Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 09-2017 sorted by title, page: 12

» MC-CDMA enhanced LR-PON using widely wavelength lockable FPLD with low facet reflectance
Abstract:
By using a widely wavelength lockable Fabry-Perot laser diode (FPLD) with low facet reflectance under intensity modulation and direct detection, a multicarrier code division multiple access (MC-CDMA) enhanced long-reach passive optical network (LR-PON) architecture is demonstrated to perform the dense-spectral-utilized transmission with orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) format. Enlarging the power injected into the low-facet-reflectance FPLD enables the broadening of operational wavelength margins at a cost of slightly increased bit-error rate (BER). After LR-PON transmission, the signal-to-noise ratio among subcarriers strongly correlates with the frequency chirp of the wavelength-locked FPLD, which affects the allowable wavelength locking range. By substituting MC-CDMA for the typical OFDM format and using the minimum-mean-squared-error-based multicode interference cancellation processing, the BER degradation is minimized, accompanied by a 16% extension on the lockable wavelength margin achieved under 3 dBm injection. Such a widely wavelength lockable FPLD-based MC-CDMA enhances the LR-PON with a power penalty reduction of 1 dB as compared to the typical OFDM LR-PON after 60 km transmission.
Autors: You-Wei Chen;Yu-Chieh Chi;Huai-Yung Wang;Cheng-Ting Tsai;Zu-Kai Weng;Kai-Ming Feng;Gong-Ru Lin;
Appeared in: IEEE/OSA Journal of Optical Communications and Networking
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 9, issue:9, pages: 747 - 755
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Measurements and Analyses of Electro-Exploding Products Generated by Semiconductor Bridge Igniters
Abstract:
In an effort to investigate the characteristics of electro-exploding products generated by Al/CuO-semiconductor bridge igniters, high-speed camera and spectrum diagnosis systems are employed in this paper. By using the high-speed camera system, the electro-exploding processes are recorded and the results indicate that electro-exploding processes include extrinsic conduction, intrinsic excitation, melting, vaporization, plasma discharging, and Al/CuO combustion. During this process, the spatial dimensions of plasma could reach to 8.7 mm in vertical direction under excitation energy of . Meanwhile, the Al/CuO films are ejected from ceramic housing by plasma shock wave, combust upon plasma and plume. According to the results from the spectrum diagnosis system, it is noted that the temperature maintains 4000–6500 K for .
Autors: Jun Wang;Yong Li;Bin Zhou;Xin Jia;Ruiqi Shen;Liu Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 45, issue:9, pages: 2486 - 2491
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Mechanically Reconfigurable Conformal Array Antenna Fed by Radial Waveguide Divider With Tuning Screws
Abstract:
A conformal array antenna with a reconfigurable radiation pattern in the azimuth plane at Ku band is presented. An eight-faced prism has been set as 3-D antenna structure. The radiating element consists of a rectangular waveguide ended on a slotted cavity. A radial waveguide network (RWGN) fed by a symmetrically placed coaxial probe has been implemented to equally feed each radiating element obtaining an omnidirectional behavior in the azimuth plane. The insertion of several metallic tuning screws (TSs) provides a reconfiguration mechanism of the electric field distribution in the RWGN and modifies the conformal array antenna amplitude feeding. Eight different configurations generating directional radiation patterns can be tuned by means of the insertion of certain TSs. In addition, the symmetrical positioning of them allows performing a main beam scanning every 45° in the azimuth plane. Several prototypes have been manufactured and measured to experimentally validate the antenna performance. A total of 65 different radiation patterns have been experimentally obtained using the proposed TSs, which provides a simple, low-loss, and low-cost reconfigurability mechanism to the presented conformal array antenna.
Autors: P. Sanchez-Olivares;J. L. Masa-Campos;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 65, issue:9, pages: 4886 - 4890
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Media Transmission by Cooperation of Cellular Network and Broadcasting Network
Abstract:
Future media transmission as a consistent target is pursued by both next mobile communication system (5G) and advanced digital terrestrial television system. High data rate and flexibility are major considerations for future media transmission. Broadcasting network facilitates high-efficiency transmission of popular or live video in large area, and while, cellular network tends to provide personalized and localized services with a unicast/multicast model. The broadcast-like scheme emerges in 5G to resolve the high demand for bandwidth. However, it requires high deployment cost and imposes much interference on unicast/multicast services. In this paper, a cooperative structure of cellular network and broadcasting network using cloud radio access network (C-RAN) is proposed. The expenses of constructing hybrid network can be significantly cut down by applying the centralization and virtualization of C-RAN. Besides, technical approaches for 3GPP and ATSC cooperation in physical layer is detailed. Dedicated return channel (DRC) of broadcasting network is proposed to enable seamless interaction between broadcasters and few users in a remote area with high expense of cellular tower deployment. To loosen the real-time physical layer pipes period restriction of DRC system, three alternative periods are investigated to provide more flexibility to broadcasters.
Autors: Yanfeng Wang;Dazhi He;Lianghui Ding;Wenjun Zhang;Wei Li;Yiyan Wu;Ning Liu;Yao Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 63, issue:3, pages: 571 - 576
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Medical Image Fusion and Denoising with Alternating Sequential Filter and Adaptive Fractional Order Total Variation
Abstract:
Medical image fusion aims at integrating information from multimodality medical images to obtain a more complete and accurate description of the same object, which provides an easy access for image-guided medical diagnostic and treatment. Unfortunately, medical images are often corrupted by noise in acquisition or transmission, and the noise signal is easily mistaken for a useful characterization of the image, making the fusion effect drop significantly. Thus, the existence of noise presents a great challenge for most of traditional image fusion methods. To address this problem, an effective variation model for multimodality medical image fusion and denoising is proposed. First, a multiscale alternating sequential filter is exploited to extract the useful characterizations (e.g., details and edges) from noisy input medical images. Then, a recursive filtering-based weight map is constructed to guide the fusion of main features of input images. Additionally, total variation (TV) constraint is developed by constructing an adaptive fractional order based on the local contrast of fused image, further effectively suppressing noise while avoiding the staircase effect of the TV. The experimental results indicate that the proposed method performs well with both noisy and normal medical images, outperforming conventional methods in terms of fusion quality and noise reduction.
Autors: Wenda Zhao;Huchuan Lu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 66, issue:9, pages: 2283 - 2294
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Meetings calendar
Abstract:
Provides a listing of future meetings.
Autors: Davide Fabiani;
Appeared in: IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 33, issue:5, pages: 60 - 62
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Memory Performance of a Simple Pr0.7Ca0.3MnO3-Based Selectorless RRAM
Abstract:
Enhancement of nonlinearity (NL) in low-resistance state (LRS) currents of resistance random access memory (RRAM) devices is a key challenge for the selectorless RRAM array. The conventional approach is based on adding multiple dielectrics, e.g., tunnel layers to enable NL at the expense of stack simplicity. In this brief, we present a Pr0.7Ca0.3MnO3 (PCMO)-based selectorless RRAM device that exhibits high NL. The presented single oxide layer device (W/PCMO/Pt) enables selectorless RRAM without an extra tunnel barrier layer. The demonstrated device is forming free. It shows a low SET current density (104 A/cm2) and a high NL in LRS current for READ operation (105±5) and for SET operation (44±4) along with a large memory window (160±2) in dc cycling. Further, the device shows very low device-to-device variability along with excellent retention (ten years at 200 °C), good pulsed endurance (no degradation for >104 cycles), and a possible multilevel cell capability. A self-heating-based sharp current increase produces the NL to enable selectorless operation. Thus, a selectorless PCMO-based RRAM based on a novel mechanism is presented and benchmarked against the literature.
Autors: P. Kumbhare;I. Chakraborty;A. Khanna;U. Ganguly;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 64, issue:9, pages: 3967 - 3970
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Mesh Interpolated Krylov Recycling Method to Expedite 3-D Full-Wave MoM Solution for Design Variants
Abstract:
Today’s 3-D full-wave electromagnetic (EM) solvers follow the conventional model-mesh-solve workflow to analyze any EM structure. These solvers treat each model independently regardless of any similarity with a previously solved model and, therefore, sacrifice the possibility of accelerating a model solution from information harnessed from a prior solution of a similar model. This is a missed opportunity particularly in the solution of design variants, which involve multiple models with near-identical geometrical features. A Krylov recycling (KR) technique has been proposed in the past for the incremental solution of electrostatic problems. However, the technique is limited by the requirement of an unchanged mesh for the unmodified section of the model, which is difficult to achieve for a conformal mesh of a practical geometry. In this paper, a mesh-interpolated Krylov recycling (MIKR) technique is proposed to expedite the solution of 3-D full-wave surface-volume electric field integral equation-based system by reusing the Krylov subspace from the base design. The mesh interpolation mechanism is proposed to be able to handle mesh changes in the unmodified section of the model. The method is independent of the choice of fast solver compression methodology and the preconditioning strategy, and can be applied in unison with them. Numerical results demonstrate up to speedup in convergence over a cutting-edge preconditioned linear complexity fast solver methodology.
Autors: Gourav Chatterjee;Arkaprovo Das;Sreenivasulu Reddy Vedicherla;Dipanjan Gope;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 65, issue:9, pages: 3159 - 3171
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Method of Providing the High Cyclotron Harmonic Operation Selectivity in a Gyrotron With a Spatially Developed Operating Mode
Abstract:
An electrodynamic method for suppressing low-frequency oscillations at the fundamental cyclotron resonance in a gyrotron at a high cyclotron harmonic is proposed and theoretically investigated. According to simulations, the use of this method in the terahertz gyrotron at the second cyclotron harmonic operating at the spatially developed mode TE63,15 can provide a multiple excess of the starting currents of the parasitic modes over the starting current of the desired oscillations.
Autors: Ilya V. Bandurkin;Mikhail Yu Glyavin;Sergey V. Kuzikov;Petr B. Makhalov;Ivan V. Osharin;Andrey V. Savilov;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 64, issue:9, pages: 3893 - 3897
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Microfiber Coupling Structures for Magnetic Field Sensing With Enhanced Sensitivity
Abstract:
Two kinds of magnetic field sensors based on Sagnac loop and knot resonator configurations with microfiber coupling structures are proposed and investigated experimentally. The designed sensors are made from the microfiber coupler, whose coupling region is coated with magnetic fluid. The as-fabricated sensors have the same sensing/coupling region, but the achieved sensitivities are greatly different, which are 19.4 and 171.8 pm/Oe for the microfiber Sagnac loop and microfiber knot resonator structures, respectively. Comparing with the microfiber Sagnac loop and other similar microfiber knot resonator (or silicon microring) sensing structures, the sensitivity of the as-designed microfiber knot resonator sensing structure is enhanced significantly. The underlying mechanisms are expounded physically in terms of the microscopic formation of the coupling region and the essence of interference for the microfiber knot resonator structure. The designed structures could potentially lead to highly sensitive magnetic field sensors and other new-fashioned magneto-optical photonic devices.
Autors: Shengli Pu;Lianmin Mao;Tianjun Yao;Jinfeng Gu;Mahieddine Lahoubi;Xianglong Zeng;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 17, issue:18, pages: 5857 - 5861
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Microplasma Traveling Wave Terahertz Amplifier
Abstract:
We describe a traveling wave terahertz (0.75–1.1 THz) amplifier that uses a meandering TE01 waveguide coupled to a plasma beam and discuss its design, microfabrication, and cold/hot tests. Motivations for using plasmas instead of electron beams are: 1) thermionic emission required in e-beam generation can be replaced with gas ionization, 2) electrostatic lenses and magnetic focusing structures can be eliminated or reduced in complexity since plasmas can be self-focusing, 3) larger acceleration fields can be used by taking advantage of plasmas’ space-charge electric fields of – V/cm, 4) the plasma pressure can be lowered to yield an electron beam in the limit when the devices’ critical dimensions are smaller than the electron mean-free path, and, hence, 5) higher power amplifications at higher efficiency can be achieved. Cold tests showed that a dielectric coating (50-nm Al2O3) of the gold-coated meandering silicon waveguide improved the maximum terahertz transmission (S21) from −20 to −15 dB. Hot tests showed 12-dB gain at a center frequency of ~0.9 THz over a 1-GHz bandwidth.
Autors: Massood Tabib-Azar;Olutosin Charles Fawole;Shashank S. Pandey;Carlos H. Mastrangelo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 64, issue:9, pages: 3877 - 3884
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Microscopic and Macroscopic Spatio-Temporal Topic Models for Check-in Data
Abstract:
Twitter, together with other online social networks, such as Facebook, and Gowalla have begun to collect hundreds of millions of check-ins. Check-in data captures the spatial and temporal information of user movements and interests. To model and analyze the spatio-temporal aspect of check-in data and discover temporal topics and regions, we first propose a spatio-temporal topic model, i.e., Upstream Spatio-Temporal Topic Model (USTTM). USTTM can discover temporal topics and regions, i.e., a user’s choice of region and topic is affected by time in this model. We use continuous time to model check-in data, rather than discretized time, avoiding the loss of information through discretization. In addition, USTTM captures the property that user’s interests and activity space will change over time, and users have different region and topic distributions at different times in USTTM. However, both USTTM and other related models capture “microscopic patterns” within a single city, where users share POIs, and cannot discover “macroscopic” patterns in a global area, where users check-in to different POIs. Therefore, we also propose a macroscopic spatio-temporal topic model, MSTTM, employing words of tweets that are shared between cities to learn the topics of user interests. We perform an experimental evaluation on Twitter and Gowalla data sets from New York City and on a Twitter US data set. In our qualitative analysis, we perform experiments with USTTM to discover temporal topics, e.g., how topic “tourist destinations” changes over time, and to demonstrate that MSTTM indeed discovers macroscopic, generic topics. In our quantitative analysis, we evaluate the effectiveness of USTTM in terms of perplexity, accuracy of POI recommendation, and accuracy of user and time prediction. Our results show that the proposed USTTM achieves- better performance than the state-of-the-art models, confirming that it is more natural to model time as an upstream variable affecting the other variables. Finally, the performance of the macroscopic model MSTTM is evaluated on a Twitter US dataset, demonstrating a substantial improvement of POI recommendation accuracy compared to the microscopic models.
