within the overlapping operational bandwidths. A prototype was fabricated and tested. The measured results are in good agreement with their simulated values, verifying the design concepts. The measured operating bandwidth, 7.8% from 2.45 to 2.65 GHz, was determined from the overlap of the impedance and axial ratio bandwidths for both modes. The measured realized gain values are stable for both radiating states within this operational bandwidth, the broadside (conical) peak value being 8.5 dBic (5.8 dBic). The CP pattern reconfigurability of this antenna with its favorable performance characteristics makes it an ideal candidate for many RFID and satellite communication applications.
Autors: Wei Lin;Hang Wong;Richard W. Ziolkowski;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 996 - 1001
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Circulating Current Suppression in Modular Multilevel Converters With Even-Harmonic Repetitive Control
Abstract:
Due to voltage mismatch between phase legs and the dc bus in modular multilevel converters (MMCs), the differential current in MMCs is inherently subjected to circulating even-order harmonics. Repetitive control based active harmonic suppression methods can be adopted to eliminate such harmonics. Nevertheless, conventional repetitive controllers have a relatively slow dynamic response, because all the sampled errors in the past one cycle have to be stored, which causes a response delay for one fundamental period. This paper proposes an improved repetitive control scheme that exclusively copes with even-order harmonics based on the circulating current characteristics of MMC systems. The design details of the even harmonic repetitive control scheme according to the harmonics characteristics are provided. The proposed even-harmonic repetitive control scheme requires halved data memory to store error samplings and the delay introduced by the repetitive controller is also reduced. According to the frequency domain analysis, the even-harmonic repetitive control features faster convergence rate, greater low-frequency gains, higher crossover frequency, and higher tolerance against system frequency deviation, while possessing the same even-order harmonics suppression capability and stability as conventional ones. Simulation and experimental results are presented to show the steady-state harmonics suppression capability, dynamic response, and disturbance tolerance of the proposed even-harmonic repetitive control scheme.
Autors: Shunfeng Yang;Peng Wang;Yi Tang;Michael Zagrodnik;Xiaolei Hu;King Jet Tseng;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 298 - 309
Publisher: IEEE
 
» CIS Publication Spotlight [Publication Spotlight]
Abstract:
Presents reviews of recent articles from select IEEE publications.
Autors: Haibo He;Jon Garibaldi;Kay Chen Tan;Graham Kendall;Yaochu Jin;Yew Soon Ong;
Appeared in: IEEE Computational Intelligence Magazine
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 13, issue:1, pages: 25 - 27
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Cladding Light Stripper of High Average Stripped Power Density With High Attenuation of 39 dB and Low Temperature Rise
Abstract:
We demonstrate a 150-mm long cladding light stripper for kW-level operation with high attenuation and low temperature rising. The first 100 mm of the device was designed based on theoretical simulation to achieve uniform extraction of the high-power scattered cladding light and it was constructed by self-developed experimental device for continuous gradient chemical etching. While in the last 50 mm, we reduced the cladding diameter from 400 to 65 μm and then roughed the surface to extract the residual low NA cladding light more efficiently. The power handling capability of this design was tested up to 1.01 kW for an hour stably without causing any damage. The cladding light stripper achieved a high attenuation of 39 dB and a low temperature elevation of 0.05 °C/ input-Watt under the condition of air cooling. The maximum temperature on the surface of the device was only 78.5 °C with an average stripped power density of 7.156 × 106 W/m2. To the best of our knowledge, the cladding light stripper reported here has the highest average stripped power density and attenuation coefficient without compromising temperature performance. This cladding light stripper is well suitable for application in multikilowatts class fiber lasers.