Autors: Yu Liu;Martin Ester;Yuqiu Qian;Bo Hu;David W. Cheung;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 29, issue:9, pages: 1957 - 1970
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Microstrip Array Antenna With 2-D Steerable Focus in Near-Field Region
Abstract:
A microstrip planar array antenna is presented in this paper, which is designed to have near-field focused beams, and it is capable of steering its focus on the designed focal plane. The array is composed of eight series-fed linear arrays, which are able to scan the focus by frequency around 10 GHz in the H-plane, whereas, E-plane focus scan can be achieved by feeding the linear arrays with different phases. The proposed array can be used in near-field scan systems, e.g., microwave imaging system, with a faster scan rate than mechanically scanned antennas and a lower cost than array antennas with full phase control elements. Theoretical analysis is presented in this paper, and is verified by simulations and experiments.
Autors: Peng-Fa Li;Shi-Wei Qu;Shiwen Yang;Zai-Ping Nie;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 65, issue:9, pages: 4607 - 4617
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Microstructure and Magnetic Properties of Sm (CobalFe0.28Cu0.06Zr0.02)7.84 Magnet Prepared by Hydrogen Decrepitation and Mechanical Crushing
Abstract:
Two methods of pre-crushing power, hydrogen decrepitation (HD) and mechanical crushing (MC), were applied to prepare Sm (CobalFe0.28Cu0.06Zr0.02)7.84 magnets. Their microstructures and magnetic properties were investigated. Compared with a conventional MC method, the Sm2O3 content was decreased and the coercivity was enhanced from 8.67 to 24.03 kOe with an HD method. The larger grain size and less grain boundaries defects were obtained in HD magnets. In addition, the HD technology improved effective Sm content of magnets by decreasing oxidation of Sm. The effective Sm content played a significant role on microstructure and magnetic properties changes of the two kinds of magnets. In combinations with the changes of alloy composition and microstructures, the effect of HD technology on effective Sm content was discussed.
Autors: Y. P. Feng;M. Li;Z. Liu;L. Liu;C. X. Wang;R. J. Chen;Z. Q. Tian;Don Lee;A. R. Yan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 53, issue:9, pages: 1 - 4
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Microwave Applicator for Thermal Treatment of Bituminous Surfaces
Abstract:
A comprehensive study of a microwave applicator for thermal treatment of bituminous surface is presented in this paper. The applicator consists of a customized rectangular waveguide horn surrounded with a hexagonal lattice of cylindrical chokes preventing hazardous leakage of microwave radiation beyond an exposure area. Electromagnetic simulations based on a finite-difference time-domain method are applied in a design process and afterward, the prototype is manufactured with the aid of computerized numerical control machining. Eventually, the applicator is applied for experimental testing of microwave-assisted thermal treatment of the trial bituminous surface, which demonstrates that microwave energy may be a viable alternative to typical thermal bonding techniques used in road construction and maintenance processes if appropriate conditions are met.
Autors: Bartlomiej Salski;Marzena Olszewska-Placha;Tomasz Karpisz;Janusz Rudnicki;Wojciech Gwarek;Maciej Maliszewski;Adam Zofka;Jerzy Skulski;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 65, issue:9, pages: 3419 - 3427
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Microwave Monitoring of Single Cell Monocytes Subjected to Electroporation
Abstract:
This paper presents the monitoring of single cells subjected to electroporation using microwave dielectric spectroscopy. The experimental results showed first a clear distinction between two cell states: viable cells and affected ones by a chemical treatment (Saponin). It also pointed out a high correlation () with biological standard techniques in detecting the two types of electroporation: the reversible and irreversible ones. The developed microfluidic and microwave-based sensor exposes a decrease in the capacitive and conductive contrasts of the investigated single cells treated by irreversible electroporation indicating damages at the cellular level, while cells under reversible electroporation present a similar dielectric response to that of the nontreated cells. This result corresponds to results frequently employed in biological studies. More interestingly, a study of the kinetics of the cell’s damage induction over time, by electroporation, has been experimentally done, which makes microwave dielectric spectroscopy an attractive technique for cell’s electroporation researches.
Autors: Amar Tamra;David Dubuc;Marie-Pierre Rols;Katia Grenier;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 65, issue:9, pages: 3512 - 3518
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Microwave Sensors in Your Life [From the Guest Editors' Desk]
Abstract:
The articles in this special section addresses microwave sensor technology and discusses applications for its use. Radar sensors for military or automotive purposes and airport body scanners are examples that have gained wide interest, and the technology behind these has already been presented several times in the magazine. However, a significant number of microwave sensors used in our daily lives are not so well known to the average person because they are, for example, hidden behind walls or integrated into technical equipment.
Autors: Reinhard Knöchel;Christian Damm;W. Gregory Lyons;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 18, issue:6, pages: 24 - 25
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Microwave-Induced Thermoacoustic Communications
Abstract:
Wireless communications from an airborne device to an underwater receiver is challenging because the conductivity of water severely dampens the magnitude of electromagnetic waves in the spectrum commonly used for wireless applications. In this paper, microwave-induced thermoacoustic communications (TAC), a hybrid technique for wireless communications, is investigated and experimentally demonstrated to provide a potential solution to this deficiency. TAC is based on the thermoacoustic effect and directly converts electromagnetic energy in air into acoustic energy in water. Experimental demonstration of TAC is reported by successful wireless information transmission from a microwave antenna in air to an acoustic transducer in water. Bench-top TAC experiments are combined with an analytical model to study the influences of pivotal design parameters on the performance of TAC. The experiments and theoretical analysis suggest that TAC might lead to a new paradigm of air-to-underwater wireless communications.
Autors: Xiong Wang;Tao Qin;Yexian Qin;Russell S. Witte;Hao Xin;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 65, issue:9, pages: 3369 - 3378
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Millimeter Wave Communications for Future Mobile Networks
Abstract:
Millimeter wave (mmWave) communications have recently attracted large research interest, since the huge available bandwidth can potentially lead to the rates of multiple gigabit per second per user. Though mmWave can be readily used in stationary scenarios, such as indoor hotspots or backhaul, it is challenging to use mmWave in mobile networks, where the transmitting/receiving nodes may be moving, channels may have a complicated structure, and the coordination among multiple nodes is difficult. To fully exploit the high potential rates of mmWave in mobile networks, lots of technical problems must be addressed. This paper presents a comprehensive survey of mmWave communications for future mobile networks (5G and beyond). We first summarize the recent channel measurement campaigns and modeling results. Then, we discuss in detail recent progresses in multiple input multiple output transceiver design for mmWave communications. After that, we provide an overview of the solution for multiple access and backhauling, followed by the analysis of coverage and connectivity. Finally, the progresses in the standardization and deployment of mmWave for mobile networks are discussed.
Autors: Ming Xiao;Shahid Mumtaz;Yongming Huang;Linglong Dai;Yonghui Li;Michail Matthaiou;George K. Karagiannidis;Emil Björnson;Kai Yang;Chih-Lin I;Amitabha Ghosh;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 35, issue:9, pages: 1909 - 1935
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Millimeter Wave Communications With OAM-SM Scheme for Future Mobile Networks
Abstract:
The orbital angular momentum (OAM) technique provides a new degree of freedom for information transmissions in millimeter wave communications. Considering the spatial distribution characteristics of OAM beams, a new OAM spatial modulation (OAM-SM) millimeter wave communication system is first proposed for future mobile networks. Furthermore, the capacity, average bit error probability, and energy efficiency of OAM-SM millimeter wave communication systems are analytically derived for performance analysis. Compared with the OAM-based multi-input multi-output (MIMO) millimeter wave communication systems, the maximum energy efficiency of OAM-SM millimeter wave communication systems is improved by 227.2%. Moreover, numerical results indicate that the proposed OAM-SM millimeter wave communication systems are more robust to path-loss attenuations than the conventional MIMO millimeter wave communication systems, which makes it suitable for long-range transmissions. Therefore, OAM-SM millimeter wave communication systems provide a great growth space for future mobile networks.
Autors: Xiaohu Ge;Ran Zi;Xusheng Xiong;Qiang Li;Liang Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 35, issue:9, pages: 2163 - 2177
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Millimeter-Wave Channel Measurements and Analysis for Statistical Spatial Channel Model in In-Building and Urban Environments at 28 GHz
Abstract:
The millimeter-wave (mm-wave) band will be a key component of fifth-generation (5G) wireless communication systems. This paper presents radio propagation measurements and analysis investigating the wideband directional channel characteristics of the mm-wave transmission for in-building and urban cellular communication systems in the 28-GHz band. Based on the measurements, we analyze and model the spatio-temporal channel characteristics such as multipath delay, angular statistics, and path loss. In particular we investigate the clustering of the multipath components, and investigate both the intra-cluster and inter-cluster distributions. Based on these investigations, we present a complete channel model suitable for system simulations in the in-building and urban environments.
Autors: Junghoon Ko;Yeon-Jea Cho;Sooyoung Hur;Taehwan Kim;Jeongho Park;Andreas F. Molisch;Katsuyuki Haneda;Michael Peter;Dong-Jo Park;Dong-Ho Cho;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 16, issue:9, pages: 5853 - 5868
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Millimeter-Wave V2V Communications: Distributed Association and Beam Alignment
Abstract:
Recently, millimeter-wave (mmWave) bands have been postulated as a means to accommodate the foreseen extreme bandwidth demands in vehicular communications, which result from the dissemination of sensory data to nearby vehicles for enhanced environmental awareness and improved safety level. However, the literature is particularly scarce in regards to principled resource allocation schemes that deal with the challenging radio conditions posed by the high mobility of vehicular scenarios. In this paper, we propose a novel framework that blends together matching theory and swarm intelligence to dynamically and efficiently pair vehicles and optimize both transmission and reception beamwidths. This is done by jointly considering channel state information and queue state information when establishing vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) links. To validate the proposed framework, simulation results are presented and discussed, where the throughput performance as well as the latency/reliability tradeoffs of the proposed approach are assessed and compared with several baseline approaches recently proposed in the literature. The results obtained in this paper show performance gains of 25% in reliability and delay for ultra-dense vehicular scenarios with 50% more active V2V links than the baselines. These results shed light on the operational limits and practical feasibility of mmWave bands, as a viable radio access solution for future high-rate V2V communications.
Autors: Cristina Perfecto;Javier Del Ser;Mehdi Bennis;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 35, issue:9, pages: 2148 - 2162
Publisher: IEEE
 
» MIMO Detection With Imperfect Channel State Information Using Expectation Propagation
Abstract:
Expectation propagation (EP) has been recently proposed as a low-complexity algorithm for symbol detection in massive MIMO systems, where its performance is evaluated on the premise that perfect channel state information (CSI) is available at the receiver. However, in practical systems, exact CSI is not available due to a variety of reasons including channel estimation errors, quantization errors, and aging. In this paper, we study the performance of EP in the presence of imperfect CSI due to channel estimation errors and show that in this case, the EP detector experiences significant performance loss. Moreover, the EP detector shows a higher sensitivity to channel estimation errors in the high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regions, where the rate of its performance improvement decreases. We investigate this behavior of the EP detector and propose a modified EP detector for colored noise, which utilizes the correlation matrix of the channel estimation error. Simulation results verify that the modified algorithm is robust against imperfect CSI and that its performance is significantly improved over the EP algorithm, particularly in the higher SNR regions and that for the modified detector, the slope of the symbol error rate (SER) versus SNR plots are similar to the case of perfect CSI.
Autors: Kamran Ghavami;Mort Naraghi-Pour;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 66, issue:9, pages: 8129 - 8138
Publisher: IEEE
 
» MIMO Terminal Performance Evaluation With a Novel Wireless Cable Method
Abstract:
Conventional conductive method, where antennas on the device under test (DUT) are disconnected from antenna ports and replaced with radio frequency (RF) coaxial cables, has been dominantly utilized in industry to evaluate multiple-input multiple-output capable terminals. However, direct RF cable connection introduces many practical problems and a radiated method to replace cable connection is highly desirable. Existing wireless cable method relies on the knowledge of a transfer matrix between the channel emulator (CE) output ports and DUT antenna ports, and also requires an anechoic chamber, which might be impractical and expensive. In this paper, a novel wireless cable method is proposed and experimentally validated. By recording the average power (i.e., reference signal received power in the long-term evolution) per DUT antenna port and selecting optimal complex weights at the CE output ports, a wireless cable connection can be achieved. The proposed method can be executed in a small RF shielded anechoic box and offers low system cost, high measurement reliability, and repeatability.
Autors: Wei Fan;Pekka Kyösti;Lassi Hentilä;Gert Frølund Pedersen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 65, issue:9, pages: 4803 - 4814
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Miniaturized Dipolar Patch Antenna With Narrow Meandered Slotline for UHF Tag
Abstract:
A compact dipolar patch, which has a dimension of , is designed for mounting on metal. The proposed antenna consists of a dipolar patch which is split by a narrow meandered slot into two halves. The narrow meandered slot is highly reactive and it is instrumental for scaling down the tag resonant frequency. Most importantly, the narrow slot does not affect the radiation characteristics of the patch resonator much, making the resonant frequency lower. In the design, the patches are stub-shorted to ground, where two inductive thin stubs are used for frequency adjustment. A simple equivalent circuit has been derived for studying the tag impedance characteristics. The proposed tag antenna can be read from beyond 4.5 m (at effective isotropic radiated power of 4 W) on metal. It can also be read from at least 2 m when used for dielectrics with in the range of 1–12.
Autors: Fwee-Leong Bong;Eng-Hock Lim;Fook-Loong Lo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 65, issue:9, pages: 4435 - 4442
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Minimax Robust Hypothesis Testing
Abstract:
Minimax robust hypothesis testing is studied for the cases where the collected data samples are corrupted by outliers and are mismodeled due to modeling errors. For the former case, Huber’s clipped likelihood ratio test is introduced and analyzed. For the latter case, first, a robust hypothesis testing scheme based on the Kullback–Leibler divergence is designed. This approach generalizes a previous work by Levy. Second, Dabak and Johnson’s asymptotically robust test is introduced, and other possible designs based on -divergences are investigated. All proposed and analyzed robust tests are extended to fixed sample size and sequential probability ratio tests. Simulations are provided to exemplify and evaluate the theoretical derivations.
Autors: Gökhan Gül;Abdelhak M. Zoubir;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 63, issue:9, pages: 5572 - 5587
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Minimum Backups for Stream Processing With Recovery Latency Guarantees
Abstract:
The stream processing model continuously processes online data in an on-pass fashion that can be more vulnerable to failures than other big-data processing schemes. Existing fault-tolerant (FT) approaches have been presented to enhance the reliability of stream processing systems. However, the fundamental tradeoff between recovery latency and FT overhead is still unclear, so these scheme cannot provide recovery latency guarantees. This paper introduces the FT Configuration (FTC) problem and presents a solution for guaranteed recovery latency with minimum backups. A failure effect model is presented to describe the relationship between recovery latency and FTC (the amount and locations of backups). With this model, we design an algorithm to compute FTCs for different types of stream topologies according to recovery latency requirements. Extensive experiments are conducted to verify the correctness and effectiveness of our approach. We prove that our algorithm guarantees recovery latencies for all directed acyclic graph (DAG) stream topologies. For line(s) and tree topologies, our algorithm solves the FTC problem with a time complexity of . For a general DAG topology, a heuristic function is used to generate FTCs. This causes fewer than 10% more backups on average compared to the optimal solution with a time complexity of .
Autors: Hongliang Li;Jie Wu;Zhen Jiang;Xiang Li;Xiaohui Wei;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Reliability
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 66, issue:3, pages: 783 - 794
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Mining Competitors from Large Unstructured Datasets
Abstract:
In any competitive business, success is based on the ability to make an item more appealing to customers than the competition. A number of questions arise in the context of this task: how do we formalize and quantify the competitiveness between two items? Who are the main competitors of a given item? What are the features of an item that most affect its competitiveness? Despite the impact and relevance of this problem to many domains, only a limited amount of work has been devoted toward an effective solution. In this paper, we present a formal definition of the competitiveness between two items, based on the market segments that they can both cover. Our evaluation of competitiveness utilizes customer reviews, an abundant source of information that is available in a wide range of domains. We present efficient methods for evaluating competitiveness in large review datasets and address the natural problem of finding the top-k competitors of a given item. Finally, we evaluate the quality of our results and the scalability of our approach using multiple datasets from different domains.
Autors: George Valkanas;Theodoros Lappas;Dimitrios Gunopulos;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 29, issue:9, pages: 1971 - 1984
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Mission Critical Analysis and Design of IGBT-Based Power Converters Applied to Mine Hoist Systems
Abstract:
Mine hoist systems play a vital role in gold ore transportation. They are the connection between the underground mine and the beneficiation plant. As a result, any hoist system interruption compromises the production. In this paper, it is proposed a mission critical analysis and design methodology for power converters in order to achieve proper reliability of the hoist drive system. Since the failure of power devices is responsible for a significant portion of the total downtime of power converters, a detailed study of the insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) power modules lifetime is carried out. The three level neutral-point-clamped and Active Neutral Point Clamped (ANPC) IGBT-based topologies are considered for this application. The recently presented Fault-Tolerant (FT)-ANPC converter is proposed as a higher reliability solution leading to longer power modules and drive system lifetimes. All the studies are based on practical operating data from a 900-m deep shaft hoist system operating in a gold mine in southeastern Brazil.
Autors: Victor de Nazareth Ferreira;Gabriel Alves Mendonça;Anderson Vagner Rocha;Robson Silva Resende;Braz de Jesus Cardoso Filho;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 53, issue:5, pages: 5096 - 5104
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Mitigation Method of the Shaft Voltage According to Parasitic Capacitance of the PMSM
Abstract:
This study proposes the shaft voltage mitigation method according to change in parasitic capacitances of a permanent magnet synchronous motor. To consider the shaft voltage reduction in the initial motor design process without any filter, the parasitic capacitances affecting the shaft voltage are calculated using the motor geometry parameters. Then, the shaft voltage is analyzed according to change in parasitic capacitances using the equivalent circuit model and the torque characteristic is also analyzed to effectively mitigate the shaft voltage. As a result, the rotor-to-winding is determined as an appropriate parameter to mitigate the shaft voltage among the parasitic capacitances, because it affects the shaft voltage and does not affect the output torque. Finally, the shaft voltage mitigation method according to variation of rotor-to-winding capacitance is verified by experiment.
Autors: Jun-kyu Park;Thusitha Randima Wellawatta;Sung-Jin Choi;Jin Hur;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 53, issue:5, pages: 4441 - 4449
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Mixed Channel Traffic Grooming for IP Over EON with SBPP-Based Cross-Layer Protection
Abstract:
We consider mixed channel traffic grooming in a shared backup path protected IP over elastic optical network (EON) and develop an auxiliary graph-based heuristic algorithm to share common optical channels between working and protection IP traffic flows. We compare integrated protection (i.e., cross-layer protection capacity sharing) with nonintegrated protection (i.e., overlay protection) to show how cross-layer sharing improves capacity utilization. Using simulations, network performance is evaluated in terms of the maximum number of frequency slots (FSs) used, the spare capacity redundancy, and the number of transponders required for a static traffic demand. For a dynamic traffic demand, the bandwidth blocking probability (BBP) is also obtained. It is found that the proposed mixed channel traffic grooming scheme can reduce both the BBP and the number of transponders required while improving the spectral efficiency compared to a system using dedicated channel traffic grooming. Integrated protection is also found to be more efficient than overlay protection under comparable conditions. We also observe that only a limited number of transponders per node and a limited number of FSs per transponder are sufficient to achieve good performance for an IP over EON with mixed channel traffic grooming and cross-layer spare capacity sharing.
Autors: Fengxian Tang;Weidong Shao;Lian Xiang;Sanjay K. Bose;Gangxiang Shen;
Appeared in: Journal of Lightwave Technology
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 35, issue:18, pages: 3836 - 3848
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Mixed Nonprobabilistic Reliability-Based Optimization Method for Heat Transfer System With Fuzzy and Interval Parameters
Abstract:
By combining the nonprobabilistic reliability theory with optimization design approach, this paper proposes a mixed reliability-based optimization method for the heat transfer system design with both fuzzy and interval parameters in material property, external load, and boundary condition. Fuzzy variables are used to represent subjective uncertainties associated with expert opinions; whereas, interval variables are adopted to quantify objective uncertainties with limited information. Based on the level-cut strategy, the mixed uncertain problem is transformed into a pure interval problem first. Then, a modified reliability analysis method using an interval ranking strategy and integral operation is presented to precisely assess the system safety possibility. Subsequently, a mixed reliability-based optimization model with fuzzy and interval parameters is established, which is a nested optimization problem with huge computational cost. A subinterval perturbation method is eventually presented for temperature field prediction, which can replace the inner loop optimization and improve the computational efficiency. A transient heat conduction example about a three-layer thermal structure verifies the superiority of the proposed model and method for mixed reliability analysis and optimization in practical engineering.
Autors: Chong Wang;Zhiping Qiu;Menghui Xu;Yunlong Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Reliability
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 66, issue:3, pages: 630 - 640
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Mobile Energy Storage Scheduling and Operation in Active Distribution Systems
Abstract:
A mobile (transportable) energy storage system (MESS) can provide various services in distribution systems including load leveling, peak shaving, reactive power support, renewable energy integration, and transmission deferral. Unlike stationary energy storage units, an MESS can move between different buses by a truck to provide different local services within the distribution feeder. This paper proposes a day-ahead energy management system (EMS) for an MESS that aims to minimize the cost of the power imported from the grid. The MESS does not only shift renewable energy power to load peak-hours but also can provide localized reactive power support. Given the day-ahead predictions, the EMS decided the optimal MESS stations in the feeder and the operating power. Next, a particle swarm optimization-based algorithm is developed to tune the moving time of the MESS according to a transit delay model. The applicability of the proposed scheduling and operation algorithms is tested on a typical 41-bus radial feeder.
Autors: Hussein Hassan Abdeltawab;Yasser Abdel-Rady I. Mohamed;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 64, issue:9, pages: 6828 - 6840
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Mobile Flywheel Energy Storage Systems: Determining Rolling Element Bearing Loads to Expand Possibilities
Abstract:
Efficient energy storage is the key to modern hybrid or zero emission vehicles and low carbon mobility in general. Compared to conventional storage technologies like batteries, flywheel energy storage systems (FESSs) offer various theoretical advantages, such as high cycle life, no capacity fade over time, temperature independence, easy determination of state of charge, and complete recyclability. However, the special operating conditions of FESSs-such as vacuum, high rotational speeds, and high gyroscopic reactions, etc.-make bearing design a complex and crucial endeavor. This article describes methods of determining loads for rolling element bearings in automotive FESSs. An overview of FESS technology is given, followed by the discussion of an analytic, numeric, and empiric approach, including a detailed comparison of the different methods. Furthermore, the concept of a test bench investigating flywheel behavior in a resilient mount is described, and its results regarding the design of an FESS-tovehicle mount are discussed in depth.
Autors: Armin Buchroithner;Andreas Brandstatter;Manes Recheis;
Appeared in: IEEE Vehicular Technology Magazine
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 12, issue:3, pages: 83 - 94
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Mobile-Edge Computing Versus Centralized Cloud Computing Over a Converged FiWi Access Network
Abstract:
The advent of Internet of Things and 5G applications renders the need for integration of both centralized cloud computing and emerging mobile-edge computing (MEC) with existing network infrastructures to enhance storage, processing, and caching capabilities in not only centralized but also distributed fashions for supporting both delay-tolerant and mission-critical applications. This paper investigates performance gains of centralized cloud and MEC enabled integrated fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks. A novel unified resource management scheme incorporating both centralized cloud and MEC computation offloading activities into the underlying FiWi dynamic bandwidth allocation process is proposed. Both MEC and cloud traffic are scheduled outside the transmission slot of FiWi traffic by leveraging time division multiple access. An analytical framework is developed to model packet delay, response time efficiency, gain-offload overhead ratio, and communication-to-computation ratio for both cloud and broadband access traffic. In addition, given the importance of reliability in optical backhaul and MEC, this paper develops a probabilistic survivability analysis model to assess the impact of both fiber cuts and MEC server failures. The obtained results demonstrate the feasibility of implementing conventional cloud and MEC in FiWi access networks, without affecting network performance of broadband access traffic.
Autors: Bhaskar Prasad Rimal;Dung Pham Van;Martin Maier;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Network and Service Management
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 14, issue:3, pages: 498 - 513
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Mobility-Aware and Congestion-Relieved Dedicated Path Planning for Group-Based Emergency Guiding Based on Internet of Things Technologies
Abstract:
This paper proposes a group-based framework with dedicated path planning for emergency guiding based on Internet of Things (IoT) technologies. The proposed framework can model the spatiotemporal mobility of indoor people to determine and relieve the congestion of corridors and exits. A dedicated path can be determined to provide the shortest evacuation time for each group of nearby people. The corridor and exit capacities, corridor lengths, clustering motion of a group, concurrent moving of different groups, and up-to-date distribution of group people are considered together to accurately estimate the evacuation time for each group. Based on the estimated evacuation time, evacuation load can be evenly distributed among corridors and exits to alleviate the congestion of all corridors and exits for minimizing total evacuation time. The performance of the proposed framework is evaluated by conducting mathematical analysis and computer simulations, which outperforms existing schemes and can achieve the shortest evacuation time for group-based emergency guiding. In addition, an Android-based prototype with indoor IoT localization technologies is implemented to verify the feasibility of our framework.
Autors: Lien-Wu Chen;Jhen-Jhou Chung;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 18, issue:9, pages: 2453 - 2466
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Model Mis-Specification Analyses of Weibull and Gamma Models Based on One-Shot Device Test Data
Abstract:
Model mis-specification is of great importance in reliability assessment. Different choices of probability models for fitting data may result in substantially different inferential results on some lifetime characteristics of interest. Gamma and Weibull models have been used extensively for modeling lifetime data. Hence, accelerated life models have been developed recently for one-shot device test data under both these models for making inference on mean lifetime as well as the reliability at use level. However, model mis-specification analyses between these two models have not been studied in this context. Here, we examine the effect of model mis-specification between gamma and Weibull models on the likelihood estimation and the inference on the mean lifetime and the reliability at some mission times based on one-shot device test data. Moreover, a distance-based test statistic and the Akaike information criterion as specification tests are studied for the purpose of model validation. A simulation study is carried out to evaluate the bias and coverage probabilities of confidence intervals under model mis-specification. The obtained results reveal that the effect of model mis-specification is negligible only when the sample size is small and when the accelerated and use levels are close, and that the use of specification test is quite important for an accurate reliability assessment.