Autors: Shuzhen Zou;Han Chen;Jingyuan Zhang;Haijuan Yu;Zhiyan Zhang;Jing Sun;Xuechun Lin;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 1 - 10
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Clarifying Trust in Social Internet of Things
Abstract:
A social approach can be exploited for the Internet of Things (IoT) to manage a large number of connected objects. These objects operate as autonomous agents to request and provide information and services to users. Establishing trustworthy relationships among the objects greatly improves the effectiveness of node interaction in the social IoT and helps nodes overcome perceptions of uncertainty and risk. However, there are limitations in the existing trust models. In this paper, a comprehensive model of trust is proposed that is tailored to the social IoT. The model includes ingredients such as trustor, trustee, goal, trustworthiness evaluation, decision, action, result, and context. Building on this trust model, we clarify the concepts of trust in the social IoT in five aspects such as: 1) mutuality of trustor and trustee; 2) inferential transfer of trust; 3) transitivity of trust; 4) trustworthiness update; and 5) trustworthiness affected by dynamic environment. With network connectivities that are from real-world social networks, a series of simulations are conducted to evaluate the performance of the social IoT operated with the proposed trust model. An experimental IoT network is used to further validate the proposed trust model.
Autors: Zhiting Lin;Liang Dong;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 30, issue:2, pages: 234 - 248
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Classification and Discrimination Among Winding Mechanical Defects, Internal and External Electrical Faults, and Inrush Current of Transformer
Abstract:
In this paper, the mechanical faults of transformers including the winding radial deformation and axial displacement on 1.6 MVA transformer winding are investigated. Then, by estimating the parameters of the detailed model of this transformer winding in MATLAB software and changing these parameters in a manner that is proportional to the mechanical defects in electro-magnetic transients program software, the sampled differential current of the transformer is extracted for each disturbance. Next, the internal and external electrical faults and inrush current of the transformer are simulated. Afterwards, these signals are analyzed using maximal overlap discrete wavelet transform with Daubechies4 wavelet function, and their features are extracted. These extracted features are considered for training the classifiers of Decision Tree and artificial neural network. According to the simulation results, the proposed procedure is capable of classifying and discriminating among winding mechanical defects, internal and external electrical faults, and inrush current with a good accuracy that is the main novelty of this paper in comparison to other published works, which are limited to classifying only some of the mentioned faults.
Autors: Sajad Bagheri;Zahra Moravej;Gevork B. Gharehpetian;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 14, issue:2, pages: 484 - 493
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Classification of Hyperspectral Imagery Using a New Fully Convolutional Neural Network
Abstract:
With success of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) in computer vision, the CNN has attracted great attention in hyperspectral classification. Many deep learning-based algorithms have been focused on deep feature extraction for classification improvement. In this letter, a novel deep learning framework for hyperspectral classification based on a fully CNN is proposed. Through convolution, deconvolution, and pooling layers, the deep features of hyperspectral data are enhanced. After feature enhancement, the optimized extreme learning machine (ELM) is utilized for classification. The proposed framework outperforms the existing CNN and other traditional classification algorithms by including deconvolution layers and an optimized ELM. Experimental results demonstrate that it can achieve outstanding hyperspectral classification performance.
Autors: Jiaojiao Li;Xi Zhao;Yunsong Li;Qian Du;Bobo Xi;Jing Hu;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 15, issue:2, pages: 292 - 296
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Classification of State Trajectories in Gene Regulatory Networks
Abstract:
Gene-expression-based phenotype classification is used for disease diagnosis and prognosis relating to treatment strategies. The present paper considers classification based on sequential measurements of multiple genes using gene regulatory network (GRN) modeling. There are two networks, original and mutated, and observations consist of trajectories of network states. The problem is to classify an observation trajectory as coming from either the original or mutated network. GRNs are modeled via probabilistic Boolean networks, which incorporate stochasticity at both the gene and network levels. Mutation affects the regulatory logic. Classification is based upon observing a trajectory of states of some given length. We characterize the Bayes classifier and find the Bayes error for a general PBN and the special case of a single Boolean network affected by random perturbations (BNp). The Bayes error is related to network sensitivity, meaning the extent of alteration in the steady-state distribution of the original network owing to mutation. Using standard methods to calculate steady-state distributions is cumbersome and sometimes impossible, so we provide an efficient algorithm and approximations. Extensive simulations are performed to study the effects of various factors, including approximation accuracy. We apply the classification procedure to a p53 BNp and a mammalian cell cycle PBN.