Autors: Man Ho Ling;Narayanaswamy Balakrishnan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Reliability
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 66, issue:3, pages: 641 - 650
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Model Uncertainty in Accelerated Degradation Testing Analysis
Abstract:
In accelerated degradation testing (ADT), test data from higher than normal stress conditions are used to find stochastic models of degradation, e.g., Wiener process, Gamma process, and inverse Gaussian process models. In general, the selection of the degradation model is made with reference to one specific product and no consideration is given to model uncertainty. In this paper, we address this issue and apply the Bayesian model averaging (BMA) method to constant stress ADT. For illustration, stress relaxation ADT data are analyzed. We also make a simulation study to compare the credibility intervals for single model and BMA. The results show that degradation model uncertainty has significant effects on the quantile lifetime at the use conditions, especially for extreme quantiles. The BMA can well capture this uncertainty and compute compromise credibility intervals with the highest coverage probability at each quantile.
Autors: Le Liu;Xiao-Yang Li;Enrico Zio;Rui Kang;Tong-Min Jiang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Reliability
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 66, issue:3, pages: 603 - 615
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Model Validation of PWM DC–DC Converters
Abstract:
This paper presents hybrid automaton modeling, comparative model validation, and formal verification of stability through reachability analysis of pulse width modulation (PWM) dc–dc converters. Conformance degree provides a measure of closeness between the proposed hybrid automata models and experimental data. Nondeterminism due to variations in circuit parameters is modeled using interval matrices. In direct contrast to the unsound and computationally-intensive Monte Carlo simulation, reachability analysis is introduced to overapproximate the set of reachable states and ensure stable operation of PWM dc–dc converters. Using a 200 W experimental prototype of a buck converter, hybrid automata models of open-loop, and hysteresis-controlled converters are first validated against experimental data using their conformance degrees. Next, converter stability is formally verified through reachability analysis and informally validated using Monte Carlo simulations and experimental results.
Autors: Omar Ali Beg;Houssam Abbas;Taylor T. Johnson;Ali Davoudi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 64, issue:9, pages: 7049 - 7059
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling and Analysis of Lateral Propagation of Surface Acoustic Waves Including Coupling Between Different Waves
Abstract:
This paper discusses lateral propagation of surface acoustic waves (SAWs) in periodic grating structures when two types of SAWs exist simultaneously and are coupled. The thin plate model proposed by the authors is extended to include the coupling between two different SAW modes. First, lateral SAW propagation in an infinitely long periodic grating is modeled and discussed. Then, the model is applied to the Al-grating/42° YX-LiTaO3 (42-LT) substrate structure, and it is shown that the slowness curve shape changes from concave to convex with the Al grating thickness. The transverse responses are also analyzed on an infinitely long interdigital transducer on the structure, and good agreement is achieved between the present and the finite-element method analyses. Finally, SAW resonators are fabricated on the Cu grating/42-LT substrate structure, and it is experimentally verified that the slowness curve shape of the shear horizontal SAW changes with the Cu thickness.
Autors: Benfeng Zhang;Tao Han;Gongbin Tang;Qiaozhen Zhang;Tatsuya Omori;Ken-ya Hashimoto;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 64, issue:9, pages: 1354 - 1360
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling and analysis of watchful sleep mode with different sleep period variation patterns in PON power management
Abstract:
Reducing power consumption in an access network has become an increasingly imperative design goal, due to the fact that information and telecommunication technologies contribute to an increasingly large proportion of greenhouse gas emissions. The passive optical network (PON) is considered as the most attractive and promising technology to provide low-cost services to end users in a power-efficient way due to the passive nature of remote nodes. However, it is necessary to further reduce the energy consumption of PONs, with the wide deployment of PONs and the rapid growth of data transfer rates in PONs. In this paper, we focus on the watchful sleep mode with different sleep period variation patterns for multiple optical network units (ONUs). This is because, in the traditional operational mode, ONUs have to continually listen to and inspect traffic from the OLT and hence always remain active even when there is no/light traffic, which contributes to the majority of energy wastage to the PON. We first modeled the watchful sleep mode based on the Markov chain model in order to analyze the effect of each key parameter on system performances in terms of the energy-saving efficiency and data packet delay. Due to the fact that the sleep state is the key to power-saving, we designed four different sleep period variation patterns (e.g., constant, linear_1, linear_2, and exponential patterns) to study the impact of these different patterns on the integrated performance in terms of the normalized cost value. Through extensive simulations, we found that, in the watchful sleep mode, the effect of the number (n) of (sleep, listen) state pairs would be insignificant, and the effects of other parameters on the performances are analyzed comprehensively. The minimum normalized cost value can be obtained under the four different sleep period variation patterns, which represent the optimal trade-off between the above two conflicting performances indexes.
Autors: Min Zhu;Xiaobo Zeng;Yang Lin;Xiaohan Sun;
Appeared in: IEEE/OSA Journal of Optical Communications and Networking
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 9, issue:9, pages: 803 - 812
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling and Assessment Analysis of Various Compensation Topologies in Bidirectional IWPT System for EV Applications
Abstract:
Electric vehicle (EV) can act as an energy consuming device or a distributed energy resource in the concepts known as vehicle-to-grid (V2G) and grid-to-vehicle (G2V). The bidirectional wireless power interface is a successful choice for this application, since it provides automatic, reliable, and safe operation. Therefore, this paper presents modeling and assessment analysis for the steady-state performance of bidirectional inductive wireless power transfer system (BIWPTS) in EV implementations. The analysis is presented for the three main compensation configurations: LC-series, LC-parallel, and LCL-topology. Moreover, the steady-state equivalent circuit-based mathematical models for all topologies are developed. These models were used to precisely determine the system response during V2G and G2V operations based on Fourier series. The study presents evident criteria to pick among the different BIWPTS structures in the diverse applications. The proposed analyses were verified both in simulation and experiment. The results demonstrate the ability of the proposed models to provide accurate estimation for BIWPTS performance under various operating and control conditions. Also, the evaluation analysis shows that LCL-topology is more appropriate for the bidirectional operation due to the simple design and control requirements, and being less sensitive to the misalignment.
Autors: Ahmed A. S. Mohamed;Alberto Berzoy;Felipe G. N. de Almeida;Osama Mohammed;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 53, issue:5, pages: 4973 - 4984
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling and Characterization of Downwind Tower Shadow Effects Using a Wind Turbine Emulator
Abstract:
This paper presents the modeling and characterization of the tower shadow effects using a wind turbine emulator in a laboratory environment. In particular, the downwind wind turbines are considered here as their tower shadow effects are more significant compared to the upwind counterpart. Simulation and experimental results have shown that the wind speed deficit due to this nonideal effect is significant. In addition, the tower shadow effects occur typically two to three times per revolution, depending on the number of blades. The modeling of the tower shadow profiles for tubular and four-leg tower configurations is presented. Typically, these towers are used in small wind turbine applications. The tower shadow profiles are emulated experimentally using a wind turbine emulator with its characteristics being explained. The limitations of emulating the tower shadow effects using a wind turbine emulator are demonstrated through the frequency response test performed in this study. In this study, the wind turbine emulator is connected to an isolated grid which is formed by three single-phase inverters. Finally, this paper concludes with a sensitivity analysis of the power oscillations for different widths and magnitudes of the tower shadow profile.
Autors: Leong Kit Gan;Jonathan K. H. Shek;Markus A. Mueller;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 64, issue:9, pages: 7087 - 7097
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling and Control of Stochastic Systems With Poorly Known Dynamics
Abstract:
This paper is concerned with controlling poorly known systems, for which only a simplified and rough model is available for control design. There are many systems that cannot be reasonably probed for the sake of identification, yet they are important for areas such as economy, populations, or medicine. The ideas are developed around an alternative way to account for the bare modeling in a stochastic-based setting, and to heighten the control features for such a modified model. The mathematical framework for the optimal control reveals important features such as the raising of a precautionary feedback policy of “keep the action unchanged” (inaction for short), on a certain state-space region. This feature is not seen in the robust approach, but has been pointed out and permeates part of the economics literature. The control problem relies on the viscosity solution for the Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman equation, and the value of the problem is shown to be convex. When specialized to the quadratic problem with discounted cost, the exact solution inside the inaction region is given by a Lyapunov type of equation, and asymptotically, for large state values, by a Riccati-like equation. This scenario bridges to the stochastic stability analysis for the controlled model. The single control input is developed in full, part analytically, part numerically, for the scalar case, and an approximation is tested for the multidimensional case. The advantage of the precautionary policy is substantial in some situations.
Autors: João B. R. do Val;Rafael F. Souto;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 62, issue:9, pages: 4467 - 4482
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling and Control of Three-Phase Grid-Connected Power Supply With a Small DC-Link Capacitor for Electrolyzers
Abstract:
In this paper, a new feed forward dc-link voltage compensation method is proposed. The target applications are the converters built with diode bridge frontends, small capacitance in the dc-link which feeds a dc/dc converter used for electrolysis. The compensation method can be tuned in a way to minimize the grid side total harmonic distortion (THD) and partial weighted harmonic distortion (PWHD): thus, the converter can comply with the standards with less filtering at the grid side. In order to design the controllers and perform stability analysis, average model has been derived. However, the performance of the proposed control method is a trade-off between the size of the line filter, the value of the line current THD and PWHD, and the amplitude of the load current ripple. The theoretical work has been validated through experiments on a 5 kW dc power supply used for an electrolyzer. In the experiments, the THD of the grid current can be reduced from 30.5% to 29.5% (without filter and including compensation) and 28.5% (with filter and compensation), and the PWHD from 50% to 38.9% by applying the proposed method and also keeping the load current peak-to-peak ripple under 10% of its nominal value.
Autors: Lajos Török;Laszlo Mathe;Carsten Karup Nielsen;Stig Munk-Nielsen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 53, issue:5, pages: 4634 - 4643
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling and Resonance Control of Modular Three-Level Shunt Active Power Filter
Abstract:
Compared with the conventional central shunt active power filter (SAPF), modular designed SAPF can track the harmonics more precisely and quickly with a compact and expandable structure, which makes it a better solution for harmonic mitigation. But there are very few paper discussed about the modeling and parallel resonance issues of modular SAPF parallel system. This paper provides a modeling of three-level SAPF, aiming to guide the modular design and research the parallel resonance control method. First, a simplified modular three-level SAPF modeling is proposed based on averaging impedance modeling and small signal linearization techniques. Then, the coupling issues between modules are researched, and a self-adaptive active damping method is proposed to suppress the system resonance. Based on the modeling results, an improved three-level SAPF module topology is proposed to construct the modular system. The theoretical analysis and experimental results verify that the module topology improvement together with the damping strategy can promise the compensating bandwidth, reliability, and fast, precise harmonics tracking ability.
Autors: Ling Feng;Yong Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 64, issue:9, pages: 7478 - 7486
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling and Stability Analysis of DC-Link Voltage Control in Multi-VSCs With Integrated to Weak Grid
Abstract:
This paper contributes to giving physical insights into stability of DC-link voltage control in multi-wind turbines integrated to weak grid. Wind farm stability operation will suffer from integrating to weak AC grid, due to strong coupling between the wind turbines control and grid dynamics. Multi-VSCs model is presented for DC-link voltage control stability analysis with effect of coupling among VSCs and grid strength. Based on the model, self-impact components and interaction-impact components are presented to study interactions among VSCs. Impacts of VSCs interactions on stability of DC-link voltage control are studied by investigating self-impact and interaction-impact components variations with considering grid strength, operating point and control loop bandwidth. It is found that interactions between VSC1 and VSC2 become more serious with decline of grid strength, decaying stability of VSCs. Theoretical analysis is verified with simulation of two parallel wind turbines connected to weak grid.
Autors: Yunhui Huang;Dong Wang;Lei Shang;Guorong Zhu;Haiyan Tang;Yan Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 32, issue:3, pages: 1127 - 1138
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling Electrode Place Discrimination in Cochlear Implant Stimulation
Abstract:
Objective: By modeling the cochlear implant (CI) electrode-to-nerve interface and quantifying electrode discriminability in the model, we address the questions of how many individual channels can be distinguished by CI recipients and the extent to which performance might be improved by inserting electrodes deeper into the cochlea. Method: We adapt an artificial neural network to model electrode discrimination as well as a commonly used psychophysical measure (four-interval forced-choice) in CI stimulation and predict how well the locations of the stimulating electrodes can be inferred from simulated auditory nerve spiking patterns. Results: We show that a longer electrode leads to better electrode place discrimination in our model. For a simulated four-interval forced-choice procedure, correct classification rates significantly reduce with decreasing distance between the test electrodes and the reference electrodes, and higher correct classification rates may be achieved by the basal electrodes than apical electrodes. Conclusion: Our results suggest that enhanced electrode discriminability results from a longer CI electrode array, and the locations where the errors occur along the electrode array are not only affected by the distance between electrodes but also the twirling angle between electrodes. Significance: Our models and simulations provide theoretical insights into several important clinically relevant problems that will inform future designs of CI electrode arrays and stimulation strategies.
Autors: Xiao Gao;David B. Grayden;Mark D. McDonnell;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 64, issue:9, pages: 2219 - 2229
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling Information Diffusion over Social Networks for Temporal Dynamic Prediction
Abstract:
Modeling the process of information diffusion is a challenging problem. Although numerous attempts have been made in order to solve this problem, very few studies are actually able to simulate and predict temporal dynamics of the diffusion process. In this paper, we propose a novel information diffusion model, namely GT model, which treats the nodes of a network as intelligent and rational agents and then calculates their corresponding payoffs, given different choices to make strategic decisions. By introducing time-related payoffs based on the diffusion data, the proposed GT model can be used to predict whether or not the user's behaviors will occur in a specific time interval. The user’s payoff can be divided into two parts: social payoff from the user’s social contacts and preference payoff from the user’s idiosyncratic preference. We here exploit the global influence of the user and the social influence between any two users to accurately calculate the social payoff. In addition, we develop a new method of presenting social influence that can fully capture the temporal dynamics of social influence. Experimental results from two different datasets, Sina Weibo and Flickr demonstrate the rationality and effectiveness of the proposed prediction method with different evaluation metrics.
Autors: Dong Li;Shengping Zhang;Xin Sun;Huiyu Zhou;Sheng Li;Xuelong Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 29, issue:9, pages: 1985 - 1997
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling of DFIG-Based WTs for Small-Signal Stability Analysis in DVC Timescale in Power Electronized Power Systems
Abstract:
This paper presents a dynamic modeling methodology of a DFIG-based wind turbine (WT) for small-signal stability analysis in DC-link voltage control (DVC) timescale in power electronized power systems. The DVC timescale (around 100 ms) is determined by DVC, terminal voltage control, active power control, and phase-locked loop in DFIG WT. Motion equation concept is introduced and extended to describe DFIG WT external characteristics in the concerned timescale. The relation between the active/reactive power imbalances and phase/magnitude dynamics of defined synthetic internal voltage (inner potential) vector are developed. The model in DVC timescale is similar to synchronous generator rotor motion equation that is in electromechanical timescale (around 1 s) and familiar to power engineers. With the developed model, characteristics of equivalent inertia, damping and synchronizing coefficients of DFIG WT in DVC timescale can be understood, and the dynamic interactions among multiple DFIG WTs, as well as between DFIG WT and other grid-connected devices in DVC timescale can be fully interpreted. Comparisons of eigenvalues show that the proposed model can hold the main behaviors of concern. Applications on the stability analyses of DFIG WT interconnected with VSC-HVDC system and two-DFIG WT system are taken as examples to validate the feasibility of the proposed model.
Autors: Jiabing Hu;Hao Yuan;Xiaoming Yuan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 32, issue:3, pages: 1151 - 1165
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling of Grid-Connected VSCs for Power System Small-Signal Stability Analysis in DC-Link Voltage Control Timescale
Abstract:
With the increasing use of voltage source converters (VSCs) in power electronics dominated power systems, oscillation phenomena in DC-link voltage control (DVC) timescale (around 10 Hz) among multiple VSCs have occurred. Several studies have tried to analyze these oscillation problems, but all associated with the single VSC situation. To consider the dynamic interactions between VSCs in DVC timescale, especially in the weak grid condition, this paper presents a small-signal model to understand VSC external characteristics based on motion equation concept also featured in synchronous generator (SG). Comparisons of time-domain simulation responses and eigenvalues show that the proposed model can hold the main behaviors of concern. The form of the model is very similar to the rotor motion equation in SG, with which power engineers have been very familiar. In addition, by establishing the relationship between the unbalanced powers and state variables of internal voltage (viz., VSC output voltage), the modeling idea introduced in this paper can be applied to other power electronic devices.
Autors: Hao Yuan;Xiaoming Yuan;Jiabing Hu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 32, issue:5, pages: 3981 - 3991
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling of Magnetoelectric Effects in Magnetostrictive/Piezoelectric Laminated Composites Using the Energy Method
Abstract:
The current models of the resonant magnetoelectric (ME) effect are based on Newton’s equation of motion and some given conditions which are various in published papers. Even some results are in conflict with Gauss’s law in magnetics. This paper provides the energy method to model ME effects. The energy method is based on linear constitutive equations and the principle of minimum energy. By constructing and solving the constraint problem of the variational principle, more reasonable conditions are deduced for simplifying Newton’s motion equation. The induced additional fields of externally applied fields are considered during the process of deducing by Gauss’s law for electricity or magnetism. The coefficients of direct/converse ME effects are obtained and compared with the models in the previous papers. The proposed model avoids conflict with Gauss’s law and provides another insight into understanding the resonant and static ME effects.
Autors: Jianzhong Li;Yumei Wen;Ping Li;Jin Yang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 53, issue:9, pages: 1 - 6
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling of Short-Circuit-Related Thermal Stress in Aged IGBT Modules
Abstract:
In this paper, the thermal stress on bond wires of aged insulated gate bipolar transistor modules under short-circuit conditions has been studied with respect to different solder delamination levels. To ensure repeatable test conditions, ad-hoc direct bond copper samples with delaminated solder layers have been purposely fabricated. The temperature distribution produced by such abnormal conditions has been modeled first by means of finite-element method simulations and then experimentally validated by means of a nondestructive testing technique, including an ultrafast infrared camera. Results demonstrate a significant imbalance in the surface temperature distribution, which confirms the hypothesis that short-circuit events produce significantly uneven stresses on bond wires.
Autors: Amir Sajjad Bahman;Francesco Iannuzzo;Christian Uhrenfeldt;Frede Blaabjerg;Stig Munk-Nielsen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 53, issue:5, pages: 4788 - 4795
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modified pq-Theory-Based Control of Solar-PV-Integrated UPQC-S
Abstract:
This paper proposes a modified pq-theory-based control of a solar photovoltaic (PV)-array-integrated unified power quality conditioner (PV-UPQC-S). The system incorporates clean energy generation along with power quality improvement, thus increasing functionality of the system. The fundamental-frequency positive-sequence components of voltages at the point of common coupling (PCC) are extracted using the generalized cascaded delay signal cancellation technique, which are then used in pq-theory-based control to estimate reference signals for the PV-UPQC-S. This modification in pq theory enables its application for PV-UPQC-S control under conditions of distorted PCC voltages. The series voltage-source converter (VSC) of the PV-UPQC-S operates such that it shares a part of the reactive power of the load even under nominal grid conditions. This increases the utilization of the series VSC while reducing the rating of shunt VSC. The PV array is integrated at the dc bus of the UPQC and provides a part of active load power, thus reducing demand on the supply system. The dynamic performance of the modified pq-theory-based PV-UPQC-S is verified by simulating the system in MATLAB-Simulink with a combination of linear and nonlinear loads. The steady-state and dynamic performances of the system are then experimentally validated through extensive testing on a scaled-down laboratory prototype.
Autors: Sachin Devassy;Bhim Singh;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 53, issue:5, pages: 5031 - 5040
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modified Current Injection Method for Power Flow Analysis in Heavy-Meshed DC Railway Networks With Nonreversible Substations
Abstract:
This paper proposes a Modified Current Injection method for power flow analysis, bespoke for the specific features of dc traction networks. It introduces major contributions when compared with the state-of the-art solution. In addition to simulating the nonlinear and nonsmooth behavior of the trains, the proposed algorithm can simulate reversible IGBT-based and nonreversible diode-based substations present in the system. These latter substations are the most common type and they supply unidirectional power flow from the ac distribution network to the dc traction subsystem. Depending on the voltage level at the dc side, the substations will be either blocked or conducting. This nonlinear behavior increases significantly the system complexity. Another key aspect of the proposed method is that it is also valid for heavily meshed networks. Even when the dc systems are usually radial or weakly meshed, the connections between the dc and the ac systems create multiple meshes, increasing the network topological complexity. In order to validate the performance of the proposed solution, the behavior of the algorithm is compared with the conventional derivative-based Trust Region Dogleg and the backward/forward sweep algorithm. This comparison shows convergence and speed improvements in the performance of the proposed algorithm.
Autors: Bassam Mohamed;Pablo Arboleya;Cristina González-Morán;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 66, issue:9, pages: 7688 - 7696
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modified Trust Region Algorithm for Dispersion Optimization of Photonic Crystal Fibers
Abstract:
In this paper, a modified derivative-free surrogate-based trust region optimization algorithm is proposed for optimizing the dispersion properties of photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) for the first time to the best of our knowledge. The modal analysis of the PCF is made using the full vectorial finite difference method with perfect matched layer boundary condition. The numerical results are compared with another trust region algorithm and other metaheuristic techniques to show the strength of the reported technique. Further, the modified algorithm is also used to achieve a nearly ultra-flattened zero dispersion over a wide range of wavelengths from 1.45 μm to 1.6 μm using an index guiding soft glass PCF selectively infiltrated with a nematic liquid crystal. In order to show the strength of the reported algorithm, a highly negative flat dispersion compensation PCF is also designed over wavelength range from 1.4 μm to 1.6 μm. Such a design has a negative dispersion of -155 ± 0.5 ps/Km·nm over the studied wavelength range. The trust region algorithms show a strong potential as an efficient tool for the design and optimization of different photonic devices. Further, these algorithms can be used as powerful techniques for solving the inverse problems.
Autors: Mohamed Farhat O. Hameed;Abdel-karim S. O. Hassan;Ahmed E. Elqenawy;Salah S. A. Obayya;
Appeared in: Journal of Lightwave Technology
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 35, issue:17, pages: 3810 - 3818
Publisher: IEEE
 
» MODIS Aqua Optical Throughput Degradation Impact on Relative Spectral Response and Calibration of Ocean Color Products
Abstract:
Since Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Aqua’s launch in 2002, the radiometric system gains of the reflective solar bands have been degrading, indicating changes in the system’s optical throughput. To estimate the optical throughput degradation, the electronic gain changes were estimated and removed from the measured system gain. The derived optical throughput degradation shows a rate that is much faster in the shorter wavelengths than the longer wavelengths. The wavelength-dependent optical throughput degradation modulated the relative spectral response (RSR) of the bands. In addition, the optical degradation is also scan angle-dependent due to large changes in response versus the scan angle over time. We estimated the modulated RSR as a function of time and scan angles and its impacts on sensor radiometric calibration for the ocean science. Our results show that the calibration bias could be up to 1.8% for band 8 (412 nm) due to its larger out-of-band response. For the other ocean bands, the calibration biases are much smaller with magnitudes at least one order smaller.
Autors: Shihyan Lee;Gerhard Meister;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 55, issue:9, pages: 5214 - 5219
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modulated Predictive Control for Indirect Matrix Converter
Abstract:
Finite state model predictive control (MPC) has been recently applied to several converter topologies, as it can provide many advantages over other MPC techniques. The advantages of MPC include fast dynamics, multitarget control capability, and relatively easy implementation on digital control platforms. However, its inherent variable switching frequency and lower steady-state waveform quality with respect to standard control, which includes an appropriate modulation technique, represent a limitation to its applicability. Modulated model predictive control (M2 PC) combines all the advantages of MPC with the fixed switching frequency characteristic of pulse-width modulation algorithms. The work presented in this paper focuses on the indirect matrix converter (IMC), where the tight coupling between rectifier stage and inverter stage has to be taken into account in the M2PC design. This paper proposes an M2PC solution, suitable for IMC, with a switching pattern that emulates the desired waveform quality features of space vector modulation for matrix converters. The switching sequences of the rectifier stage and inverter stage are rearranged in order to always achieve zero-current switching on the rectifier stage, thus simplifying the current commutation strategy.
Autors: Luca Tarisciotti;Jiaxing Lei;Andrea Formentini;Andrew Trentin;Pericle Zanchetta;Patrick Wheeler;Marco Rivera;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 53, issue:5, pages: 4644 - 4654
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modulation Technique for Single-Phase Transformerless Photovoltaic Inverters With Reactive Power Capability
Abstract:
This paper underpins the principles for generating reactive power in single-phase transformerless photovoltaic (PV) inverters. Two mainstream and widely adopted PV inverters are explored, i.e., H5 and HERIC. With conventional modulation techniques, reactive power cannot be realized in H5 and HERIC due to the absence of freewheeling path in negative power region. Based on the study, modulation techniques are proposed to provide bidirectional current path during freewheeling period. With proposed modulation technique, reactive power control is achieved in H5 and HERIC inverters, without any modification on the converter structures. The performances of the proposed modulation techniques are studied via MATLAB simulation and further validated with experimental results.
Autors: Tan Kheng Suan Freddy;June-Hee Lee;Hyun-Cheol Moon;Kyo-Beum Lee;Nasrudin Abd Rahim;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 64, issue:9, pages: 6989 - 6999
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Monitoring and Mitigation of Ionospheric Anomalies for GNSS-Based Safety Critical Systems: A review of up-to-date signal processing techniques
Abstract:
The ionosphere has been the most challenging source of error to mitigate within the community of global navigation satellite system (GNSS)-based safety-critical systems. Users of those systems should be assured that the difference between an unknown true position and a system-derived position estimate is bounded with an extremely high degree of confidence. One of the major concerns for meeting this requirement, known as integrity, is ionosphere-induced error or discontinuity of GNSS signals significant enough to threaten the safety of users. The potentially hazardous ionospheric anomalies of interest in this article are ionospheric spatial decorrelation and ionospheric scintillation under disturbed conditions. As the demand of safety-critical navigation applications increases with the rapid growth of the autonomous vehicle sector, ionospheric monitoring and mitigation techniques become more important to support such systems.
Autors: Jiyun Lee;Y.T. Jade Morton;Jinsil Lee;Hee-Seung Moon;Jiwon Seo;
Appeared in: IEEE Signal Processing Magazine
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 34, issue:5, pages: 96 - 110
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Monitoring of Corrosion-Induced Degradation in Prestressed Concrete Structure Using Embedded Piezoceramic-Based Transducers
Abstract:
Corrosion-induced cracking in prestressed concrete elements has been one of the most dominant factors that can cause the deterioration of concrete structures. Since most of the corrosion-induced cracks in their early age are invisible, qualitative and quantitative estimation of the corrosion-induced damage is not applicable before surface cracks can be observed. In this paper, the authors present a stress wave-based active sensing approach using embedded piezoceramic-based transducers to monitor the corrosion-induced degradation in prestressed concrete structures. Two concrete beams each mounted with two corrosion tanks were fabricated; one beam was embedded with a pretensioned strand and the other one with an untensioned strand. Two different corrosion rates were also considered in the accelerated corrosion process to verify the reliability and sensitivity of the approach. The characteristics of the propagating stress wave between a pair of embedded piezoceramic-based transducers were highly influenced by the concrete condition on the wave path. The received signals were analyzed in time domain, frequency domain, and through the wavelet packet-based energy index. Experimental results show that the received signal energy slightly increases in the initial corrosion stage due to the internal expansion pressure caused by the corrosion products. Subsequently, with the occurrence and the development of the corrosion-induced cracks, the energy of the received signal decreases as the corrosion damage develops. When the corrosion process almost completes, the energy of the received signal becomes stable. The experimental results show that the developed piezoceramic-based active sensing approach can monitor the corrosion-induced degradation and estimate the progress of the corrosion process in real time, and has potentials to provide early warning of the initial corrosion occurrence for prestressed concrete structures.