Autors: Alireza Karbalayghareh;Ulisses Braga-Neto;Jianping Hua;Edward Russell Dougherty;
Appeared in: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 68 - 82
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Clean and Green India: Is Solar Energy the Answer?
Abstract:
Approximately 78% of the world's electricity demand is fulfilled by fossil-fuelbased power plants. Electricity generated from such power plants is costly and often leads to environmental pollution and subsequent health hazards. For example, pollutants from coal combustion cause a variety of respiratory ailments and impact cardiovascular health and the nervous system.
Autors: Abhinav Aggarwal;Aman Singhal;Sumit J. Darak;
Appeared in: IEEE Potentials
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 37, issue:1, pages: 40 - 46
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Closed-Form Design of Variable Fractional-Delay FIR Filters With Low or Middle Cutoff Frequencies
Abstract:
This paper aims to design variable fractional-delay (VFD) finite-impulse response (FIR) filters with controllable cutoff frequencies. Different with the existing designs, a particular ladder-shaped curve is selected as the desired transfer characteristic of the proposed design. Due to the fact that this particular transfer curve can be well approximated by the convolution windowed spectrum interpolation-based filter, the analytic formula of this filter can be further combined with the cubic spline interpolation and Taylor series expansion, thereby deriving a fast configuration procedure for all tap coefficients in the Farrow structure. Meanwhile, both the fractional delay and the cutoff frequency can be flexibly adjusted by this procedure. By means of theoretical analysis or numerical simulation, we proved that the proposed method is not only suitable to design those VFD FIR filters with low or middle cutoff frequencies, but also concurrently possesses high flexibility in performance adjustment and low complexity in coefficient configuration. Therefore, it is an appropriate supplement of the closed-form WLS design.
Autors: Xiangdong Huang;Bo Zhang;Haohua Qin;Wenxing An;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 628 - 637
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Closed-Loop Continuous Hand Control via Chronic Recording of Regenerative Peripheral Nerve Interfaces
Abstract:
Loss of the upper limb imposes a devastating interruption to everyday life. Full restoration of natural arm control requires the ability to simultaneously control multiple degrees of freedom of the prosthetic arm and maintain that control over an extended period of time. Current clinically available myoelectric prostheses do not provide simultaneous control or consistency for transradial amputees. To address this issue, we have implemented a standard Kalman filter for continuous hand control using intramuscular electromyography (EMG) from both regenerative peripheral nerve interfaces (RPNI) and an intact muscle within non-human primates. Seven RPNIs and one intact muscle were implanted with indwelling bipolar intramuscular electrodes in two rhesus macaques. Following recuperations, function-specific EMG signals were recorded and then fed through the Kalman filter during a hand-movement behavioral task to continuously predict the monkey’s finger position. We were able to reconstruct continuous finger movement offline with an average correlation of and a root mean squared error (RMSE) of 0.12 between actual and predicted position from two macaques. This finger movement prediction was also performed in real time to enable closed-loop neural control of a virtual hand. Compared with physical hand control, neural control performance was slightly slower but maintained an average target hit success rate of 96.70%. Recalibration longevity measurements maintained consistent average correlation over time but had a significant change in RMSE (). Additionally, extracted single units varied in amplitude by a factor of +18.65% and −25.85% compared with its mean. This is the first demonst- ation of chronic indwelling electrodes being used for continuous position control via the Kalman filter. Combining these analyses with our novel peripheral nerve interface, we believe that this demonstrates an important step in providing patients with more naturalistic control of their prosthetic limbs.
Autors: Philip P. Vu;Zachary T. Irwin;Autumn J. Bullard;Shoshana W. Ambani;Ian C. Sando;Melanie G. Urbanchek;Paul S. Cederna;Cynthia A. Chestek;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 26, issue:2, pages: 515 - 526
Publisher: IEEE
 

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