Autors: Tianyong Jiang;Qingzhao Kong;Zhong Peng;Lei Wang;Lizhao Dai;Qian Feng;Linsheng Huo;Gangbing Song;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 17, issue:18, pages: 5823 - 5830
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Monolithic Add–Drop Multiplexers in Fused Silica Fabricated by Femtosecond Laser Direct Writing
Abstract:
The fabrication of optical add-drop multiplexers in fused silica is demonstrated, for the first time to our knowledge, using the femtosecond laser direct writing technique. To achieve this, a Mach-Zehnder interferometer configuration was used for the signal routing by the implementation of 3-dB directional couplers, along with Bragg grating waveguides for wavelength selectivity. The fabrication of all individual devices required was optimized. The behavior of the fabricated add-drop multiplexer was characterized at around 1550 nm, where a 3-dB bandwidth of 0.19 ± 0.01 nm was obtained along with an intrachannel and adjacent interchannel crosstalk of -30 and -20 dB at Δλ = ± 0.75 nm, respectively. This study shows that such complex devices can be manufactured by femtosecond laser direct writing, with future improvements being discussed.
Autors: Vítor A. Amorim;João M. Maia;D. Alexandre;P. V. S. Marques;
Appeared in: Journal of Lightwave Technology
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 35, issue:17, pages: 3615 - 3621
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Monolithic Three-Dimensional 65-nm CMOS-Nanoelectromechanical Reconfigurable Logic for Sub-1.2-V Operation
Abstract:
Monolithic three-dimensional (M3D) CMOS-nanoelectromechanical (CMOS-NEM) reconfigurable logic (RL) circuits are experimentally demonstrated. This is the first experimental demonstration of 65-nm M3D CMOS-NEM RL circuits satisfying the 1.2-V supply voltage () requirement of the 65-nm technology node. The fabrication process is identical to the conventional 65-nm CMOS baseline process, in which copper NEM memory switches are formed by a dual damascene process.
Autors: Hyug Su Kwon;Seung Kyu Kim;Woo Young Choi;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 38, issue:9, pages: 1317 - 1320
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Motivating Network Deployment: Vehicular Communications
Abstract:
Many new and promising vehicular communications applications are currently being developed. However, sufficient network resources to support these applications, in terms of equipped vehicles, base stations, and other infrastructure, are simply not yet available and are progressing slowly. In this article, we examine the strengths and uses of dedicated short-range communications (DSRC) and cellular vehicular networks. We then explore strategies, beyond government mandates and subsidies, to encourage vehicular network deployment.
Autors: Tom Glenn McGiffen;Sven Beiker;Arogyaswami Paulraj;
Appeared in: IEEE Vehicular Technology Magazine
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 12, issue:3, pages: 22 - 33
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Movable Noncontact RF Current Measurement on a PCB Trace
Abstract:
This paper develops a movable noncontact probing method of a radio frequency current on a printed trace based on the electromagnetic induction. The current measurement method is validated by comparing a series of reconstructed periodic and pulse currents with those as known input signals on a microstrip line. According to our measurement, the transfer impedance from the current under measurement to the probe has a linear frequency range from 10 MHz to 2.2 GHz. The reconstruction measurement can be achieved even for a random periodic noise with a duration of 1 ns and a single pulse with a rise time of 2 ns. Owing to the flexible relocation of the probe, the measurement accuracy due to the errors of spatial displacement and the probe placement angle is investigated in detail. It is shown that the dynamic parameters of reconstructed current, such as fall time and rise time, are insensitive to the spatial errors, and instead the amplitudes of both periodic and pulse currents are highly sensitive, especially to a horizontal displacement.
Autors: Haimi Qiu;Wenxiao Fang;Yunfei En;Yun Huang;Yuan Liu;Ping Lai;Yiqiang Chen;Chunlei Shi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 66, issue:9, pages: 2464 - 2473
Publisher: IEEE
 
» MoveIt!: Autonomous Underwater Free-Floating Manipulation
Abstract:
Today, autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) are mostly used for survey missions, but many existing applications require manipulation capabilities, such as the maintenance of permanent observatories, submerged oil wells, cabled sensor networks, and pipes; the deployment and recovery of benthic stations; or the search and recovery of black boxes. Currently, these tasks require the use of work-class remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) deployed from vessels equipped with dynamic positioning, leaving such solutions expensive to adopt. To face these challenges during the last 25 years, scientists have researched the idea of increasing the autonomy of underwater intervention systems.
Autors: Dina Youakim;Pere Ridao;Narcis Palomeras;Francesco Spadafora;David Ribas;Maurizio Muzzupappa;
Appeared in: IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 24, issue:3, pages: 41 - 51
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multi-Dielectric Brownian Dynamics and Design-Space-Exploration Studies of Permeation in Ion Channels
Abstract:
This paper proposes a multi-dielectric Brownian dynamics simulation framework for design-space-exploration (DSE) studies of ion-channel permeation. The goal of such DSE studies is to estimate the channel modeling-parameters that minimize the mean-squared error between the simulated and expected “permeation characteristics.” To address this computational challenge, we use a methodology based on statistical inference that utilizes the knowledge of channel structure to prune the design space. We demonstrate the proposed framework and DSE methodology using a case study based on the KcsA ion channel, in which the design space is successfully reduced from a 6-D space to a 2-D space. Our results show that the channel dielectric map computed using the framework matches with that computed directly using molecular dynamics with an error of 7%. Finally, the scalability and resolution of the model used are explored, and it is shown that the memory requirements needed for DSE remain constant as the number of parameters (degree of heterogeneity) increases.
Autors: May Siksik;Vikram Krishnamurthy;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on NanoBioscience
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 16, issue:6, pages: 476 - 490
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multi-Instance Classification by Max-Margin Training of Cardinality-Based Markov Networks
Abstract:
We propose a probabilistic graphical framework for multi-instance learning (MIL) based on Markov networks. This framework can deal with different levels of labeling ambiguity (i.e., the portion of positive instances in a bag) in weakly supervised data by parameterizing cardinality potential functions. Consequently, it can be used to encode different cardinality-based multi-instance assumptions, ranging from the standard MIL assumption to more general assumptions. In addition, this framework can be efficiently used for both binary and multiclass classification. To this end, an efficient inference algorithm and a discriminative latent max-margin learning algorithm are introduced to train and test the proposed multi-instance Markov network models. We evaluate the performance of the proposed framework on binary and multi-class MIL benchmark datasets as well as two challenging computer vision tasks: cyclist helmet recognition and human group activity recognition. Experimental results verify that encoding the degree of ambiguity in data can improve classification performance.
Autors: Hossein Hajimirsadeghi;Greg Mori;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 39, issue:9, pages: 1839 - 1852
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multi-Layer Precoding: A Potential Solution for Full-Dimensional Massive MIMO Systems
Abstract:
Massive MIMO systems achieve high sum spectral efficiency by simultaneously serving large numbers of users. In time division duplexing systems, however, the reuse of uplink training pilots among cells results in channel estimation errors, which causes downlink inter-cell interference. Handling this interference is challenging due to the large channel dimensionality and the high complexity associated with implementing large precoding/combining matrices. In this paper, we propose multi-layer precoding to enable efficient and low-complexity operation in full-dimensional massive MIMO, where a large number of antennas are used in two dimensions. In multi-layer precoding, the precoding matrix of each base station is written as a product of a number of precoding matrices. Multi-layer precoding: 1) leverages the directional characteristics of large-scale MIMO channels to manage inter-cell interference with low channel knowledge requirements and 2) allows for an efficient implementation using hybrid analog/digital architectures. We present and analyze a specific multi-layer precoding design for full-dimensional massive MIMO systems. The asymptotic optimality of the proposed design is then proved for some special yet important channels. Numerical simulations verify the analytical results and illustrate the potential gains of multi-layer precoding compared with other multi-cell precoding solutions.
Autors: Ahmed Alkhateeb;Geert Leus;Robert W. Heath;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 16, issue:9, pages: 5810 - 5824
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multi-Purpose Fully Differential 61- and 122-GHz Radar Transceivers for Scalable MIMO Sensor Platforms
Abstract:
This paper describes a multi-purpose radar system suitable for applications with different requirements on dynamic range, resolution, and miniaturization degree. It utilizes a scalable sensor platform that includes a wideband 30.5-GHz voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) as well as 61- and 122-GHz transceivers (TRXs) in a silicon-germanium BiCMOS technology. The proposed architecture enables the cascading of multiple TRXs and allows the implementation of MIMO radar systems in two different frequency bands by using a single VCO. The higher transmit output power of 11.5 dBm as well as receive gain of 24 dB make the 61-GHz TRX suitable for applications requiring a high dynamic range. The lower wavelength allows the integration of on-chip antennas in the 122-GHz TRX and enables, thus, a high miniaturization degree. The higher LO scaling factor makes the 122-GHz TRX also more attractive for high-resolution applications. A sweep bandwidth of 2.5 GHz generated by the VCO is scaled up to 10 GHz and results in a range resolution of 3 cm. The proposed TRXs are equipped with binary phase shift keying modulators as well as an I/Q receiver and can be utilized to build a flexible software-defined radar platform for range and distant-selective vibration sensors utilizing frequency-modulated continuous wave as well as pseudo-random noise radar techniques.
Autors: Herman Jalli Ng;Maciej Kucharski;Wael Ahmad;Dietmar Kissinger;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 52, issue:9, pages: 2242 - 2255
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multi-Resolution Codebook and Adaptive Beamforming Sequence Design for Millimeter Wave Beam Alignment
Abstract:
Millimeter wave (mm-wave) communication is expected to be widely deployed in fifth generation (5G) wireless networks due to the substantial bandwidth available for licensed and unlicensed use at mm-wave frequencies. To overcome the higher path loss observed at mm-wave bands, most prior work focused on the design of directional beamforming using analog and/or hybrid beamforming techniques in large-scale multiple-input multiple-output systems. Obtaining potential gains from highly directional beamforming in practical systems hinges on sufficient levels of channel estimation accuracy, where the problem of channel estimation becomes more challenging due to the substantial training overhead needed to sound all directions using a high-resolution narrow beam. In this paper, we consider the design of multi-resolution beamforming sequences to enable the system to quickly search out the dominant channel direction for single-path channels. The resulting design generates a multilevel beamforming sequence that strikes a balance between minimizing the training overhead and maximizing beamforming gain, where a subset of multilevel beamforming vectors is chosen adaptively to maximize the average data rate within a constrained time. We propose an efficient method to design a hierarchical multi-resolution codebook utilizing a Butler matrix, i.e., a generalized discrete Fourier transform matrix. Numerical results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
Autors: Song Noh;Michael D. Zoltowski;David J. Love;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 16, issue:9, pages: 5689 - 5701
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multi-Task Rank Learning for Image Quality Assessment
Abstract:
In practice, images are distorted by more than one distortion. For image quality assessment (IQA), existing machine learning (ML)-based methods generally establish a unified model for all the distortion types, or each model is trained independently for each distortion type, which is therefore distortion aware. In distortion-aware methods, the common features among different distortions are not exploited. In addition, there are fewer training samples for each model training task, which may result in overfitting. To address these problems, we propose a multi-task learning framework to train multiple IQA models together, where each model is for each distortion type; however, all the training samples are associated with each model training task. Thus, the common features among different distortion types and the said underlying relatedness among all the learning tasks are exploited, which would benefit the generalization ability of trained models and prevent overfitting possibly. In addition, pairwise image quality ranking instead of image quality rating is optimized in our learning task, which is fundamentally departed from traditional ML-based IQA methods toward better performance. The experimental results confirm that the proposed multi-task rank-learning-based IQA metric is prominent against all state-of-the-art nonreference IQA approaches.
Autors: Long Xu;Jia Li;Weisi Lin;Yongbing Zhang;Lin Ma;Yuming Fang;Yihua Yan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 27, issue:9, pages: 1833 - 1843
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multi-View Surveillance Video Summarization via Joint Embedding and Sparse Optimization
Abstract:
Most traditional video summarization methods are designed to generate effective summaries for single-view videos, and thus, they cannot fully exploit the complicated intra- and inter-view correlations in summarizing multi-view videos in a camera network. In this paper, with the aim of summarizing multi-view videos, we introduce a novel unsupervised framework via joint embedding and sparse representative selection. The objective function is twofold. The first is to capture the multi-view correlations via an embedding, which helps in extracting a diverse set of representatives. The second is to use a -norm to model the sparsity while selecting representative shots for the summary. We propose to jointly optimize both of the objectives, such that embedding can not only characterize the correlations, but also indicate the requirements of sparse representative selection. We present an efficient alternating algorithm based on half-quadratic minimization to solve the proposed non-smooth and non-convex objective with convergence analysis. A key advantage of the proposed approach with respect to the state-of-the-art is that it can summarize multi-view videos without assuming any prior correspondences/alignment between them, e.g., uncalibrated camera networks. Rigorous experiments on several multi-view datasets demonstrate that our approach clearly outperforms the state-of-the-art methods.
Autors: Rameswar Panda;Amit K. Roy-Chowdhury;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Multimedia
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 19, issue:9, pages: 2010 - 2021
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multi-View Unsupervised Feature Selection with Adaptive Similarity and View Weight
Abstract:
With the advent of multi-view data, multi-view learning has become an important research direction in both machine learning and data mining. Considering the difficulty of obtaining labeled data in many real applications, we focus on the multi-view unsupervised feature selection problem. Traditional approaches all characterize the similarity by fixed and pre-defined graph Laplacian in each view separately and ignore the underlying common structures across different views. In this paper, we propose an algorithm named Multi-view Unsupervised Feature Selection with Adaptive Similarity and View Weight (ASVW) to overcome the above mentioned problems. Specifically, by leveraging the learning mechanism to characterize the common structures adaptively, we formulate the objective function by a common graph Laplacian across different views, together with the sparse -norm constraint designed for feature selection. We develop an efficient algorithm to address the non-smooth minimization problem and prove that the algorithm will converge. To validate the effectiveness of ASVW, comparisons are made with some benchmark methods on real-world datasets. We also evaluate our method in the real sports action recognition task. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed algorithm.
Autors: Chenping Hou;Feiping Nie;Hong Tao;Dongyun Yi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 29, issue:9, pages: 1998 - 2011
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multibroker-Based Service Provisioning in Multidomain SD-EONs: Why and How Should the Brokers Cooperate With Each Other?
Abstract:
It is known that software-defined elastic optical networks (SD-EONs) facilitate optical networking that provides better network programmability, more powerful manageability, and more flexible service provisioning capability. Moreover, the hierarchical architecture of multibroker-based multidomain SD-EONs cannot only improve the network scalability but also maintain the autonomy of each administrative domain. In this paper, we study why and how the brokers should cooperate with each other to provision interdomain lightpaths in multibroker-based multidomain SD-EONs. We first formulate a cooperative market in which the brokers negotiate about their market shares (i.e., the opportunities to provision interdomain lightpaths) and seek for a mutual agreement with Nash bargaining [1]. Then, we design a mathematical model to describe the market as well as the brokers' behaviors in it. An effective algorithm is derived from the model to solve the Nash bargaining problem for allocating lightpath requests among the brokers. The proposed algorithm also addresses the resource collision during request provisioning and can achieve collision-free request allocation. Extensive simulations verify the effectiveness of our proposal.
Autors: Lu Sun;Xiaoliang Chen;Zuqing Zhu;
Appeared in: Journal of Lightwave Technology
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 35, issue:17, pages: 3722 - 3733
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multifrequency Experimental Analysis (10 to 77 GHz) on the Asphalt Reflectivity and RCS of FOD Targets
Abstract:
In this letter, a multifrequency experimental analysis is conducted for the estimation of the asphalt reflectivity and for the measurement of the radar cross section of some typical foreign object debris (FOD). The analysis is made with experimental data with a frequency between 10 and 77 GHz, acquired with a vector network analyzer and with-ingegneria dei sistemi 77-GHz radar prototype for FOD Detection. Experimental data acquired in a real operative scenario (runway of Taranto/Grottaglie airport) is also presented. The results show the possibility to detect an FOD target on an airport runway.
Autors: Gaetano Mollo;Rosario Di Napoli;Giuseppe Naviglio;Carmine Di Chiara;Egidio Capasso;Giovanni Alli;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 14, issue:9, pages: 1441 - 1443
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multifrequency Transformer With Arbitrary Frequency and Real Impedance Transform Ratio
Abstract:
In this letter, the modified small reflection theory is further extended to the design of a multifrequency transformer with an arbitrary frequency and real impedance transform ratio, by mapping small reflection coefficients between - and -section transformers. Due to the introduced mapping, the dominated equation of the -section transformer is reduced to that of the -section transformer without introducing an additional matching frequency among the desired frequency ratio range. For verification, a penta-frequency transformer is implemented and measured. The measured results agree closely with the calculated and simulated results.
Autors: Liang Liu;Ronghong Jin;Xianling Liang;Haijun Fan;Wenzhi Wang;Junping Geng;Fuwen Liu;Yifeng Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 27, issue:9, pages: 785 - 787
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multilevel Converter Based on Cascaded Three-Leg Converters with Reduced Voltage and Current
Abstract:
In this paper, a modularity concept using standard three-leg converters is addressed. Three-phase cascaded topologies composed of standard three-leg converters are investigated. They are composed of three, nine, twenty-one, or three-leg converters. It permits the reduction levels of currents and voltages on switches when compared with a conventional three-phase module or a cascaded H-bridge structure. In this way, three-leg cascaded converters are suitable to be applied in scenarios of high current in which other cascaded topologies become less attractive and high voltage. Furthermore, the proposed arrangement brings advantages such as modularity that leads to convenient construction, easy maintenance, and extension to higher voltage and current levels. A dynamic model is developed and a pulse-width modulation strategy is designed to the converter command accordingly with reference voltage. Discussions about fault tolerance and dc-link capacitor currents are also carried out. Comparisons in terms of converter rating, harmonic distortion, and semiconductor power losses between the proposed and conventional cascaded H-bridge topologies have been carried out. Simulation and experimental results are presented as well.
Autors: Edgard Luiz Lopes Fabricio;Cursino Brandão Jacobina;Nady Rocha;Rodrigo Pereira de Lacerda;Maurício Beltrão de Rossiter Corrêa;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 53, issue:5, pages: 4682 - 4694
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multimode Adaptable Microwave Radar Sensor Based on Leaky-Wave Antennas
Abstract:
New research and recent developments in active defense systems represent a promising way to protect military vehicles by detecting and subsequently eliminating threatening missiles with appropriate active counter-measures. Operating these defense systems requires a number of sensors, usually microwave, which must, above all, identify and track the target while generating signals to determine the correct counter-measure reaction. This paper shows that such multifunction and multimode sensors can be designed and implemented using leaky-wave antennas (LWAs). Connected radar circuits often employ a wideband modulation, so an analysis of the influence of the LWAs used on such a modulation is also included. A multimode adaptable pseudonoise radar equipped with LWAs was tested using bullets and live, armed cumulative missiles. The results confirm the functionality of the solutions presented.
Autors: Premysl Hudec;Petr Panek;Vojtech Jenik;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 65, issue:9, pages: 3464 - 3473
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multipartite Entangled States, Symmetric Matrices, and Error-Correcting Codes
Abstract:
A pure quantum state is called -uniform if all its reductions to -qudit are maximally mixed. We investigate the general constructions of -uniform pure quantum states of subsystems with levels. We provide one construction via symmetric matrices and the second one through the classical error-correcting codes. There are three main results arising from our constructions. First, we show that for any given even , there always exists an -uniform -qudit quantum state of level for sufficiently large prime . Second, both constructions show that there exist -uniform -qudit pure quantum states such that is proportional to , i.e., although the construction from symmetric matrices in general outperforms the one by error-correcting codes. Third, our symmetric matrix construction provides a positive answer to the open question on whether - here exists a 3-uniform -qudit pure quantum state for all . In fact, we can further prove that, for every , there exists a constant such that there exists a -uniform -qudit quantum state for all . In addition, by using the concatenation of algebraic geometry codes, we give an explicit construction of -uniform quantum state when tends to infinity.
Autors: Keqin Feng;Lingfei Jin;Chaoping Xing;Chen Yuan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 63, issue:9, pages: 5618 - 5627
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multiple Moving Object Detection From UAV Videos Using Trajectories of Matched Regional Adjacency Graphs
Abstract:
Image registration has been long used as a basis for the detection of moving objects. Registration techniques attempt to discover correspondences between consecutive frame pairs based on image appearances under rigid and affine transformations. However, spatial information is often ignored, and different motions from multiple moving objects cannot be efficiently modeled. Moreover, image registration is not well suited to handle occlusion that can result in potential object misses. This paper proposes a novel approach to address these problems. First, segmented video frames from unmanned aerial vehicle captured video sequences are represented using region adjacency graphs of visual appearance and geometric properties. Correspondence matching (for visible and occluded regions) is then performed between graph sequences by using multigraph matching. After matching, region labeling is achieved by a proposed graph coloring algorithm which assigns a background or foreground label to the respective region. The intuition of the algorithm is that background scene and foreground moving objects exhibit different motion characteristics in a sequence, and hence, their spatial distances are expected to be varying with time. Experiments conducted on several DARPA VIVID video sequences as well as self-captured videos show that the proposed method is robust to unknown transformations, with significant improvements in overall precision and recall compared to existing works.
Autors: Bahareh Kalantar;Shattri Bin Mansor;Alfian Abdul Halin;Helmi Zulhaidi Mohd Shafri;Mohsen Zand;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 55, issue:9, pages: 5198 - 5213
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multiple Particles 3-D Trap Based on All-Fiber Bessel Optical Probe
Abstract:
We propose and demonstrate an all-fiber Bessel optical tweezers for multiple microparticles (yeast cells) three-dimensional (3-D) trap. To the best knowledge of us, it is the first time to achieve the 3-D stable noncontact multiple microparticles optical traps with long distance intervals by using a single all-fiber probe. The Bessel beam is produced by splicing coaxially a single-mode fiber and a step index multimode fiber. The convergence of the output Bessel beam is performed by molding the tip of the multimode fiber into a special semiellipsoid shape. The effective trapping range of the all-fiber probe is 0 to 60 μm, which is much longer than normal single fiber optical tweezers probes. The all-fiber Bessel optical probe is convenient to integrate and suitable for the lab on the chip. The structure of this fiber probe is simple, high precision, low cost, and small size, which provides new development for biological cells experiment and operation.
Autors: Yaxun Zhang;Xiaoyun Tang;Yu Zhang;Zhihai Liu;Enming Zhao;Xinghua Yang;Jianzhong Zhang;Jun Yang;Libo Yuan;
Appeared in: Journal of Lightwave Technology
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 35, issue:18, pages: 3849 - 3853
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multiple-Mode Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing With Index Modulation
Abstract:
Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing with index modulation (OFDM-IM) performs transmission by considering two modes over OFDM subcarriers, which are the null and the conventional -ary signal constellation. The spectral efficiency (SE) of the system, however, is limited, since the null mode itself does not carry any information and the number of subcarrier activation patterns increases combinatorially. In this paper, a novel IM scheme, called multiple-mode OFDM-IM (MM-OFDM-IM), is proposed for OFDM systems to improve the SE by conveying information through multiple distinguishable modes and their full permutations. A practical and efficient mode selection strategy, which is constrained on the phase shift keying/quadrature amplitude modulation constellations, is designed. Two efficient detectors that provide different tradeoffs between the error performance and detection complexity are also proposed. The principle of MM-OFDM-IM is further extended to the in-phase and quadrature components of OFDM signals, and the method of generating multiple modes from the -ary pulse amplitude modulation constellation for this modified scheme is also introduced. Bit error rate (BER) analyses are provided for the proposed schemes. Monte Carlo simulations on BER corroborate the analyses and show that the proposed schemes appear as promising multi-carrier transmission alternatives by outperforming the existing OFDM-IM counterparts.
Autors: Miaowen Wen;Ertugrul Basar;Qiang Li;Beixiong Zheng;Meng Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Communications
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 65, issue:9, pages: 3892 - 3906
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multiple-Phase Modeling of Degradation Signal for Condition Monitoring and Remaining Useful Life Prediction
Abstract:
Remaining useful life prediction plays an important role in ensuring the safety, availability, and efficiency of various engineering systems. In this paper, we propose a flexible Bayesian multiple-phase modeling approach to characterize degradation signals for prognosis. The priors are specified with a novel stochastic process and the multiple-phase model is formulated to a novel state-space model to facilitate online monitoring and prediction. A particle filtering algorithm with stratified sampling and partial Gibbs resample-move strategy is developed for online model updating and residual life prediction. The advantages of the proposed method are demonstrated through extensive numerical studies and real case studies.
Autors: Yuxin Wen;Jianguo Wu;Yuan Yuan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Reliability
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 66, issue:3, pages: 924 - 938
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multiple-Wavelength Detection in SOI Lateral PIN Diodes With Backside Reflectors
Abstract:
This research details the potential of a microhotplate photo sensor, based on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) lateral PIN (P+/P/N+) diode and a microheater, fabricated on a thin suspended membrane from a commercial 1.0-μm SOI complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology. A local annealing (30-min. microheating, at elevated temperature ∼250 °C) is directly carried out onto the suspended diode to optimize device characteristics (e.g., leakage current, output optical response), for device long-term stability and industrial application. The optical performances of such SOI lateral PIN diodes with four different backside reflectors placed below them are fully investigated. Under same incident illumination, four specific output photocurrents and responsivities are therefore obtained due to the varied light absorption in the active Si film. By combining the photodiodes responses with the four backside reflectors (i.e., gold, aluminum, silicon substrate, and black silicon), multiple-wavelength detection can be straightforwardly achieved within the 450–900-nm wavelength range, which makes the SOI photodiode highly promising in red-green-blue sensing, gas analyzing or plasma monitoring applications.
Autors: Guoli Li;Nicolas André;Pierre Gérard;Syed Zeeshan Ali;Florin Udrea;Laurent A. Francis;Yun Zeng;Denis Flandre;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 64, issue:9, pages: 7368 - 7376
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multipliers-Driven Perturbation of Coefficients for Low-Power Operation in Reconfigurable FIR Filters
Abstract:
Reconfigurable finite-impulse response (FIR) filters are one of the most widely implemented components in Internet of Things systems that require flexibility to support several target applications while consuming the minimum amount of power to comply with the strict design requirements of portable devices. Due to the significant power consumption in the multiplier components of the FIR filter, various techniques aimed at reducing the switching activity of these multipliers have been proposed in the literature. However, these techniques rarely exploit the flexibility on the algorithmic level, which can lead to additional benefits. In this paper, FIR filter multipliers are extensively characterized with power simulations, providing a methodology for the perturbation of the coefficients of baseline filters at the algorithm level to trade-off reduced power consumption for filter quality. The proposed optimization technique does not require any hardware overhead and it enables the possibility of scaling the power consumption of the filter at runtime, while ensuring the full baseline performance of any programmed filter whenever it is required. The analyzed FIR filters were fabricated in a 28nm FD-SOI test chip and measured at a near-threshold, 600mV supply voltage. For example, by carefully choosing slightly perturbed coefficients in a low-pass configuration, power savings of up to 33% are achieved when accepting a 3dB degradation on the stopband, as compared with the baseline implementation of the filter.
Autors: Andrea Bonetti;Adam Teman;Philippe Flatresse;Andreas Burg;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 64, issue:9, pages: 2388 - 2400
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multipumping Flexible DSP Blocks for Resource Reduction on Xilinx FPGAs
Abstract:
For complex datapaths, resource sharing can help reduce area consumption. Traditionally, resource sharing is applied when the same resource can be scheduled for different uses in different cycles, often resulting in a longer schedule. Multipumping is a method whereby a resource is clocked at a frequency that is a multiple of the surrounding circuit, thereby offering multiple executions per global clock cycle. This allows a single resource to be shared among multiple uses in the same cycle. This concept maps well to modern field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), where hard macro blocks are typically capable of running at higher frequencies than most designs implemented in the logic fabric. While this technique has been demonstrated for static resources, modern digital signal processing (DSP) blocks are flexible, supporting varied operations at runtime. In this paper, we demonstrate multipumping for resource sharing of the flexible DSP48E1 macros in Xilinx FPGAs. We exploit their dynamic programmability to enable resource sharing for the full set of supported DSP block operations, and compare this to multipumping only multipliers and DSP blocks with fixed configurations. The proposed approach saves on average 48% DSP blocks at a cost of 74% more LUTs, effectively saving 30% equivalent LUT area and is feasible for the majority of designs, in which clock frequency is typically below half the maximum supported by the DSP blocks.
Autors: Bajaj Ronak;Suhaib A. Fahmy;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 36, issue:9, pages: 1471 - 1482
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multiscale Morphological Compressed Change Vector Analysis for Unsupervised Multiple Change Detection
Abstract:
A novel multiscale morphological compressed change vector analysis (M2C2VA) method is proposed to address the multiple-change detection problem (i.e., identifying different classes of changes) in bitemporal remote sensing images. The proposed approach contributes to extend the state-of-the-art spectrum-based compressed change vector analysis (C2VA) method by jointly analyzing the spectral-spatial change information. In greater details, reconstructed spectral change vector features are built according to a morphological analysis. Thus more geometrical details of change classes are preserved while exploiting the interaction of a pixel with its adjacent regions. Two multiscale ensemble strategies, i.e., data level and decision level fusion, are designed to integrate the change information represented at different scales of features or to combine the change detection results obtained by the detector at different scales, respectively. A detailed scale sensitivity analysis is carried out to investigate its impacts on the performance of the proposed method. The proposed method is designed in an unsupervised fashion without requiring any ground reference data. The proposed M2C2VA is tested on one simulated and three real bitemporal remote sensing images showing its properties in terms of different image size and spatial resolution. Experimental results confirm its effectiveness.
Autors: Sicong Liu;Qian Du;Xiaohua Tong;Alim Samat;Lorenzo Bruzzone;Francesca Bovolo;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 10, issue:9, pages: 4124 - 4137
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multivalued Robust Tracking Control of Lagrange Systems: Continuous and Discrete-Time Algorithms
Abstract:
The robust trajectory tracking of fully actuated Lagrange systems is studied. Exogenous perturbations as well as parameter uncertainties are taken into account. A family of set-valued passivity-based controllers is proposed, including first-order sliding-mode schemes. The existence of solutions and the stability of the closed-loop system are established in continuous time. An implicit discretization approach is proposed and the well posedness and the stability of the closed-loop system are studied. Numerical simulations illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed discrete-time controller.
Autors: Félix A. Miranda-Villatoro;Bernard Brogliato;Fernando Castaños;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 62, issue:9, pages: 4436 - 4450
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multiview Hessian Semisupervised Sparse Feature Selection for Multimedia Analysis
Abstract:
Facing a large number of unlabeled data and a small number of labeled data, semisupervised sparse feature selection has received increasing attention in recent years. However, most semisupervised feature selection algorithms are developed for single-view data and cannot naturally handle multiview data. Moreover, most existing semisupervised sparse feature selection methods are based on Laplacian regularization, which is a lack of extrapolating power. To overcome the above-mentioned drawbacks, we present a multiview Hessian semi-supervised sparse feature selection (MHSFS) framework in this paper. MHSFS can directly accomplish multiview sparse feature selection by exploiting multiview learning to reveal and leverage the correlated and complemental information among different views. In addition, MHSFS can achieve better performance based on Hessian regularization, which favors functions whose values linearly vary with respect to geodesic distance and preserves the local manifold structure well. A simple yet efficient iterative method is proposed to solve the objective function, followed by convergence analysis. We apply the proposed method into different multimedia analysis tasks, such as image annotation, video concept detection, and 3D motion analysis. The results show that MHSFS outperforms the state-of-the-art sparse feature selection methods and achieves good performance.
Autors: Caijuan Shi;Gaoyun An;Ruizhen Zhao;Qiuiqi Ruan;Qi Tian;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 27, issue:9, pages: 1947 - 1961
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multiview Imaging for Low-Signature Target Detection in Rough-Surface Clutter Environment
Abstract:
Forward-looking ground-penetrating radar (FL-GPR) permits standoff sensing of shallow in-road threats. A major challenge facing this radar technology is the high rate of false alarms stemming from the vulnerability of the target responses to interference scattering arising from interface roughness and subsurface clutter. In this paper, we present a multiview approach for target detection in FL-GPR. Various images corresponding to the different views are generated using a tomographic algorithm, which considers the near-field nature of the sensing problem. Furthermore, for reducing clutter and maintaining high cross-range resolution over the imaged area, each image is computed in a segmentwise fashion using coherent integration over a suitable set of measurements from multiple platform positions. We employ two fusion approaches based on likelihood ratio tests detector to combine the multiview images for enhanced target detection. The superior performance of the multiview approach over single-view imaging is demonstrated using electromagnetic modeling data.
Autors: Davide Comite;Fauzia Ahmad;DaHan Liao;Traian Dogaru;Moeness G. Amin;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 55, issue:9, pages: 5220 - 5229
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Mutation Reduction Strategies Considered Harmful
Abstract:
Mutation analysis is a well known yet unfortunately costly method for measuring test suite quality. Researchers have proposed numerous mutation reduction strategies in order to reduce the high cost of mutation analysis, while preserving the representativeness of the original set of mutants. As mutation reduction is an area of active research, it is important to understand the limits of possible improvements. We theoretically and empirically investigate the limits of improvement in effectiveness from using mutation reduction strategies compared to random sampling. Using real-world open source programs as subjects, we find an absolute limit in improvement of effectiveness over random sampling—. Given our findings with respect to absolute limits, one may ask: How effective are the extant mutation reduction strategies? We evaluate the effectiveness of multiple mutation reduction strategies in comparison to random sampling. We find that none of the mutation reduction strategies evaluated—many forms of operator selection, and stratified sampling (on operators or program elements)—produced an effectiveness advantage larger than in comparison with random sampling. Given the poor performance of mutation selection strategies—they may have a negligible advantage at best, and often perform worse than random sampling—we caution practicing testers against applying mutation reduction strategies without adequate justification.
Autors: Rahul Gopinath;Iftekhar Ahmed;Mohammad Amin Alipour;Carlos Jensen;Alex Groce;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Reliability
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 66, issue:3, pages: 854 - 874
Publisher: IEEE
 
» My Story with Microwaves [Speaker's Corner]
Abstract:
Reports on the author's experience and involvement in the microwave industry.
Autors: Zhaolong Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 18, issue:6, pages: 148 - 149
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Natural Local Self-Boosting Effect in 3D NAND Flash Memory
Abstract:
This letter examined the natural local self-boosting effect of an inhibited channel in three-dimensional (3D) NAND flash memory. The inhibited channel in the 3D NAND flash structure can be in the floating state easily, because its channel is not connected directly to its substrate. Despite the application of the global self-boosted program-inhibit scheme, the selected wordline cell is localized automatically during the program pulse application. This phenomenon is analyzed using a computer-aided design simulation, and an analytical model of boosted potential of an inhibited channel in 3D NAND flash memory is proposed.
Autors: Myounggon Kang;Yoon Kim;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 38, issue:9, pages: 1236 - 1239
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Navigating Between Crucial Challenges [Message from the President]
Abstract:
Autors: Kamal Al-Haddad;
Appeared in: IEEE Industrial Electronics Magazine
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 11, issue:3, pages: 4 - 5
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Near- and Sub- $V_{t}$ Pipelines Based on Wide-Pulsed-Latch Design Techniques
Abstract:
This paper presents a methodology and chip demonstration to design near-/sub-threshold voltage () pipelines using pulsed latches that are clocked at very wide pulses. Pulsed-latch-based design is known for time borrowing capability but the amount of time borrowing is limited due to hold time constraint. To enable more cycle borrowing, in this paper, we aim to pad short paths to ~1/3 cycle time using multi- cell library. While delay padding using multi- cells is common in super- design, the small delay difference among multi- cells has not allowed such extensive short path padding due to large area overhead. However, in near-/sub- regime, circuits delay becomes exponentially sensitive to , suggesting that high- cells can significantly reduce the overhead of padding. We build a semi-automatic short path padding flow around this idea, and use it to design: 1) ISCAS benchmark circuits and 2) an 8-bit 8-tap finite impulse response (FIR) core, the latter fabricated in a 65-nm CMOS technology. The chip measurement shows that the proposed FIR core achieves 45.2% throughput (frequency), 11% energy efficiency (Energy/cycle), and 38% energy-delay-product improvements at 0.35 V over the flip-flop-pipelined baseline. The measurement results also confirm that the proposed FIR - ore operates with the same pulsewidth setting robustly across process, voltage, and temperature variations.
Autors: Wei Jin;Seongjong Kim;Weifeng He;Zhigang Mao;Mingoo Seok;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 52, issue:9, pages: 2475 - 2487
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Near-Optimal Cross-Layer Forward Error Correction Using Raptor and RCPC Codes for Prioritized Video Transmission Over Wireless Channels
Abstract:
Cross-layer forward error correction (FEC) aims at utilizing available bandwidth more efficiently, which has been applied to error-prone video transmission over imperfect wireless channels. In this paper we propose a new near-optimal cross-layer FEC scheme in which systematic Raptor codes are used at the application layer and rate compatible punctured convolutional (RCPC) codes are used at the physical layer for H.264/AVC encoded video streaming with channel bandwidth constraints. In the proposed scheme, in order to fully exploit the unequal importance of compressed video data, we assign each source packet a different priority according to its contribution to the reconstructed video quality. We first obtain the transmission parameters, which satisfies the conditions for optimal video transmission, for the optimal cross-layer Raptor-RCPC FEC in the ideal situation through a theoretical analysis, and then we propose a heuristic algorithm searching from the optimal solution point to obtain the transmission parameters, which are near optimal in the practical situation. Computer simulation results show that the proposed scheme can achieve significant performance improvements in both the additive white Gaussian noise and Rayleigh channels compared with the previous work.
Autors: Yonghong Hou;Jianming Xu;Wei Xiang;Maode Ma;Jianjun Lei;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 27, issue:9, pages: 2028 - 2040
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Necessary Stability Conditions for Neutral Type Systems With a Single Delay
Abstract:
Necessary conditions for the exponential stability of time-delay systems of neutral type, and a new stability criterion for the scalar case are presented in this contribution. They are obtained in the framework of Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals of complete type. The particularity of these conditions is that they depend exclusively on the delay Lyapunov matrix.
Autors: Marco A. Gomez;Alexey V. Egorov;Sabine Mondié;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 62, issue:9, pages: 4691 - 4697
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Needles in the Haystack: Finding Content Worth Preparing for Workplace Learning with the KEP Model
Abstract:
Knowledge transfer between employees is a primary concern in organizations. Employees create or acquire content that partially represents knowledge. These knowledge elements are specific to the context in and for which they are created and rarely address the learning needs of other employees in other work situations. Organizations therefore need to support the preparation of knowledge elements to facilitate knowledge transfer, but often have limited resources to process a plethora of content. This paper presents the Knowledge Element Preparation (KEP) model that helps to structure the complex decision to select knowledge elements worthy of preparation out of ample available content and assign them to preparation tasks. The model combines the benefits of prepared knowledge elements in workplace learning, which we identified in an ethnographically informed study of a software development company, with efforts discussed in the literature. We implemented and reflected on the model in a case study of a research and development project. Our findings suggest that we can estimate the benefits of adaptively delivered content based on the importance of topics, types of knowledge elements, and preparation tasks. We also contribute personas, dimensions of knowledge elements, and knowledge work situations as instruments to facilitate the instantiation of the KEP model.
Autors: Stefan Thalmann;Ronald Maier;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 10, issue:3, pages: 379 - 390
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Negative Feedback, Amplifiers, Governors, and More [Historical]
Abstract:
The invention of the negative feedback amplifier by Harold S. Black (1898-1983) in 1928 is considered one of the great achievements in electronics. In fact, it is listed among the IEEE Milestones, where it is credited to Bell Labs. Black was hired by Western Electric in 1921 and assigned to work on the Type C system, a newly introduced three-channel telephone network whose push-pull, vacuum-tube, repeater amplifiers produce too much harmonic distortion when connected in tandem [1]. At that time, telephone networks were spreading, and Bell Labs emerged quickly as the major research company in the telephone industry. The extension of lines over long distances required counteracting signal attenuation, which occurred, though at a reduced level, even in lines provided with Pupin's loading coils, which discretely increased the line longitudinal inductance L so as to match the Heaviside condition L/R=C/G for distortionless transmission (R being the longitudinal resistance and C and G the transverse capacitance and conductance, respectively).
Autors: Massimo Guarnieri;
Appeared in: IEEE Industrial Electronics Magazine
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 11, issue:3, pages: 50 - 52
Publisher: IEEE
 

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